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in royR VOLUMES. 





MARCH, 1892. 





/i. HE author here presents the first volume of his history of Utah, 
>r a work which has engaged his attention, though not uninter- 
ruptedly, since May, 1890. As will be seen, it is a continuous 
historical narrative of the early settlement and formation of the Ter- 
ritory and its growth and development up to the year 1861, a point 
of time just prior to the advent of the electric telegraph, and not 
long before the arrival of the great Pacific Railway. This period, 
which marks in local annals the close of one era and the beginning 
of another, seemed a fitting place for the authors pen to pause, 
while the press gave the first fruits of his present labor to the 

Necessarily this volume has most to say of the Mormon people. 
Being the pioneers and earliest builders of our inter-mountain com- 
monwealth, it was as proper as it was unavoidable to give them first 
and foremost mention in a work of this character. It was also 
deemed essential, for reasons stated elsewhere, that the opening 
chapters should deal more or less comprehensively with the history 
of Utah's pioneers and founders prior to their advent into the Great 
Basin. Something of their religious and political views, their early 
experiences in the east and the motives which impelled them west- 
ward, are therefore herein contained. Of the non-Mormon portion 
of the community, and the important part played by them in the 
stirring drama of our social, political and material development, as 
much will be said hereafter. 

As the author has endeavored, in volume one, to present a fair 
and truthful statement of facts antedating and leading up to the new 
era that was ushered in by the telegraph and the locomotive. — which 


came as it were on the wings of the lightning, or on the back of the 
enchanted iron horse, — he will as diligently strive, in the succeeding 
volumes, to deal faithfully and impartially with events that have 
since taken place. It is the design, after completing the general nar- 
rative here begun, to give the histories of the various counties of the 
Territory, and the professions and pursuits of the people. Special 
chapters on agriculture, manufacture, mining, commerce, etc., may 
be looked for; as well as others on churches, newspapers, theaters, 
railways and other agencies of civilization. Literature, music 
and the drama, poets, painters and sculptors will each be placed in 
an appropriate niche, while bench and bar, civil and military affairs 
in general and in detail will all be duly represented. Biographies of 
prominent citizens, men and women, will also form a feature of the 

In conclusion, the author expresses his grateful appreciation to 
all who have in any way assisted or encouraged him in his literary 
labors: to Dr. John 0. Williams, to whom belongs the credit of 
originating the history project — of which he was once the main pro- 
prietor — and of pushing forward the business pertaining to it with 
characteristic energy and ability; to Mr. J. H. E. Webster, his part- 
ner, who, in conjunction with Dr. Williams, has ably conducted and 
continues to conduct the canvass for the work. With these gentle- 
men and their associates my relations have been of the most pleasant 
character. To President Wilford Woodruff and council, and other 
leading citizens, for their warm approval and endorsement of the 
project: to Governor Arthur L. Thomas, for various courtesies 
extended ; to the Church historian, Apostle Franklin D. Richards, his 
assistant, John Jaques, General Robert T. Burton and A. M. Musser, 
Esq., for advice and assistance such as an author can best appreciate, 
I feel deeply indebted. Nor should the name of Hon. F. S. Richards 
be omitted, he being one of the first to recognize the importance of 
the history enterprise, as a public benefit, and to give it his hearty 
encouragement and support. To the press of Salt Lake City and the 
Territory in general, to the Union Pacific, Rio Grande Western and 


Utah Central railways, and the Salt Lake City Railroad Company, I 
return hearty thanks for favors bestowed. The share of credit clue 
the publishers and now main proprietors of the history — Messrs. 
George Q. Cannon and Sons — is manifest from the appearance of the 
work itself. 

I shall begin immediately upon the second volume, and while 
taking time and pains to do the work in a manner worthy the subject, 
it is my intention to push it to completion with all possible dispatch. 

Orson F. Whitney. 

Salt Lake City, 

February, 1892. 




Antecedents of Utah's Early Settlers — Joseph Smith and Mormonism — The Prophet's 
Birth and Boyhood — Social and Religious Phases of Seventy Years Ago — Seek- 
ing for the True Church — Joseph's First Vision — The Father and the Son — For- 
bidden to Join any of the Churches — The Youth tells his Story — Prejudice and 
Persecution — The Angel Moroni — Discovery of the Golden Plates — The Prophet 
on Probation — The Record of Mormon, the Nephite, in the Hands of Joseph, 
the Translator. 17 


Translation of the Book of Mormon — Poverty and Persecution — The " Money- 
Digging and Wife-Stealing" Stories — Martin Harris — The Prophet Removes to 
Pennsylvania — Description of the Plates and the Urim and Thummim — Martin 
Harris and Professor Anthon — The Reputed Method of Translation — The Stolen 
Manuscript — Oliver Cowdery — John the Baptist and the Aaronic Priesthood — 
Baptism of Joseph and Oliver — Joseph Knight's Beneficence — David Whitmer — 
Joseph and Oliver Remove from Harmony to Fayette — The Melchisedek Priest- 
hood—The Three Witnesses— The Eight— The Translation Complete and the 
Book of Mormon Given to the World 28 

What the Book of Mormon Claims to be — The Narrative of the Nephite Record — 
How the World Received it — The Spaulding Story — " Mormonism Unveiled" — 
The Sidney Rigdon Anachronism — Discovery of the Original "Manuscript 
Story" — Its Condensed Narrative — Mormon's Record and Spaulding's Romance 
Compared — Reynolds' " Myth of the Manuscript Found" — President Fairchild's 
Opinion — Numerous Editions of the Translated Work 37 


Organization of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints — The Doctrine of 
Common Consent — Oliver Cowdery the First Public Preacher of Mormonism — 
Newel Knight— The First Conference of the Church— The Elders at Colesville— 
Joseph Smith Arrested for " Preaching the Book of Mormon " — His Trial and 
Acquittal at South Bainbridge — Re-arrested and Tried at Colesville — Another 
Failure to Convict — Return to Pennsylvania — A Schism Threatening the Church 
— Revival of Opposition at Harmony — The Prophet Removes with his Family 
to Fayette — The Schism Averted — -A Mission to the Lamanites Announced. 57 



1830-1831. Page. 

Mormonism's Mission to the Lamanites — Its Significance — Oliver Cowdery, Parley P. 
Pratt, Peter Whitmer, Junior, and Ziba Peterson the Chosen Evangelists to the 
Red Men — Their Departure for the West — The Catteraugus Indians — Kirtland 
and the Gampbellites — Sidney Rigdon — His Conversion to Mormonism — 
Edward Partridge — Newel K. Whitney — Success of the Elders in Ohio — Their 
Pilgrimage Resumed — Elder Pratt's Arrest and Escape — Simeon Carter — Among 
the Wyandols — Storms and Privations — Arrival at Independence, Missouri — 
Preaching to the Delawares — Government Agents and Christian Missionaries — 
The Elders Ordered out of the Indian Country. 66 

The Church Removes to Ohio — The United Order — Organization of the Rishopric — 
Joseph Smith's First Visit to Missouri — Jackson County the Chosen Site of the 
City of Zion — The Land Dedicated for the Gathering of Israel and the Ruilding 
of the New Jerusalem — The Return to Kirtland — The Prophet and Elder 
Rigdon at Hiram — A Vision of Human Destiny — The Mobbing of Joseph and 
Sidney — A Second Visit to Missouri — The War of the Rebellion Predicted — 
The First Presidency organized — The Kirtland Temple Projected. . . 79 

The Jackson County Expulsion and its Causes — Mobocratic Mass Meetings at Indepen- 
dence — Destruction of the Office of the "Evening and Morning Star "—Bishop 
Partridge Tarred and Feathered — The Mormons Required to Leave the County 
Forthwith— A Truce Agreed upon — The Mob Rreak their Pledge — Renewal of 
Depredations — The Mormons Appeal to Governor Dunklin — He Advises them to 
seek Redress in the Courts — Legal Proceedings Instituted — The Mob Enraged — ■ 
The October and November Riots — A Battle on the Big Blue — Lieutenant- 
Governor Boggs calls out the Militia — The Mormons Disarmed and Driven — 
Clay County receives the Refugees — Jackson County, Missouri, still " The Land 
of Zion." 100 

Brigham Young, the Founder of Utah, Embraces Mormonism— Heber C. Kimball 
Enters the Fold— Wilford Woodruff— George A. Smith— Jedediah M. Grant— 
Erastus Snow — The First High Council Organized — Zion's Camp — The Twelve 
Apostles Chosen — The Seventies Selected — A Revelation on Priesthood — 
Mormonism and Education — The Kirtland Temple Dedicated — Lorenzo Snow — 
The Missouri Mormons — Their Removal from Clay County to Caldwell — The 
Founding of Far West. *. Ill 



1836-1838. Page. 

The Kirtland Apostasy — The Temporal at War with the Spiritual — Financial 
Disasters — " Something New must be done to Save the Church " — Opening of 
the British Mission — Heber C. Kimball and his Confreres in Lancashire — 
Marvelous Success of Mormonism Abroad — Affairs at Kirtland Continued — A 
Dark Hour — Brigham Young's Fidelity — John Taylor — Setting in Order the 
Church — Flight of the Prophet and his Friends from Kirtland — The Church" 
Removes to Missouri — Excommunications — New Calls to the Apostleship — The 

Law of Tithing Instituted 131 


The Mormons in Missouri — Far West, Diahman and Dewitt — A Slumbering Volcano 
— Celebrating the Nation's Birthday — The State Election — Attempt to Prevent 
Mormons from Voting — The Gallatin Riot — The Volcano Awakes — Daviess 
County in Arms — Joseph Smith and Lyman Wight Arrested — The Mob Army 
Threatens Diahman — The Mormons arm in Self-defense — Generals Atchison, 
Parks and Doniphan — The Saints Exonerated — Siege and Bombardment of 
Dewitt — Governor Boggs Appealed to — He Declines to Interfere — Dewitt Evacu- 
ated and Diahman again Threatened — -Gilliam's Guerillas — The Mormon 
Militia Make War upon the Mob — The Danites — Battle of Crooked River — Death 
of David W. Patten — Governor Boggs Espouses the Cause of the Mobocrats — 
The Mormons to be " Exterminated or Driven from the State" — The Haun's 
Mill Massacre — Fall of Far West — The Mormon Leaders in Chains — Liberty 

Jail— The Exodus to Illinois 142 


Nauvoo — The Saints in Illinois and Iowa — Daniel H. Wells — The Apostles Depart 
for Europe — -The Prophet lays the Grievances of His People Before the General 
Government — President Van Buren's Reply — " Your Cause is Just, but I can do 
Nothing for You" — Illinois Politics — Whigs and Democrats — The Mormons 
Hold the Balance of Power — A Cloud on the Horizon — Missouri Demands 
of Illinois the Mormon Leaders as Fugitives from Justice — The Requisition 
Returned Unserved — The Nauvoo Charter — The Apostles in Great Britain — The 
Beginning of Mormon Emigration from Abroad — The Saints Concentrate at 
Nauvoo — The Politicians Alarmed — Rise of the Anti-Mormon Party — The 
Missouri Writ Re-issued and the Prophet Arrested — Habeas Corpus — Judge 
Douglas — Liberation — John C. Bennett — The Shadow of a Coming Event — The 
Prophet Predicts the Flight of His People to the Rocky Mountains. . 107 


Again in the Toils — Joseph Smith and Porter Rockwell Arrested, Charged with 
Attempted Murder — Ex-Governor Boggs of Missouri the Alleged Victim — How 


the Deed was Done — The Prisoners Released by Habeas Corpus — They Evade 
Re-arrest — Rockwell Kidnapped and Carried to Missouri — Governor Ford Suc- 
ceeds Governor Carlin — The Prophet Submits to a Judicial Investigation — Judge 
Pope — The Mormon Leader Again Liberated — Another Requisition — Joseph 
Smith Kidnapped — His Rescue and Release — Anti-Mormon Depredations 

Around Nauvoo 197 

Celestial Marriage — Why the Mormons Practiced Polygamy — The Prophet and the 
Politicians — Joseph Smith a Candidate for President -of the United States — His 
Platform of Principles — Planning the Western Exodus — The Laws, Fosters, and 
Higbees Excommunicated — The "Expositor"' Abatement — Arrest of the Mayor 
and City Council of Nauvoo— A Gathering Storm — Nauvoo under Martial Law — 
Governor Ford Demands the Surrender of the Mormon Leaders — The Prophet 
and his Friends Start for the Rocky Mountains — The Return — The Surrender — 
Carthage Jail — Murder of the Prophet and Patriarch. .... 210 

Rrigham Young Succeeds Joseph Smith — The Man for the Hour — Sidney Rigdon 
Rejected and Excommunicated — Factions and Followings — The Prophet's 
Murder Proves an Impetus to Mormonism — The Crusade Renewed — The 
Apostles Driven into Retirement — The " Bogus Brigham " Arrest — Repeal of 
the Nauvoo Charter — Josiah Lamborn's Opinion of the Repeal — Governor Ford 
Advises a Mormon Exodus — The Prophet's Murderers Acquitted — The Anti- 
Mormons Change Their Tactics — The Torch of the Incendiary in Lieu of the 
Writ of Arrest — Sheriff Rackenstos — The Mobocrats Worsted and put to Flight 
— Governor Ford Interposes to Restore Order — General Hardin and the 

Commissioners — The Mormons Agree to Leave Illinois 233 

The Exodus — Brigham Young Leads his People Westward — Sugar Creek — Samuel 
Brannan and the Ship "Brooklyn" — Garden Grove and Mount Pisgah — The 
Saints Reach the Missouri River — The Mexican War and the Mormon Battalion 
— Elder Little and President Polk — Colonel Kane — More Anti-Mormon Demon- 
strations — The Battle of Nauvoo — Expulsion of the Mormon Remnant from the 
City — Colonel Kane's Description of Nauvoo — The Church in the Wilderness 

— Winter Quarters. 248 



Mi. Beginning of Utah History — Why the .Mormons did not Colonize the Pacific 

Coast — The (iioat Basin — Utah's Physical Features — Daniel Webster on the 

"Worthless West " — Early Spanish Explorations — Escalante in Utah Valley — 

La Hontan's Hearsays — American Trappers on the Shores of the Great Salt 


Lake — Colonel Bridger — Captain Bonneville — Colonel Fremont — Early Emigra- 
tions from the Missouri to the Pacific — The Dormer Disaster. . . . 281 
The Mormon Pioneers — Their Journey Across the Great Plains — Pawnees and Sioux 
— The Pioneer Buffalo Hunt — Fort Laramie — The Mississippi Mormons — South 
Pass — Major Harris — Colonel Bridger — " A Thousand Dollars for the First Ear 
of Corn Raised in Salt Lake Valley " — A Discouraging Prospect — Elder Brannan 
Again — Some of the Battalion Boys — Fort Bridger — Miles Goodyear — Echo 
Canyon— The Valley of the Great Salt Lake 298 

Pen Picture of Salt Lake Valley — How it Looked to the Pioneers — Contrasted Impres- 
sions — Orson Pratt and Erastus Snow the First Explorers — The Camp on City 
Creek — Plowing and Planting — Arrival of the President — The First Sabbath 
Service in the Valley — Orson Pratt's Sermon to the Pioneers — Brigham Young 
Lays Down the Law — Apostle Lyman and Elder Brannan Arrive — Exploring 
and Colonizing — Ensign Peak Named — The Great Salt Lake Visited — Black 
Rock Christened — Tooele Valley — Utah Lake Seen — Salt Lake City Planned 
and Located. ........... 325 

The Pioneer Settlers Reinforced — Captain James Brown and his Company — The 
Mississippi Mormons — An Indian Affray — Utes and Shoshones — The " Old 
Fort " Projected — The First City Survey — Utah Valley Explored — " Renewing 
Covenants" and "Selecting Inheritances" — Cache Valley Visited — Ascent of Twin 
Peaks— The First House Finished in Salt Lake City— The First White Child 
Born in Utah — First Death in the Pioneer Colony — The Ox-team Companies 
Return to Winter Quarters — Great Salt Lake City Named — The Pioneer Leaders 
Recross the Plains — Immigration of 1847 — Captains of Hundreds and Fifties — 
The First Stake of Zion in the Rocky Mountains — Arrivals from the West — 
Winter at the Fort — Harriet Young's Adventure — Indian Captives and Captors — 
Cedar and Rush Valleys Explored— Close of the Year 1847. . . . 342 

Founding New Settlements — Brigham Young as a Colonizer — Davis County Occupied 
— The Goodyear Purchase — The Cricket Plague — Saved by the Gulls — Days of 
Famine — The First Harvest Feast — How Gold was Discovered in California — 
Immigration of 1848 — Matters Spiritual and Temporal — Lands Distributed to 
the Settlers— The First Utah Currency— More Apostles Ordained— The Stake 
Reorganized— Salt Lake City Divided into Bishops' Wards. . . . 370 



1849. Page. 

Beginning of Utah's Political History — The Provisional Government of Deseret — 
Utah Valley Settled— The Ute Indians— Sowiette and Walkara— The Gold- 
Hunters — " Winter Mormons " — Deseret Applies for Statehood — First Celebra- 
tion of Pioneer Day — The Stansbury Expedition — The Perpetual Emigrating 
Fund — The First Missionaries Sent from the Rocky Mountains — Why Brigham 
Young Discouraged Mining — The Great Salt Lake Valley Carrying Company — 
Sanpete and Tooele Valleys Settled. 389 

Salt Lake, Weber, Utah, Sanpete, Juab and Tooele Counties Created — Parley P. Pratt 
Explores Southern Utah — The First Indian War — A Skirmish at Battle Creek 
—The Two Days' Fight at Provo— Table Mountain— A Treaty of Peace— The 
Pioneer Newspaper of the Rocky Mountains — Death of Presiding Bishop 
Whitney — The First P. E. Fund Emigration — George A. Smith Pioneers Iron 
County — Educational Beginnings — The University of Deseret — The Cities of 
Salt Lake, Ogden, Provo, Manti and Parowan Receive their Charters — The 
First Municipal Government in the Great Basin. ..... 420 

Utah Territory Created — Brigham Young Governor — How the News Beached Deseret 
— Dissolution of the Provisional Government — Its Acts Recapitulated — The First 
Utah Census — The First Territorial Election — John M. Bernhisel Delegate to 
Congress — Arrival of the Federal Officials — Brandebury, Brocchus and Harris — 
A Discontented Trio — Judge Brocchus Insults the Mormon People at Their 
Conference — Brigham Young's Beply — The Three Officials Leave the Territory 
— Governor Young's Letter to President Fillmore — Beport of the "Runaway" 
Judges and Secretary — A Case of Moral and Official Hari-Kari — The Grant 
Letters — Utah's First Legislative Assembly — Its Initial Acts — The First Murder 
Trial in Utah — Fillmore, Millard County, the Chosen Capital of the Territory 
— Box Elder and Juab Counties Settled — The San Bernardino Colony — A Ter- 
ritorial Library — Probate Judges and Their Jurisdiction. . . . 442 

A Great Pacific Railway Wanted — The Governor and Legislature of Utah Petition 
Congress for its Construction — Celestial Marriage Proclaimed to the World as a 
Mormon Doctrine — Orson Pratt Preaches the First Sermon on Polygamy — His 
Mission to Washington — The "Seer" — Utah's ottering to the Washington Monu- 
ment — Governor Young on Manual Training and Home Industries — His Views 
of Slavery — Feramorz Little and the Mail Service — The Pioneer Merchants of 
Utah— Dramatic Beginnings — The Salt Lake Temple Begun — Arrival of the 
New Federal Officials 486 



1853-1854. Page. 

Another Indian War — Causes of the Outbreak — Pedro Leon and his Associates — 
Governor Young Proclaims Against the Mexican Slave-traders — Purchase of Fort 
Bridger — Walker on the War Path — Indian Raids in Utah and Sanpete Valleys 
— The War Becomes General — Colonel George A. Smith Given Command of the 
Southern Utah Military Districts — Governor Young's Letter to Chief Walker — 
The Gunnison Massacre — End of the Walker War — Other Events of 1853-4 — 
Summit, Green River and Carson Counties Created — Utah Settlements at the 
Close of 1853 — John C. Fremont at Parowan — Death of President Willard 

Richards — A Grasshopper Visitation. 508 

Brigham Young's Record as Governor — An Administration Acceptable to Both Mor- 
mons and Gentiles — They Unitedly Petition for his Reappointment — Colonel 
Steptoe — The Gunnison Massacre Investigated and the Murderers brought to 
Justice — Death of the Ute Chief Walker — The Triumph of Brigham Young's 
Indian Policy — Why the Savages Drew a Distinction Between " Americans " and 
"Mormons" — Death of Chief Justice Reed — Judge Kinney Succeeds Him — 
Morgan County Settled — The Elk Mountain and Salmon River Missions — The 
Carson Colony — George Q. Cannon and the "Western Standard" — Death of 
Associate-Justice Shaver — The Mormon People Honor the Memory of Their 
Departed Friend — Judge Drummond Succeeds Judge Shaver — The Utah Legis- 
lature Convenes at Fillmore — Another Movement for Statehood — Cache, Box 

Elder and Other Counties Settled 532 



A Year of Calamities — Another Famine in Utah — More Indian Outbreaks — Death of 

Colonel Babbitt — Massacre of the Margetts Party — The Hand-cart Disaster — 

Narratives of Messrs. Chislett and Jaques — The Reformation — Death of Jedediah 

M. Grant 547 

The Utah Expedition — Buchanan's Blunder — Some of the Causes which Led to It — 
An Historic Beview — The Magraw Letter — Judge Drummond's Charges — Clerk 
Bolton's Reply — Indian Agent Twiss and his Complaint — The B. Y. Express 
Carrying Company — The Real Reason why the Troops were Sent to Utah — Sec- 
retary Floyd and his Record — Mormondom Sacrificed to Favor Secession — 
Blaine on Buchanan's Cabinet — General Scott's Instructions to the Army — Fera- 
morz Little and the New York Herald — The Expedition Starts Westward — 
Mayor Smoot Brings the News to Utah. ...... 567 

Pioneer Day in the Tops of the Wasatch Mountains — The Celebration at Silver Lake 



— Tidings of the Coming of the Troops — How the News was Received — Brigham 
Young Determines to Resist the Entry of the Army into Salt Lake Valley — Gen- 
eral Johnston and his Command Leave Fort Leavenworth — Captain Van Vliet 
Precedes the Expedition to Utah — His Interviews with Governor Young — The 
Mormon Leader's Ultimatum — "When those Troops Arrive They shall find Utah 
a Desert" — A Second Moscow Threatened — Van Vliet's Official Report. . 600 
The Echo Canyon Campaign — Utah Under Martial Law — Colonel Burton Takes the 
Field — The United States Troops Enter the Territory — General Wells Goes to 
the Front — Echo Canyon Fortified — Lot Smith Burns the Government Trains — 
Major Taylor's Capture — Mormon Cossacks — Colonel Alexander's Dilemma — He 
Starts for Soda Springs — Colonel Burton Intercepts Him — The Project Aban- 
doned — Correspondence Between Colonel Alexander and Governor Young — 
Apostle Taylor's Letter to Captain Marcy — Arrival of General Johnston — A 
March of Misery — Forts Bridger and Supply Burnt — Colonel Cooke's Experience 
— Camp Scott — The Federal Army goes into Winter Quarters — Return of the 
Militia — Preparing for the Spring Campaign 619 


President Buchanan Begins to see His Blunder — Colonel Kane the Mediator — His 
Mission to Utah — The Mormons Agree to Receive Governor Gumming, but not 
With an Army at his Heels — Colonel. Kane Visits Camp Scott — He Escorts the 
New Executive to Salt Lake City — Cordial Meeting of the Two Governors — 
Judge Drummond's Falsehood Exploded — The Court Records Found Intact — 
The "Move " South — The Peace Commissioners — President Buchanan's Pardon 
— Johnston's Army Enters the Valley — Camp Floyd — The Citizens Return to 
Their Homes. 664 


After " The War " — The Federal Courts in Operation — Judge Sinclair §eeks to 
Renew the Strife — He Sentences a Murderer to be Hung on Sunday — Judge 
Cradlebaugh's Administration — The Story of the Mountain Meadows Massacre — 
Cradlebaugh's Vain Attempt to Fasten the Awful Crime upon the Mormon 
Leaders — He Summons the Military to his Aid — The Court House at Provo Sur- 
rounded by Federal Bayonets — The Citizens Protest and the Governor Proclaims 
Against the Military Occupation — A Conspiracy to Arrest President Young 
Thwarted by Governor Gumming — Attorney-General Black Rebukes the Utah 
Judges— The Anti-Mormons Seek the Removal of Governor Gumming — Colonel 
Kane to the Rescue — How Utah was Affected by Johnston's Army — Horace 
Greeley at Salt Lake City — More Newspapers — The " Valley Tan" and the 
"Mountaineer" — William H. Hooper Delegate to Congress — The Pony Express 
— The Civil War — Camp Floyd Abandoned 689 


Brigham Young 
Joseph Smith 
Hyrum Smith 
Parley P. Pratt 
Heber C. Kimball - 
Willard Richards 
William Miller 
George A. Smith 
Levi Richards 
Wilford Woodruff 
Amasa M. Lyman 
Clara D. Young 
Ellen S. Kimball 
William Clayton 
The Pioneer Route, 184 
First Glimpse of ;i The 
Great Salt Lake Valley 
Erastus Snow - 
John Pack - 
Lorenzo D. Young 
Captain James Brown 
Charles C. Rich 
John Young 
Daniel Spencer 
Joseph Horne 
Joseph B. Noble 
Jacob Houtz 
Harriet Page Wheeler 
Peregrine G. Sessions 
John Stoker 
Lorin Farr 
Horace S. Eldredge 
Charles Crismon 
Edward Hunter 




Mary J. Dilworth Hammond 



Julian Moses 

- 434 


Nathaniel H. Felt 



Seth M. Blair 

- 452 


John M. Bernhisel 


- 231 

William C. Staines 

- 483 


William Jennings 


- 250 

Alonzo H. Raleigh 



Jesse W. Fox 



Truman O. Anuell 

- 506 


Anson Call 


- 302 

Dimick B. Huntington 

- 526 


John Nebeker 


- 310 

Salt Lake City in 1853 

- 530 

7 - 318 

Leonard W. Hardy 


Valley" 322 

John Neff 

- 548 

f. 1847 325 

Jedediah M. Grant - 


- 330 

Abraham O. Smoot 

- 567 


John R. Murdoch 


- 338 

Feramorz Little 

- 596 


Nicholas Groesbeck 


- 348 

Silver Lake 

- 600 


Lake Martha 


- 360 

Lake Blanche 

• 608 


Daniel H. Wells 



James Ferguson 

- 622 


Robert T. Burton 


Young 368 

Andrew Cunningham 

- 630 


J. D. T. McAllister 


- 374 

Edwin D. Woolley 

- 648 


John I!. Winder 


- 384 

Samuel W. Richards 

- 666 


Colonel Thomas L. Kane 



Reuben Mii.lec 





Antecedents of Utah's early settlers — Joseph smith and mormonism — the prophet's 

birth and boyhood social and religious phases of seventy years ago seeking 

for the true church joseph's first vision the father and the son forbidden 

to join any of the churches the youth tells his story prejudice and 

persecution the angel moroni — 'discovery of the golden plates the prophet on 

probation the record of mormon. the nephite, in the hands of joseph, the 


/^tS IT would be natural, in describing a lake or large body of 
^■^ water, to give some account of the origin, course and character 

of the streams flowing into and forming it, so is it expected of the 
historian, who describes a city or country and its inhabitants, to 
dwell to some extent upon their antecedents, to speak of the sources 
whence they sprang. The history of Utah, therefore, must include 
the history of her founders, and with their general narrative, as a 
religious community, it now suits our purpose to begin. 

In the early part of the present century, in the little town of 
Sharon, Windsor County, Vermont, there lived an humble family of 
the name of Smith. Joseph and Lucy were the parents' names, and 
their children, seven sons and three daughters — some born prior, 
some subsequent to the time of which we write — were Alvin, Hyrum, 
Sophronia, Joseph, Samuel H., Ephraim, William, Catharine, Don 
Carlos and Lucy. The father was a farmer, though not a flourishing 
one, having lately lost his property through the dishonesty of a 
trusted friend, and was now renting a farm in Sharon, and toiling 


early and late for a bare livelihood. They were a God-fearing folk. 
honest, straightforward in their dealings, and of good repute among 
their neighbors. 

It was on the 23rd of December, 1805, that the son was born to 
whom was given the paternal name. This son. Joseph Smith, junior, 
was the famous Mormon Prophet, the founder of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

The boy was about ten years old when his parents migrated from 
Vermont and made their home at Palmyra, Ontario — now Wayne 
— County. New York ; whence they removed, four years later, to Man- 
chester in the same county. 

A brief glance at some of the social conditions of those early 
times and primitive places may here be necessary. Western New 
York, the arena of our story's immediate action, was then an almost 
new country. Farm and forest, society and solitude, civilization and 
semi-savagery divided it. The red man. though no longer roaming 
wildly, had not disappeared from its borders, and the whites, who of 
course predominated and held sway, if. like all Yankees, shrewd and 
intelligent, were mostly illiterate and untaught. The masses were 
poor, but there were farmers and artisans who were prosperous, and 
the people, as a rule, were industrious and provident. Their style of 
living was exceedingly plain. Houses were usually small, unplas- 
tered, unpainted and rudely furnished. A huge fire on the hearth, 
fed with pine knots from the neighboring forest, gave light and 
warmth to those within the house, or the flickering flame of the tal- 
low-dip shed its uncertain lustre over the scene. The floors were 
often without carpets, the tables without cloths, and the frugal meal. 
cooked amid the glowing embers on the hearth, or in the iron pot 
suspended by a chain from the chimney hook, was eaten from pewter 
or wooden plates, with horn-bandied knives and iron spoons. Clocks 
were a rarity, the ••time o' day" being commonly "guessed" by the 
sun : pictures avid musical instruments were few and of inferior kind, 
and the family library consisted, in most instances, of the Bible, an 
almanac and whal books were in vogue at the village school. In 

HISTORY OF UTAH. 19 was just such a social condition as life in our own Utah once 
presented, and in rare cases yet presents, in sparsely settled localities, 
where primitive taste or poverty still reigns. 

The people of those times, or at any rate of that region, were 
generally religious, and were great Bible readers ; though many spirit- 
ually inclined and well versed in scripture, were neither communi- 
cants nor church-goers. The leading sects of today were nearly all 
represented in the ecclesiastical category of the period, each having 
its doughty champions, its Davids in the field, armed cap-a-pie and 
confronting -with valorous zeal the gigantic Philistines of sin and 
unbelief. The infidel, however, did not abound, as at a later day. 
Nearly every one professed some sort of religion. Religion, indeed, 
and not agnosticism, was the fashion and flavor of the times. Yet 
the tide of spiritual thought and emotion, like any other tide, was 
subject to the extremes of ebb and flow. 

Soon after the removal of the Smith family to Manchester, a 
wave of religious excitement, of a character common to the period, 
began rolling over the land, and camp-meetings and revivals, like 
bubbles on the crest of the mighty billow, were held far and near 
under the auspices of the various Christian sects. The whole region 
rang and resounded with the echoing notes of the evangelic trumpet. 
The village of Manchester shared in the general excitement and enthu- 
siasm, — Methodists, Baptists, Presbyterians, etc., all vieing with each 
other in the work of " soul-saving," and crowds of converts flocking 
to the standards of the ministers of the rival faiths. Among the 
proselytes made by the Presbyterians were Lucy Smith, Joseph's 
mother, his brothers Hyrum and Samuel, and his sister Sophronia. 

Fruitful as were the labors of the revivalists, however, one thing 
militated against their further success. It was lack of unity. They 
were not united ; either in doctrine, sentiment or common Christian 
feeling. Divisions in doctrine among the Christian churches were 
neither shocking nor surprising ; from the days of Wycliffe, Luther 
and Wesley the world had grown used to such things ; and so long as 
modern Christians merely differed in opinion regarding the "one Lord, 


one faith, one baptism" of the ancients, and were careful to "love one 
another " and "avoid disputations,*' their course would occasion little 
comment and less complaint. 

But strife and hatred among professed ministers of Christ, while 
provoking mirth and mockery from the infidel, are to all good Christ- 
ians horrifying. And such things, sad to tell, were manifested by the 
ministers of whom we are speaking, and by many of their converts as 
well, and deprecated and deplored by divers thoughtful and pious 
minds, who consequently stood aloof and forbore to taste of the 
fountains that sent forth such bitter Avaters. 

In matters of doctrine, as said, the sects were much divided, — 
though on certain points agreed. For instance, some held, as now, 
that the ordinance of baptism was non-essential to salvation. Others 
contended that it was essential. Some claimed sprinkling to be 
the proper mode of baptism ; others, that pouring water upon the 
head was the true method, and others still that immersion of the 
whole body in the liquid element was necessary. And similar 
differences in other doctrines. The main points upon which most of 
the sects agreed were : that God was a being without body, parts or 
passions ; that He no longer communicated His will to man ; that 
the heavens were closed and the canon of scripture full ; that the 
days of miracles and revelations were over ; that faith without works 
was sufficient to save, and that all who died without hearing of or 
believing in Jesus Christ as the world's Redeemer, were doomed to 
never-ending torment. Even infants were not exempt, according to 
the Calvinistic creed, but were fated to eternally "roast in sulphur," 
if Ihe Almighty had seen fit to cut short their lives ere they came to 
the knowledge of His only begotten Son. A chaos, a Babel of religi- 
ous opinions and their professors, differing, yet all claiming to be 
right, and to have the Bible as their basis of belief and source of 
inspiration ; a ceaseless clash and war of words in support of those 
opinions. Such iii brief was the spiritual condition of the Christian 
world at the period of which we are writing. 

Among 1 1 lose who stood aloof, surveying the scene of strife, 


wondering which of all these wrangling sects was the true Church of 
Christ, was Joseph Smith, the farmer's boy, then a little over fourteen 
years of age. Anxious for his soul's salvation, — for he was a 
thoughtful and conscientious lad, — he much desired to know the true 
way, in order that he might walk therein. Unable to solve the prob- 
lem, though feeling assured that the contending churches were not 
all divine, he forbore to join with any, but attended their meetings 
as often as convenient, particularly those of the Methodists, to whom 
he was somewhat partial. 

One day, he relates, while reading the scriptures, his eye chanced 
to rest upon the fifth verse of the first chapter of the Epistle of James, 
running as follows : "If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, 
that giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not, and it shall be 
given him." The sacred words sank deeply into the boy's simple soul. 
He did "lack wisdom," wisdom to know the truth ; and he would "ask 
of God," who had thus promised, by His ancient apostle, to hear and 
answer prayer. Such was his simple faith. Such was his earnest 

Joseph's record then relates how on a bright spring morning in 
the year 1820, he retired to the woods, — a sylvan solitude not far from 
his father's home, — and finding himself alone, bowed down in prayer. 
It was his first attempt to orally address Deity. He had scarcely begun, 
he declares, when suddenly he was seized by some mysterious power 
which paralyzed his tongue so that he could no longer speak. Simul- 
taneously a cloud of darkness encompassed him, filling his soul with 
horror and presaging instant destruction. So literal were his sensa- 
tions that he felt himself in the fell grasp of some actual, though 
unseen, personage or influence of another world. Exerting all his 
powers, he called upon God for deliverance — his thoughts now pray- 
ing in the absence of speech — and just as reason seemed tottering, 
and hope was hovering on the brink of despair, he saw a light 
descending from heaven, directly over his head, of such surpassing 
brilliance as to exceed that of the noon-day sun. The pillar of splen- 
dor gradually fell until it rested upon the prostrate youth, who. the 


moment it appeared, found himself delivered from the deadly influ- 
ence that had held him bound. In the midst of the pillar were two 
personages of ineffable glory, in the form of men, one of whom, 
addressing Joseph by name, and pointing to the other, said. "This is 
my beloved Son, hear him !" 

The amazed and enraptured youth, so soon as he could collect 
his thoughts and command utterance, recalling the object of his 
quest, asked of the glorious oracles which of all the religious sects 
was right, and which one should he join ? To his astonishment he 
was told that none of them were right, and that he must not unite 
with any; that their creeds were an abomination and their professors 
corrupt ; that they taught for doctrine the commandments of men, 
drawing near to the Lord with their lips while their hearts were far 
from Him. and having a form of godliness but denying the power 
thereof. Again forbidding him to join any of the churches, the two 
personages withdrew, the pillar of light ascended and vanished, and 
the rapt youth, recovering from his vision's ecstacy, found himself 
lying upon his back gazing up into heaven. 

Naturally enough, the boy's story, being told, and its truth per- 
sisted in — and that, too. with every evidence of solemn sincerity — 
created no small sensation. Some were amazed, some simply amused 
at its audacity ; others horror-stricken at its blasphemy, — for such it 
seemed to them. In the midst of a generation which doubted and 
even denied the Creator's personality, applying to Him, in thought if 
not in word. Pope's eloquent definition of the all-pervading Spirit, 

Warms in the sun. refreshes in the breeze. 
Glows in the stars and blossoms in the trees, 
Lives through al] life, extends through all extent, 
Spreads undivided, operates unspent, 

be mi untutored lad. bad bad tbe temerity to assert, in full face of 
the teachings and traditions of the sects and schools, that God the 
universal Father was a man, a living, breathing, glorified man. and 
thai God the Sun was a man also. made, like other men. in the imaee 


of that Father's person.* Moreover, that he had both seen and heard 
them. The idea was preposterous — blasphemous ! It was a matter- 
of-fact, even skeptical age, — skeptical as to modern miracles and spirit- 
ual manifestations, — that Joseph Smith confronted, and such a tale, 
however sincerely told, was altogether too marvelous for belief. Such 
an event was very much too literal to suit the temper of the times. 
To speak of Christ's coming to earth at some future period was one 
thing ; to claim that He had already come, and had appeared to so 
insignificant a person as young "Joe Smith" was quite another thing. 
The fellow must be mad, or else a wicked and designing impostor. 
So thought that generation — so thinks this — with comparatively few 

Joseph had a friend, a Methodist minister, prominent in the 
religious movement then agitating the neighborhood. To him, among 
the first, he confided his story, thinking that his clerical friend would 
rejoice at the recital. In this, however, he was disappointed. The 
minister treated the matter with utter contempt, flatly telling him that 
it was '• all of the devil ; " that there were no such things now as 
visions and revelations, that they had all ceased with the Apostles, 
and that the world would never have any more of them. 

But the matter did not end there. With the usual zeal of the 
heretic-hunter, the minister, forgetting his former friendship for the 
boy, went about prejudicing the minds of his fellow preachers and the 
people against him. The result was that the lad, who had formerly 
been a favorite with the preachers, suddenly found himself an 
object of their distrust and derision, — the target- of their bitterest 
scorn. Continuing to affirm the truth of his tale, prejudice increased. 
and the arrows of persecution began falling around him. The 
preachers and professors, so disunited before, all united now upon 
one point, — to deride and denounce "Joe Smith the imposter." Nay, 
more; his very life was attempted by the bullet of the ambushed 
assassin. Still, said he, "I had seen a vision. I knew it, and I knew 

* "God Himself was once as we air now, and is an exalted man. and sits enthroned 
in yonder heavens." — (oseph Smith. 


that God knew it, and I could not deny it: at least I knew that by so 
doing I would offend God, and come under condemnation." 

Three years elapsed, and still this strange boy, — for strange he 
must have seemed, — scorned and buffeted and belied, steadfastly main- 
tained his testimony. Driven from the ranks of the religious and 
respectable because of his convictions, he was often forced for com- 
panionship, which his genial and kindly nature craved, into society 
not the most select, and was led in the way of temptations which he 
did not always resist. During those days he did things, as he 
candidly confesses, that were " offensive in the sight of God." Self- 
condemned for his youthful follies, accusing conscience finally drove 
him to seek forgiveness of his Maker, and implore a fresh proof of 
his "state and standing before Him." 

For what followed in his experience we again refer to his own 
record, which necessarily forms the principal basis of this portion of 
our narrative. It was the night of September 21st, 1823. Joseph, 
retiring to rest, began pleading with the heavens and pouring out his 
soul in penitent supplication. While so engaged he saw ;a light 
appearing in his room, increasing in brilliance until brighter than the 
blaze of noon-day. Immediately a glorious being, clad in a loose 
robe of radiant whiteness, his countenance lustrous as lightning, 
stood at his bedside, his feet seemingly resting on air. The head, 
neck, hands and feet were bare, and the body, wherever exposed, of 
all but transparent purity. He called the youth by name, and giving 
his own name as Moroni, proclaimed himself a messenger from the 
presence of God. He told Joseph that the Lord had a work for him 
to do, and that his name should be spoken both well and evil of 
among all nations ; showed him in vision where there was a record 
deposited, written upon plates of gold, giving an account of the 
ancient inhabitants of America and their origin, and containing the 
fullness of the Everlasting Gospel as delivered by the Savior to those 
inhabitants; also that an instrument called the Vrimand Thmtmim, 
consisting of two stones set in a silver bow and fastened to a breast- 
plate, was deposited with the plates, having been prepared by the 


Almighty for the purpose of the book's translation. The angel then 
quoted from the scriptures various prophecies relating to the restora- 
tion of the Gospel and the Priesthood, the setting up of Messiah's 
latter-day kingdom and the ushering in of the Millennium. These 
prophecies, — including part of the third and all of the fourth chapters 
of Malachi, the eleventh chapter of Isaiah, the twenty-second and 
twenty-third verses of the third chapter of Acts, and the last five 
verses of the second chapter of Joel, — he said were about to be ful- 
filled. He also declared that "the fullness of the Gentiles" would 
soon come in. He warned the youth that when he obtained posses- 
sion of the plates, he must not show them to any save those to whom 
he should be commanded to show them, — otherwise he should lie 
destroyed. Having delivered his message the angel departed, ascend- 
ing by what seemed "a -conduit opening right up into heaven," and 
the room made radiant by his presence again grew dark. But while 
musing and marveling over this visitation, with its new and strange 
revealings, Joseph saw the light returning. In an instant the same 
messenger stood at his bedside. Rehearsing without the least varia- 
tion the things before related, the oracle added that great and grievous 
judgments, desolations by famine, sword and pestilence were coming 
upon the earth in this generation. Again he departed, but still again 
returned, and after repeating his former message, cautioned the youth 
against giving way to a mercenary spirit that would tempt him. owing 
to the pdverty of his father's family, to obtain the plates for purposes 
of worldly gain. This he must not attempt to do, but seek only to 
glorify God and build up his kingdom. A third time the messenger 
vanished, when almost immediately the village cock crew, and the 
first faint streaks of dawn shot athwart the eastern horizon. 

From loss of sleep and the severe strain upon his physical pow- 
ers, incident to his extraordinary experience. Joseph, going into the 
field to labor that clay, found himself exhausted and utterly unable 
to toil. Noticing his condition, his father, who was near, bade him 
return to the house and rest. He attempted to obey, but in crossing 
the fence from out the field his strength completely failed, and he 


fell helpless and unconscious to the ground. A voice calling him by 
name aroused him. He looked, and lo ! the angel messenger of the 
past night standing above him in a halo of glory. For the fourth 
time Moroni delivers his message, which now burns as in letters of 
fire upon the young man's mind, then bids him return to his father 
and tell him all. Joseph obeys, his sire declares it to be divine, and 
directs him to go and do all that the angel has commanded. 

Accordingly, as the record continues, he set out for the spot 
where he bad been shown the plates were deposited. It was a bill. 
two or three miles from the village of Manchester. " On the west 
side of this hill," says he, " not far from the top, under a stone of 
considerable size, lay the plates deposited in a stone box : this stone 
was thick and rounding in the middle on the upper side, and thinner 
towards the edges, so that the middle part of it was visible above the 
ground, but the edges all round Avere covered with earth. Having 
removed the earth and obtained a lever, which I got fixed under the 
edge of the stone, with a little exertion I raised it up ; I looked in 
and there indeed did I behold the plates, the TJrim and Thummim and 
the breast-plate, as stated by the messenger. The box in which they 
lay was formed by placing stones together in some kind of cement. 
In the bottom of the box were laid two stones cross-ways of the box, 
and on these stones lay the plates and the other things with them." 

Attempting to possess himself of the box's contents, Joseph finds 
himself restrained, and at that moment the angel who has directed 
him thither appears and forbids him to touch them. Four years, he 
is informed, must elapse before the season will be ripe and the records 
delivered into his hands. Meantime he must lead a godly life, and 
visit the bill once a year, until the four years' term has expired; then 
and there to be further taught in relation to his prophetic mission. 
Much more does the angel unfold. — among other thing that lie. 
Moroni, while living in the flesh, was the last of a line of prophets 
who ministered to an ancient people called Nephites, who inhabited 
ibis land : Ihal lie was the son of Mormon, a Nephite prophet, general 
and historian, whose record il is Ihal there lies deposited, where 


Moroni, divinely directed, hid it fourteen centuries before; that this 
hill was called by the Nephites Cumorah, but to the Jaredites, their 
historic predecessors, it had been known as the hill Ramah. Having 
finished his course of counsel and admonition, the messenger departs, 
and the youth, after carefully covering the box containing the records 
and replacing the surrounding soil, seeks his home to tell to the 
astonished household the marvelous things revealed by the heavenly 
messenger. Unlike the minister in whom he formerly confided, they 
believe his words and rejoice in his strange and wondrous story. 

Agreeable to his instructions, Joseph, at the end of each year, or 
on the 22nd of each of the four succeeding Septembers, repairs to 
the hill Cumorah, meets and receives further teachings from Moroni. 
Finally, at the end of- the fourth year — September 22nd. 1827 — the 
angel custodian of the golden plates and the Urim and Thummim 
delivers the ancient relics into his keeping. 




Translation of the book of mormon — poverty and persecution — the " money- digging" 
and "wife-stealing" stories martin harris the prophet removes to pennsyl- 
vania description of the plates and the urim and thummim martin harris and 

professor anthon the reputed method of translation the stolen manuscript 

oliver cowdery— -john the baptist and the aaronic priesthood baptism of joseph 




1(©\0T for some months, according to Joseph, after receiving the 
-I b. golden plates, was he enabled to begin the task of their trans- 
lation. In the first place he was very poor, and having married, was 
obliged to labor more diligently than ever for his daily bread. In 
the next place he was constantly harassed by enemies. 

He tells that while on his way home with the plates, he was 
repeatedly set upon by unknown men, who strove to wrest them from 
him. Once they dealt him a severe blow with a bludgeon. Thanks 
to his superior strength, for he was now a stalwart youth of nearly 
twenty-two, and aided as he believed by the Almighty, he success- 
fully withstood his assailants, and finally reached home in safety. 
But his enemies did not rest. Falsehood like a flood pursued him, 
and the waves of prejudice rose higher and higher. The house in 
which he lived was beset by mobs; armed assassins lay in wait for 
liim ami shut at him as he passed; robbers broke into his rooms to 
cany off the records, and every means imaginable, both of force and 
strategy, was vainly employed to get them from him. 

In the interim of his fourth and fifth visits to Cumorah, Joseph 
had married Miss Emma Hale, daughter of Isaac Hale, of Harmony, 


Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania. He had formed her acquaint- 
ance in the fall of 182o, while working for a Mr. Josiah Stoal. a resi- 
dent of Chenango County, New York, who had hired him to go with 
him to Pennsylvania and dig for a silver mine. While thus employed, 
Joseph boarded in the family of Mr. Hale, and became enamored of 
his daughter, who returned his affection. The silver mine proving 
an ignis fatuus, after a month's fruitless labor Joseph persuaded his 
employer to abandon the useless enterprise. Subsequently he made 
overtures for the hand of Miss Hale, but her parents withheld their 
consent to the union. Emma, however, was of age, and a girl of high 
mettle, and her lover no less spirited and determined. They acted 
without consent, and went elsewhere to be married; the nuptial knot 
being tied by one Esquire Tarbill. at his home in South Bainbridge. 
Chenango County, New York, on the 18th of January. 1827. 

From these two incidents in his career. — his being employed to 
dig for a silver mine, and his marriage with Miss Hale away from her 
father's home, — arose the prevalent stories of "money-digging" and 
''wife-stealing," used against him by his enemies. 

The anger of Emma's parents over the independent action of the 
young couple, now happily wed, evidently soon abated; for at the 
expiration of a few months after their marriage, we find them con- 
templating a removal to the home of the Hales in Pennsylvania. And 
this, owing to the annoyance and persecution to which they were sub- 
jected at Manchester. Too poor to pay the expenses of the trip. — a 
distance of about a hundred miles. — Joseph at this juncture received 
timely aid from a Mr. Martin Harris, a well-to-do farmer residing in 
Palmyra Township, a few miles from Manchester. Mr. Harris, who 
had previously become interested in Joseph, gave liini fifty dollars to 
assist him on his journey. This enabled the young couple to reach 
their destination. They arrived at Harmony in December, LS27. On 
their way thither, the wagon in which they traveled was twice stopped 
by officers, or men claiming to be such, armed witli search warrants, 
who ransacked the vehicle in quest of the golden plates. They were 
secreted, it is said, in a barrel of beans, and thus escaped discovery. 


These plates are thus described. They were of uniform size. 
about eight inches in width, each one a little thinner than ordinary 
tin. They were bound together by three rings running through one 
of the edges, forming a book about six inches in thickness, one-third 
of which was sealed. This part was not to be opened: the time not 
having come for its contents to be known. The unsealed two-thirds 
of the volume, — the plates of which could be turned like the leaves of 
a book, and were covered, both sides, with strange characters, "small 
and beautifully engraved." — were left free to be translated by means 
of the Vrim and Thummim. 

This instrument consisted of two precious stones, set in the rims 
of a silver bow, and fastened to a breast-plate. The breast-plate, like 
the record plates, was of gold, the inside concave, the outside con- 
vex, and four golden bands attached served to fasten it to the person 
of the wearer. 

In February. 1828. Martin Harris, the Palmyra farmer, visited his 
young friend at Harmony. Being shown certain mystical characters, 
which Joseph informed him he had copied from the golden plates and 
translated. Martin, by permission, took these characters to the city 
of New York, to exhibit them to the savants and linguists of the 

According to his account, he first submitted them to Professor 
Charles Anthon. of Columbia College, who stated that the translation 
was correct, and as to the characters, translated and untranslated, 
that they were Egyptian. Chaldaic, Syriac and Arabic — true and gen- 
uine. Being asked for a certificate to that effect, he willingly gave 
one. addressing it to the people of Palmyra. 

" How did the young man learn that there were gold plates 
there?" asked the Professor, as Harris, having folded the certificate 
and put it in bis pocket, turned to go. 

•• An angel of God revealed it to him," answered the farmer. 

A look (it dismay, as if doubting the speaker's sanity, stole over 
the lace of the Professor, who, as soon as he could regain himself. 

exclaimed "Lei me see that certificate." 


Martin returned the paper, whereupon Professor Anthon tore it 
in pieces, remarking that there were no such things now as minister- 
ing of angels, but that if the plates were brought to him be would 
translate them. 

Martin informed him that a portion of the golden book was 
sealed, and that he would not be permitted to bring it. 

"'I cannot read a sealed book,"* replied the Professor, and the 
interview abruptly ended. 

Harris next consulted Dr. Mitchell, another scholar, who sec- 
onded all that Professor Anthon had said concerning the characters 
and the translation. 

Such was the report of his errand with which Martin Harris 
returned to Joseph Smith. So far was he now converted to the lat- 
ter"s views, that lie then and there offered to act as his scribe in the 
work of translation. As Joseph Avas a poor penman, this offer was 
gratefully accepted. 

The following is the reputed method of translation. The Pro- 
phet, scanning through the Urim ami Thummim the golden pages, 
would see appear, in lieu of the strange characters engraved thereon, 
their equivalent in English words. These he would repeat, and the 
scribe, separated from him by a veil or curtain, would write them 
down. A peculiarity of the process was that until the writing was 
correct in every particular, the words last given would remain before 
the eyes of the translator, and not disappear. But on the necessai-y 
correction being made, they would immediately pass away and be 
succeeded by others. In this manner the Book of Mormon is said to 
have been translated. Hence the claim of the Latter-day Saints. — 
called "Mormons" for their belief in the book. — to its plenary 

From the 12th of April to the 14th of June, 1828, Joseph and 
Martin continued, with some intermissions, their joint labor of trans- 
lating. In that interim the latter copied by dictation one hundred 

The Latter-day Saints regard lliis us 


and sixteen pages of foolscap manuscript. These pages he much 
desired to show to his wife and other curious or skeptical persons, 
with a view to their conversion. After many entreaties and refusals, 
he obtained Joseph's permission to do so. on condition that they 
should be shown only to certain persons who were named. Martin. 
however, broke his pledge and permitted others to see them. The 
result was that the manuscript was stolen. Neither he nor Joseph 
ever again beheld it. A temporary estrangement ensued between 
them, and the Prophet, it is said, having angered the Almighty, lost 
his gift tnr a season. Martin, though eventually forgiven, never again 
acted as Joseph's scribe. 

Oliver Gowdery next comes upon the scene. He is a school- 
teacher by profession : by trade a blacksmith; young in years, but a 
man of intelligence and education. Pursuing his vocation of peda- 
gogue at Manchester. New York, during the winter of 1828-9, while 
boarding in the family of Joseph Smith, senior, he hears of young 
Joseph, his visions and the golden plates, and is impressed with a 
belief in their genuineness. He is also imbued with the idea that 
his future destiny and that of the Prophet are in some manner 
interwoven. At Sabbath sunset, April 5th, 1829. he presents himself 
at Joseph's door in Harmony, and volunteers his services as 
a scribe and secretary. The proffered aid is eagerly accepted. 
Two days later the youthful twain. — who are yet to be known as the 
first and second Elders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints. — continue the work of translating the Nephite record. The 
rendering into English progresses rapidly under their united and 
almost incessant labors, and by the middle of May the greater part of 
the translation is complete. 

Joseph and Oliver testify that on a certain day they suspended 
I heir task and went old into the woods to pray and inquire of the 
Lord concerning the doctrine — then well nigh obsolete in Christen- 
dom — of baptism for the remission of sins, which they had found 
mentioned in the translation of the plates. While calling upon the 
Lord, they declare, a heavenly messenger descended in a cloud of 


light, and laying his hands upon their heads, spake these words : 
" Upon you, my fellow servants, in the name of Messiah, I confer the 
Priesthood of Aaron, which holds the keys of the ministering of 
angels, and of the gospel of repentance, and of baptism by immer- 
sion for the remission of sins ; and this shall never again be taken 
from the earth, until the sons of Levi do offer again an offering unto 
the Lord in righteousness." 

The angel who thus ordained them said that his name was John, 
the same who was anciently surnamed "the Baptist," and that he 
acted under the direction of Peter, James and John, who held the keys 
of the Melchisedek Priesthood; this, the higher authority, should 
in due time be conferred upon them, and Joseph should then be 
the first Elder and Oliver the second Elder in the Church of Christ. 
The Melchisedek Priesthood would authorize them to bestow the 
Holy Ghost by the laying on of hands, a power not conferred by the 
Priesthood of Aaron. They were then directed to baptize each other 
by immersion ; Joseph first to baptize Oliver, Oliver then to baptize 
Joseph ; after which, in the same order, they were to re-ordain each 
other to the Aaronic Priesthood. These instructions were carefully 
obeyed. The date given for these events is May 15th, 1829. Accord- 
ing to the record, it was soon after this that the Melchisedek Priest- 
hood was conferred upon Joseph and Oliver by the Apostles Peter, 
James and John. 

In the latter part of May the mobocratic spirit, which till then had 
lain dormant in that locality, manifested itself at this place of peace- 
ful name, Harmony, where a violent assault upon the two young men 
was only prevented by the personal influence of Mr. Hale, Joseph's 
father-in-law. Joseph was now living in his own home, but the gaunt 
wolf of poverty still hovered round his door. Hearing of his strait- 
ened circumstances and having faith in his professions, an elderly 
man named Joseph Knight, residing at Colesville, Broome County, New 
York — thirty miles distant — came bringing supplies of food and other 
necessaries, to enable him and his scribe to continue their work with- 
out interruption. This act of beneficence was several times repeated. 


A family named Whitmer, friends of Oliver Cowdery, at Fayette. 
Seneca County, New York, had also been apprised of the situation. 
Early in June David Whitmer arrived at Harmony with a message 
from his father, Peter Whitmer, senior, inviting Joseph and Oliver to 
come to Fayette and make their home in his household. This offer 
was thankfully accepted. 

At the home of Father Whitmer, to which they at once repaired, 
they zealously prosecuted their labors. At intervals Joseph and Oliver 
would converse with the Whitmers and other people of the neighbor- 
hood upon the subject of religion, baptizing such as believed and 
desired to embrace their principles. During the month of June, 
Hyrum Smith, David Whitmer and Peter Whitmer, junior, were bap- 
tized in Seneca Lake ; the first two by Joseph Smith, the last-named 
by Oliver Cowdery. Samuel H. Smith had been baptized by Oliver at 
Harmony some time before. 

Among the predictions of the Book of Mormon is one to the 
effect that three special witnesses should be chosen to behold the 
plates from which it was translated. These plates were to be shown 
them by an angel. Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer and Martin Harris 
were selected as these witnesses. The event is thus recorded in their 
own words, forming a portion of the preface to the Book of Mormon : 


Be it known unto all nations, kindreds, tongues, and people unto whom this work 
shall coine, that we, through the grace of God the Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ, have 
-ecu Hi" plales which contain this record, which is a record of the people of Nephi, and 
also of the Lamanites, their brethren, and also of the people of Jared, who came from the 
tower of which hath been spoken ; and we also know that they have been translated by 
the gift and power of God, for his voice hath declared it unto us ; wherefore we know of 

a surety thai the work is true. And we also testily thai we have seen il ugravings 

whii li are upon the plates; and they have been shewn unto us by the power of God. and 
not of man. And we declare with words of soberness, that an angel of God came down 

'"'in heaven, and he brought and laid befor r eyes, that we beheld and saw the plates. 

and il ugravings thereon ; ami we know that il is by the grace of God the Father, and 

our Lord JeSUS Christ, thai we beheld and hear record that these things are true: and it is 

marvelous in our eyes, nevertheless the voice of the Lord commanded us that we should 

bear rd of it; wherefore to he obedienl unto the commandments of God, we bear 

testi y of these thing! And we know that if we are faithful in Christ, we shall rid 


our garments of the blood of all men, and be found 

spotless before the judgment-seat of 

Christ, and shall dwell with him eternally in the h 

eavens. And the honor be to the 

Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost, whi< 

•h is one God. Allien. 

Oliver Cowdery, 


David Whitmer, 
Martin Harris. 

Eight others also testify, as follows : 


Be it known unto all nations, kindreds, tongues, and people unto whom this work 
shall come, that Joseph Smith. Jun., the translator of this work, has shewn unto us the 
plates of which hath been spoken, which have the appearance of gold ; and as many of 
the leaves as the said Smith has translated, we did handle with our hands ; and we also 
saw the engravings thereon, all of which has the appearance of ancient work, and of 
curious workmanship. And this we hear record with words of soberness, that the said 
Smith has shewn unto us, for we have seen and hefted, and know of a surely that the 
said Smith has got the plates (if which we have spoken. And we give our names unto 
the world. In witness unto the world that which we have seen ; and we lie not. God bear- 
ing witness of it. 

Christian Whitmer, Hiram Page, 

Jacob Whitmer, Joseph Smith, Sen.. 

Peter Whitmer, Jun., Hyrum Smith, 

John Whitmer, Samuel H. Smith. 

Among the revelations recorded as "given through Joseph the 
Seer" during the month of June, 1829, is one making known the 
calling of the Twelve Apostles of the coming Church. The mission 
to ''search out the Twelve" was given to Oliver Cowdery and David 
Whitmer. In other revelations, addressed to various individuals, it 
is reiterated that '"a great and marvelous work is about to come forth 
among the children of men." 

As the translation drew to a close, the Prophet and his friends 
visited Palmyra, the home of Martin Harris, to arrange for the pub- 
lication of the Book of Mormon. They secured the copy-righl and 
contracted with Mr. Egbert B. Grandin to print live thousand copies 
for the sum of three thousand dollars. Martin Harris was In furnish 
the money. The copy-righl was secured June 11th. 1829. 

Respecting the final disposition of the plates and the Urim and 
Thummim, Joseph slides that the same heavenly messenger who com- 


mitted them to his care, reclaimed them when the work of translation 
was over. 

The manuscript of the Book of Mormon was carefully copied, 
the original retained by the translator, and the copy, — said to be in 
the writing of Oliver Cowdery,* — placed in the hands of the printer. 
Joseph then paid a visit to his home in Pennsylvania, leaving his 
more scholarly friend Cowdery to superintend the proof-reading and 
other details of publication. Early in the year 1830 the first edition 
of the Book of Mormon was given to the world. 

* This manuscript is now in the possession of the family of the late David Whitmer, 
at Richmond, Ray County, Mo. 



What the book of mormon claims to be — the narrative of the nephite record — how 
the world received it the spaulding story " mormonism unveiled " the sid- 
ney rigdon anachronism discovery of the original " manuscript story " its 

condensed narrative mormon's record and spaulding's romance compared 

Reynolds' " myth of the manuscript found " — president fairchild's opinion — 
numerous editions of the translated work. 

•L HE Book of Mormon claims to be a record of two great races that 
>K flourished successively upon the American continent ages prior 
to its discovery by Columbus. Their combined histories, written 
by a succession of authors — prophets and kings — cover a period 
extending from the time of the Tower of Babel down to about the 
beginning of the fifth century of the Christian era. The records of 
these authors comprise fifteen books, named in their order as follows : 
I. Nephi, ii. Nephi, Book of Jacob, Book of Enos, Book of Jarom, 
Book of Omni, The Words of Mormon, Book of Mosiah, including 
the Record of Zeniff, Book of Alma, Book of Helaman, in. Nephi, iv. 
Nephi, Book of Mormon, Book of Ether, and the Book of Moroni. 

The first of the ancient races referred to, whose histories are 
briefly given in these records, were the Jaredites, who, in the disper- 
sion following the confusion of tongues, came across the great deep 
and peopled what is now North America. Their leaders were .Tared 
and his brother, Mahonri Moriancumr, from the former of whom the 
nation derived its name. Their greatest national character, however, 
was this " brother of Jared," — otherwise nameless in the record, * — 
under whose inspired leadership the colony left the land of Shinar, 
and crossing one of the great oceans in ships or " barges " of their 
own building, landed on these northern shores, made glorious during 

::: Joseph Smith supplied the proper name, Mahonri Moriancumr. 


the lapse of centuries by their power, wisdom, wealth and civiliza- 

The Jaredite leaders were democratic in their instincts, abhorring 
the idea of kings and monarchies, which they had been taught to 
believe could not long flourish upon this goodly land, — a land destined 
to be " free from bondage." But their people, like the Israelites of a 
later period in the far-off land of Canaan, desired a king, and besought 
them ere they died to anoint one of their sons to rule over them. 
The thought was repugnant to the great and good founders of the 
nation, who foresaw the inevitable result, — the captivity, perchance 
the destruction of their people. However, they yielded reluctant 
assent, and one of the sons of Jared — Orihah — his three brothers and 
all the sons of the brother of Jared having declined the proffered 
purple, was anointed king. 

A short period of prosperity followed, for the people served 
God and were righteous. Then came wealth, class divisions, pride, 
tyranny, with their usual concomitants. — luxury, licentiousness and 
crime. The worship of God was neglected, then abandoned. Self- 
interest dethroned patriotism, and passion usurped the place of 
principle. Civil wars broke out, dismembering and dividing the 
nation. From civilization and refinement the race sank into brutal- 
ity and savagery, until finally, over the precipice of destruction, of 
utter annihilation, swept the awful torrent of a mighty people's ruin. 

The last of many prophets who taught and warned the Jaredites, 
seeking in vain to avert their coming doom, was Ether their historian, 
wIki. having witnessed the destruction of his people, hid up their 
records for discovery in after ages, and disappeared from view. 

A few passages from the Book of Ether*, as abridged by Moroni 
the Xephite. are here presented : 

And now I, Moroni, proceed to finish my record c terning the destruction of the 

) i 1 ' 1 ' of whom I have been writing. 

For behold, thej rejected the words of Ether; for he truly tn],l them of all things, 
from the beginning of man ; and thai after the waters had receded from oil the face of this 

Chapter xiii. 1-14. 


land, it became a choice land above all other lands, a chosen land of the Lord ; wherefore 
the Lord would have that all men should serve him who dwell upon the face thereof; 

And that it was the place of the New Jerusalem, which should come down out of 
heaven, and the Holy Sanctuary of the Lord. 

Behold, Ether saw the days of Christ, and he spake concerning a New Jerusalem 
upon this land ; 

And he spake also concerning the house of Israel, and the Jerusalem from whence 
Lehi should come ; after it should be destroyed, it should be built up again a holy city 
unto the Lord, wherefore it could not be a New Jerusalem, for it had been in a time of old, 
but it should be built up again, and become a holy city of the Lord ; and it should be 
built unto the house of Israel ; 

And that a New Jerusalem should be built up upon this land, unto the remnant of 
the seed of Joseph, for which things there has been a type ; 

For as Joseph brought his father down into the land of Egypt, even so he died there ; 
wherefore the Lord brought a remnant of the seed of Joseph out of the land of Jerusalem, 
that he might be merciful unto the seed of Joseph, that they should perish not, even as he 
was merciful unto the father of Joseph, that he should perish not ; 

Wherefore the remnant of the house of Joseph shall be built upon this land ; and it 
shall be a land of their inheritance ; and they shall build up a holy city unto the Lord, 
like unto the Jerusalem of old ; and they shall no more be confounded, until the end 
comes when the earth shall pass away. 

And there shall be a new heaven and a new earth ; and they shall be like unto the 
old, save the old have passed away, and all things have become new. 

And then cometh the New Jerusalem ; and blessed are they who dwell therein, for it 
is they whose garments are white through the blood of the Lamb; and they are they who 
are numbered among the remnant of the seed of Joseph, who were of the bouse of 

And then also cometh the Jerusalem of old; and the inhabitants thereof, blessed are 
they, for they have been washed in the blood of the Lamb ; and they are they who were 
scattered and gathered in from the four quarters of the earth, and from the north countries, 
and are partakers of the fulfilling of the covenant which God made with their father 

And when these things come, bringeth to pass the scripture which saith, There are 
they who were first, who shall be last ; and there are they who were last, who shall be 

And 1 was about to write mure, but am forbidden; but great and marvelous were the 
prophecies of Ether, but they esteemed him as nought, and cast him out, and be hid 
himself in the cavity of a rock by day. and by night he went forth ■vfewiag the things 
which should come upon the people. 

And as he dwell in the cavity of a mek, he made the remainder of this record, 
viewing the destructions which came upon the people by night. 

The sole survivor of the final slaughter, which took place near 
the hill Ramah, between the two great contending factions of the 


fratricidal Jaredites, was Corianlumr. their king. Having slain Shiz, 
the leader of the opposing host, in a duel upon the bloody field, 
where all save this twain had fallen, Coriantumr lived long enough 
to tell the sad story of his people's ruin to their successors upon this 
northern land. These, the people of Mulek. were a colony led out 
from Jerusalem under Mulek, son of Zedekiah, king of Judah, about 
the time of the beginning of the Babylonian captivity. They did not 
remain a distinct nation, but coalesced with the Nephites, the second 
of the two great races mentioned. 

The Nephites, with whose history the Book of Mormon begins, 
— the discovery of Mulek's colony and the finding and translating of 
the Jaredite Book of Ether being incidents in their career, — were 
likewise from Judea. They were mostly the descendants of Lehi, 
who, divinely guided, departed with his family from Jerusalem about 
the year 600 B. C, — eleven years before Mulek's colony emigrated, — 
while the Prophet Jeremiah was pouring his solemn warnings in the 
ears of king, princes, priests and people of the sin-laden and doomed 
city. Lehi was descended from Joseph, through Manasseh. His 
wife's name was Sariah. Their children, when leaving Jerusalem, 
were four sons, — Laman, Lemuel, Sam and Nephi, — and several 
daughters whose names are not given. Subsecraently were born to 
them two more sons, — Jacob and Joseph. The other members of 
Lehi's colony were Ishmael and his family, who were of Ephraim,* 
and a servant named Zoram. The sons and daughters of Lehi and 
Ishmael intermarried. 

The course of the colony from Jerusalem led to the Red Sea and 
along its shores ; thence eastward across the peninsula of Arabia. 
On the shores of the Persian Gulf, under the inspired direction of 
Nephi, who became the virtual leader of the colony, they built a ship, 
and in it crossed £i the great waters " — the Indian and Pacific oceans 
— to South America. They are supposed to have landed on the coast 
of the country now called Chili. Thence, as their nation or nations 

* Joseph Smith said thai the manuscripl lost by Martin Harris so stated. 


grew, and the people multiplied, the descendants of Lehi spread over 
the whole face of South and North America. 

After Lehi's death the colony divided ; Laman and Lemuel, who 
had always been jealous of their younger and gifted brother Nephi, 
rebelling against his rule, and leading away others to form a separate 
people. Thenceforth there were two nations ; the followers of Laman, 
who were known as Lamanites, and the adherents of Nephi. who 
took upon them his name in like manner. The Lamanites. for their 
iniquity, were cursed by the Almighty with dark skins. They became 
a loathsome and benighted race, savage and blood-thirsty, roaming 
the wilderness and subsisting upon wild beasts, killed for game, or 
by their frequent marauding incursions into the territory of the 
Nephites. The latter were highly civilized, dwelling in cities and cul- 
tivating the arts and sciences. Unlike their dark-skinned neighbors, 
they were " a white and a delightsome people," fair and beautiful to 
look upon. Gentle in peace, valorous in war, refined, intelligent, 
wealthy and powerful, they were at once the envy and the terror of 
their foes, the ferocious Lamanites, who hated them with an inten- 
sity indescribable. Many were the wars and conflicts between the 
two races ; the Lamanites being generally the aggressors, while the 
Nephites fought in self-defense. Their warriors were highly disci- 
plined, wore armor, and wielded the sword, spear and javelin, while 
the Lamanites, whose favorite weapons were the bow and sling, went 
half nude or clothed in skins, affording little protection against the 
sharp blades and keen points of their adversaries. Still they were 
fiercely brave, and frequently came off conquerors. When the 
Nephites served God they prospered, and in war were invincible and 
invulnerable. When they forgot Him, as they often did, their power 
waned and departed, and they fell an easy prey to their enemies. 
But as often as they repented, their strength and valor returned, and 
the God of battles fought with them and against their foes. 

The religion of the Nephites, until the advent of the Savior, — 
who appeared to them shortly after His resurrection and established 
His church among them, — was the law of Moses; though they also 


understood and practiced the first principles of Christ's gospel, 
revealed to them prior to His coming. One of their first projects, 
alter separating from Laman and his followers, who turned entirely 
from the Lord, was to build a temple to the Most High, constructed 
after the pattern, though not on the same scale of magnificence, as 
the temple of Solomon. Nephi, his brothers Jacob and Joseph and 
their descendants were the officiating Priesthood. 

The Nephite government was originally a limited monarchy, with 
Nephi, — against his own will, for he, like the first Jaredite leaders, was 
an anti-monarchist, — as king or protector. His successors, for sev- 
eral centuries, were mostly wise and able rulers, during whose reigns 
the Nephites enjoyed many periods of prosperity, and the nation, 
though at times brought to the brink of ruin by the wickedness of 
its people, spread abroad and became powerful. The Lamanites like- 
wise had kings, who were autocrats, but, as stated, they were a 
nomadic and savage race, and only at rare intervals. — and then by 
fusion or contact with the Nephites, — reached a standard of civiliza- 

In the year B. C. 91, tin- Nephite republic was proclaimed, and 
for a period of one hundred and twenty years the nation was ruled 
by judges elected by the people. Wars with the Lamanites and with 
bands of truculent outlaws known as C4adianton robbers ; victories, 
defeats, internal dissensions, revolutions, disasters, works of glory and 
deeds of darkness mark this checkered period, — an era of violent 
vicissitudes. In the year A. D. 30 the republic was disrupted, and the 
people divided into tribes and factions. 

Then came the greatest, most glorious, and withal most terrible 
event in the annals of the Nephite nation. — the advent of the risen 
Redeemer; His appearance to the more righteous portion of the 
people, preceded by the appalling, overwhelming destruction and 
desolation of the wicked. First, according to those annals, an awful 
tempest, unparalleled in force and fury, swept over the land, leaving 
denili and devastation in its wake. Three hours it endured, — but what 
hours! During the prevalence of the storm, while the lightning's 


fiery falchion smote, and the batteries of heaven thundered and rever- 
berated, the whole face of nature was changed, disfigured, like the 
rage-distorted visage of an angry man. Mountains disappeared, 
sunken or swept away. Valleys became towering peaks. Impelled by 
the whirlwind, great boulders hurtled through the air, as if thrown 
by Titan hands, or rolled grinding and crashing along the quivering 
earth. The mighty heart of nature throbbed tumultuously. Earth- 
quakes with awful rumblings rent the ground. Great chasms opened, 
like monster jaws, engulfing cities with their living millions, while 
others were devoured by fire, or swallowed by the raging seas, heav- 
ing beyond their bounds. Three hours of fearful turmoil, with three 
days of thick darkness following, during which the affrighted inhabit- 
ants, survivors of the tempest and its terrors, lay shuddering half 
lifeless upon the quaking earth, listening to the horrible groanings and 
grindings of the storm ; or when its fury lulled, loudly bewailing their 
own and their fellows' woes. 

At length the tumult ceases ; the earth no longer trembles, and 
the voice of Him who stilled with a word the stormy waves of Galilee 
is heard from heaven proclaiming in solemn tones the calamities that 
have befallen. A note of awful warning to the transgressor; a prom- 
ise of peace and of pardon to the penitent. Subsequently the Savior 
appears. The more righteous of the Nephites behold Him. He 
shows to them His wounded side and the prints of the nails in His 
hands and feet: instructs them in the truths of His gospel; heals 
their sick, blesses their children, administers the sacrament and 
establishes His church in the midst of them. Therein are apostles, 
prophets, etc. — the same orders of Priesthood, the same doctrines, 
ordinances, gifts and graces that characterize the church at Jerusa- 
lem. He informs the Nephites that they are the "other sheep," of 
whom He spake lo His Jewish disciples — though they understood 
Him not — who were "not of that fold:'* not of Judah but of Joseph: 
and that from them He goes to visit still "other sheep," not of this 
land, ••neither of the land of Jerusalem." Having fully instructed 
them He departs: not. however, before giving to three of the Twelve 


whom He has chosen, power over death, insomuch that the destroyer 
cannot assail them, and to all the Apostles power to preach the gos- 
pel, administer its ordinances, work miracles, build up the Church 
and bring souls to Him. 

Then ensue nearly two centuries of unexampled peace and pros- 
perity, during which period the Church of Christ, a pure theocracy, 
reigns supreme. A community of interests, spiritual and temporal — 
more than realizing the theories of a Bellamy — is established; Neph- 
ites and Lamanites throughout the entire land are converted unto 
Christ, and bask in the light of an almost Millennial era. This 
happy state continues until the year A. D. 200, when the first signs of 
disintegration appear. Other churches are then founded, other creeds 
promulgated, and the order of unity, equality, fraternity, is aban- 
doned. Thirty years later a great separation takes place, and the 
people are again known as Nephites and Lamanites. 

It is the beginning of the end. The period of the nation's 
decline and downfall has arrived, and the descent is thenceforth ruin- 
ous and rapid. Contentions, crimes and disasters follow in succes- 
sion. Nearly a century rolls by. The great international conflict 
has resumed. Again have wars between Nephites and Lamanites 
drenched and deluged the land with blood and tears. The Nephites 
now occupy "the land northward," whither they have been driven by 
their victorious foes, who hold possession of the southern continent. 
The "narrow neck of land" divides them. The struggle goes on. 
Each army invades alternately the territory of the other ; only to be 
repulsed and driven back. Again and again sounds the tocsin of war. 
Again and again the two nations rush to battle. Peace after peace is 
patched up, only to be rent asunder. At length the Lamanites gain 
an advantage. They once more invade the northern continent. The 
degenerate Nephites no longer prevail against them. Bravely, des- 
perately they contend, but vainly. The God whom they have offended 
is no longer with them, and victory perches permanently upon the 
banners <>(' their adversaries. Backward, still backward they are 
driven, disputing with stubborn valor every inch of ground. The 


whole land reeks and smokes with blood and carnage. Rapine and 
slaughter hold sway. Each side, drunken with blood, besotted and 
brutalized, vies with the other in cruelties and atrocities. Finally 
the hill Raman — Cumorah — is reached, and there, on the spot where 
ages before the Jaredite nation perished, the Nephites, similarly 
fated, make their final stand. 

Their general, Mormon, foreseeing the destruction of his people, 
has committed to his son Moroni, — like himself one of a righteous 
few left of a degenerate nation, — the records of their race, including 
an abridgment of their history written with his own hand upon 
plates of gold. These are accompanied by certain instruments called 
"interpreters" — Urim and Thummim — used by the Nephite prophets 
in translating. 

The carnage of Cumorah ensues ; the Nephite nation is annihil- 
ated, and the Lamanites, — ancestors of the dusky aborigines whom 
Columbus, centuries later, found and named Indians, — are left in 
absolute, undisputed possession of the soil. Moroni, having sur- 
vived the awful massacre, abridges the Jaredite record, adds it to the 
Nephite history written by his sire, and deposits the golden plates 
and interpreters in the hill Cumorah, A. D. 420. 

Such, briefly, is the story of the Book of Mormon, which Joseph 
Smith and his confreres had now given to the world; the famous 
"Gold Bible," so styled in derision by opponents of Mormonism, but 
revered by the Latter-day Saints as an inspired record, of -equal 
authority with the Jewish scriptures, containing, as they claim, the 
revelations of Jehovah to His Israel of the western world, as the 
Bible His revelations to Israel in the Orient. The Saints hold that 
the Book of Mormon is the veritable "stick of Joseph," that was In 
be one with the "stick of Judah" — the Bible — as foretold by 

The book being published and circulated, speculation at once 
became rife as to its origin. Of course nobody believed, or compar- 

* Chapter xxxvii. 16-19. 


atively few, that it had come in the way its translator and the wit- 
nesses declared. The same skepticism that repudiated the idea of the 
Father and the Son appearing to Joseph Smith, now ridiculed the 
claim of the Book of Mormon to being a divine record. That it was 
purely of human origin, or worse, was very generally believed. 
Passing by the many minor theories put forth to account for it. we 
will merely take up one. the celebrated Spaulding story, which 
obtained greater credence and notoriety than any other, and still 
forms the back-bone argument of objectors to the divine authenticity 
of the Book of Mormon. 

In the year 1816, at Amity, Washington County, Pennsylvania, 
died Solomon Spaulding. a native of Ashford. Connecticut, where he 
was born in 1761. A few years prior to his decease, he had resided 
at Conneaut, Ashtabula County, Ohio. At one time in his life he 
was a clergyman, — at least he wore to his name the prefix of 
"Reverend," — and is said to have been a graduate of Dartmouth Col- 
lege. Though not a man of much ability, nor of much education, if 
we may judge from his work, he cultivated a taste for literature. 
and aspired to the distinction of authorship. His mind ran upon 
ancient and archaic themes, insomuch that about the year 1812. while 
living at Conneaut, he wrote a romance entitled "Manuscript Story,'' 
giving a fabulous account of the pre-historic races of North America. 
The romance was suggested by the discovery, near the author's home, 
of certain relics, such as bows and arrows, and the existence in that 
vicinity of the ruins of an ancient fort. Two years later, Spaulding 
removed from Ohio to Pennsylvania, stopping awhile in Pittsburg, 
and then settling at Amity, where, as stated, he died in 1816. 

The romance, unpublished, remained in the possession of his 
widow until 1834, — four years after the Book of Mormon was pub- 
lished, — at which time she was living at Monson, Hampden County, 
Massachusetts, and having re-married was then Mrs. Matilda 

During the year 1834, D. P. Hurlburt, an apostate Mormon, came 
to Mrs. Davison and procured the "Manuscript Story" written by her 


former husband. His avowed purpose was to use this work, of which 
he had heard in Pennsylvania, in an expose of Mormonism, which 
certain opponents of the Saints, — whose headquarters were then at 
Kirtland, Ohio, — were helping him to publish in that state. Hurl- 
burt's reason for desiring the romance was that he had recognized, 
from the account he had obtained of it, a supposed resemblance 
between it and the Book of Mormon, which he was then zealously 
decrying. He agreed with Mrs. Davison to publish the story and give 
her half the profits realized from its sale. She reluctantly consented 
to part with the relic, giving him an order for it addressed to Mr. 
Jerome Clark, of Hartwick, Otsego County, New York, with whom she 
had temporarily left an old trunk containing the manuscript. Hurlburt, 
having secured it, returned to Ohio. A perusal of its pages, how- 
ever, failed to afford him and his colleagues the satisfaction they had 
anticipated. The supposed resemblance between it and the Book of 
Mormon, they found to be indeed suppositional, or at all events so 
vague as to poorly subserve their purpose. They therefore sup- 
pressed it. Hurlburt wrote to Mrs. Davison that the manuscript "did 
not read as he expected," and that he should not publish it. He did 
not return it, however, though repeatedly urged by the owner so to 
do, but gave out that it had been accidentally destroyed by fire, claim- 
ing to have been so informed by Mr. E. D. Howe, a publisher at 
Painesville, with whom he had left the romance to be read and then 
returned to Mrs. Davison. From that time, until fully fifty years 
later, nothing further was known of the fate of the Spaulding manu- 

"Mormonism Unveiled" — Hurlburt's expose — appeared in due 
time; not, however, in the name of D. P. Hurlburt. but of E. D. Howe, 
who had purchased the work and published it. It was a satirical 
assault upon Mormonism in general, and upon Joseph Smith in par- 
ticular. It announced to the world that the Book of Mormon, in. all 
probability, was Solomon Spaulding's romance revised and amplified. 
The assertion was supported, not by extracts from the two records, 
compared, bid by depositions from various persons who claimed to lie 


familiar with both, touching the points of alleged similarity between 
them. It denied, on the authority of these deponents, that the writ- 
ing obtained of Mrs. Davison was the "Manuscript Story," and 
claimed that it bore no resemblance to it. Mrs. Davison, however, 
though no friend to Mormonism, stated that it was the " Manuscript 
Story," thatHurlburt obtained of her, and her statement is borne out 
by the fact that no other manuscript of like character, claiming 
Solomon Spaulding as its author, has ever yet appeared. 

The theory put forth by the author of " Mormonism Unveiled " 
regarding the origin of the Book of Mormon was this : that Sidney 
Rigdon, — then Joseph Smith's "right-hand man," — who had formerly 
resided at Pittsburg, where Mr. Spaulding once tarried for a time. 
had procured the dead clergyman's manuscript from the printing- 
office of Messrs. Patterson and Lambdin, in that city ; that being a 
man of ability and education, Rigdon had altered and enlarged the 
original work, adding the religious portions, and then, through Joseph 
Smith, had palmed it upon the world as an ancient and inspired 
record. This hypothesis found many believers, and even to this day, 
among non-Mormons generally, is accepted as authentic and reliable. 

On the other hand, Mormon pens and tongues have been busy 
for fifty years denying the truth and consistency of the Spaulding 
story. They have always affirmed that until after the Book of 
Mormon was published, Joseph Smith had not been seen, nor scarcely 
heard of, in those parts traversed by the Spaulding manuscript ; that 
Sidney Rigdon did not visit Pittsburg until years after the removal of 
the Spauldings from that city; that he never was connected, as 
alleged, with a printing-office in that place ; that up to the fall of 
1830, several months after the Book of Mormon was published, he 
had not so much as seen the book, and that until December of the 
same year he and Joseph Smith had never met. In short, that 
Rigdon's alleged connection with the origin of the Book of Mormon 
was an anachronism pure and simple, and that any theory seeking to 
identify that record with the Spaulding romance was susceptible of 
the easiest disproof. 


But all in vain. The world had made up its mind. The Mormon 
side of the story was too miraculous for belief: the Hurlburt-Howe 
theory too plausible for disbelief ; and the Spaulding romance, with 
Sidney Rigdon or "some other designing knave"' as its amplifier and 
embellisher, has continued to be regarded as the literary nucleus of 
the Book of Mormon. 

In the year 1884, fifty years after its disappearance and alleged 
destruction, the missing Spaulding manuscript was brought to light. 
Its discoverer was Mr. L. L. Rice, of Honolulu, Sandwich Islands. 
Being visited that year by President James H. Fairchild, of Oberlin 
College, Ohio, Mr. Rice, at his suggestion, was looking through his 
papers in quest of certain anti-slavery documents, when he came upon 
a package marked in pencil on the outside •'Manuscript Story — Con- 
neaut Creek," which proved upon examination, to their great surprise, 
to be the long-lost romance of Dr. Spaulding. Its presence among 
the private papers of Mr. Rice was explained by the fact that about 
the year 1840 he and a partner had purchased from E. D. Howe, the 
publisher of " Mormonism Unveiled," the business and effects of the 
Painesville " Telegraph." At that time Mr. Rice, — who in Ohio was 
an anti-slavery editor, — had received from Howe a collection of 
miscellaneous papers, which, prior to Mr. Fairchilcfs visit, he had 
never taken time to thoroughly examine. The original of the 
" Manuscript Story" Mr. Rice presented to President Fairchild. but 
an exact copy, procured of the former by a representative of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, was published verbatim 
et literatim at Salt Lake City in 1886.* 

As stated by Howe — or Hurlburt — it is "a romance purporting to 
have been translated from the Latin, found on twenty-four rolls of 
parchment in a cave : " its author thus anticipating a method in 
vogue among popular novelists of the present period, — notably of 
the H. Rider Haggard school. It contains perhaps a tenth as much 
reading matter as the Book of Mormon, and unlike that record is 

* Josephites — dissenting Mormons — have also published the "Manuscript Story." 
Their edition was the firsi t<> appear. 


written in modern style. None of the proper names, and few if any 
of the incidents, are similar to those of the Nephite narrative. Its 
rhetoric is exceedingly faulty. — more so than the usually criticised 
passages of the Book of Mormon. — and the pamphlet throughout is 
largely mis-spelled and poorly punctuated. Rehabilitated and con- 
densed, the story would run about as follows : 

In the reign of the Emperor Gonstantine, a young patrician named 
Fabius. secretary to his imperial majesty, sails from Rome for Britain. 
with an important commission to the commander of his country's 
legions stationed there. After safely traversing the Mediterranean, the 
ship encounters near the British coast a terrific storm, which drives 
her oceanward until she is utterly lost in the midst of the watery 
wilderness. Five days the tempest rages, and the vessel flies west- 
ward before a furious gale. On the sixth day the storm abates. The 
black mists which have hung over the deep, obscuring the lights of 
heaven, are dispelled, and the sun dawns in glory upon a cloudless 
sky. But. no land is in sight: only '-water, water everywhere." Con- 
sternation reigns, and the ship is still driven westward. Finally a 
mariner comforts his fellow castaways by announcing that the 
Almighty has revealed to him that land is not far off. and that gentle 
breezes will soon waft them into a safe harbor and to hospitable 
shores. Five days later the prediction is fulfilled. Land heaves in 
sight, and the storm-beaten ship enters the mouth of a spacious river. 
Sailing up many leagues, it arrives at a town on the river's bank, the 
home of the king and chiefs of a savage nation, upon whose 
domain the outcasts have entered. They are the ''Deliwares," one 
of several tribes or nations inhabiting the land. The Romans are 
kindly received, and conclude to remain. The seven damsels of the 
party select husbands from their male companions, leaving the 
residue to lead lives of celibacy, or choose mates from the ranks of 
the copper-colored maidens of the land. Two years later the white 
colonists leave the country of the "Deliwares," and migrating to the 
north-west, take up their abode among the "Ohons," another native 
tribe vastly more numerous, powerful and civilized. 


The remainder of the story, which is disjointed and incomplete, 
includes a series of philosophic, geographic, and astronomical 
observations by Fabius ; descriptions of the religious teachings and 
traditions of the natives, their social and political customs and an 
elaborate narration of their glorious antecedents. Their great oracle 
and law-giver, a sort of Moses and Hiawatha combined, — though 
there is no allusion to Israel in all the text, — was one Lobaska. an 
illustrious character, a portion of whose biography is given. After 
dwelling upon the manner in which Lobaska united all the tribes or 
kingdoms of the land under one government, gave them their "sacred 
roll"" of religious . tenets, and framed their political constitution, it 
describes their subsequent wars and dissensions, and closes abruptly 
on the eve of a great battle between the hosts of the militant empires 
of " Sciota '* and " Kentuek." 

The latter is by far the best written portion of the narrative, the 
quality of which differs so in places, and descends so often from the 
half sublime to the wholly ridiculous, as to tempt the reader to believe 
that more than one pen was employed in its composition. 

To enable the reader to compare the respective styles in which 
the two books are written, brief selections from each are here 
presented : 


And now it came I" pass after I. Nephi, As no alternative now remained, bul 

had made an end of teaching my brethren, either to make the desperate attempt in re- 

our father, Lehi, also spake many things turn across the wide boistrous ocean or to 

imlo them, how great things the Lord had take up our residence in a country in- 

done lor them, in bringing them mil of the habitedby savages and wild ferocious beasts 

land of Jerusalem. we did not long hesitate. We held a 

Ami he spake unto them concerning their solem treaty with the king & all the chiefs 

rebellions upon the waters, and the mercies of his nation. They agreed In cede in us a 

nf God in sparing their lives, that they were tract of excellent Land mi the north pail of 

nut swallowed up in the sea. Hie town on which was six wigwams. & 

And he also spake unto them concerning engaged perpetual amity & hospitality & the 

the land of promise, which they had ol>- protecti if our lives & property. * * 

tained: how merciful the Lord had been in Bul now a mosl singular & delicate subject 

warning ns that we should flee nut of the presented itself for consideration. Seven 

land nt Jerusalem. young women we had mi board, as passen- 



iii which I know that Jerusalem is destroyed: 
and had we remained in Jerusalem, we 
should also have perished. 

But. said he, notwithstanding our afflic- 
tions, we have obtained a land of promise. 
a land which is choice above all other lands; 
a land which the Lord God hath covenanted 
with me should be a land for the inherit- 
ance of my seed. Yea, the Lord hath cove- 
nanted this land unto me, and to my chil- 
dren for ever ; and also all those who 
should be led out of other countries by the 
hand of the Lord. 

Wherefore, I, Lehi, prophesy according to 
the workings of the Spirit which is in me, 
that there shall none come into this land, 
save they shall be brought by the hand of 
the Lord. 

Wherefore, this land is consecrated unto 
him whom lie shall bring. And if it so be 
that they shall serve him according to the 
commandments which he hath given, it 
shall be a land of liberty unto them ; where- 
fore, they shall never be brought down into 
captivity ; if so, it shall be because of in- 
iquity : for if iniquity shall abound, cursed 
shall be the land for their sakes ; but unto 
the righteous it shall be blessed for ever. 


Britain — Three of them were ladies of 
rank, and the rest were healthy bucksom 
Lasses. — Whilst deliberating upon this sub- 
ject a mariner arose whom we called droll 
Tom — Hark ye shipmates says he, Whilst 
tossed on the foming billows what brave 
son of neptune had any more regard for a 
woman than a sturgeon, but now we 
are all safely anchored on Terra firma — 
our sails furled & ship keeled up. I have 
a huge longing for some of those rosy 
dames — But willing to take my chance with 
my shipmates — I propose thai they should 
make their choice of husbands. The plan 
was instantly adopted. * * * The Capt. 
A; myself, attended with our fair partners & 
two mariners repaired to a new habitation 
which consisted of two convenient apart- 
ments. After having partook of an elligant 
Dinner & drank a bottle of excellent wine 
our spirits were exhOerated & the deepgloom 
which beclouded our minds evaporated. 
The Capt. assuming his wonted cheerfulness 
made the following address. My sweet good 
soaled fellows we have now commenced a 
new voige — Not such as brot us over moun- 
tain billows to this butt end of Hie world. 
No, no, our voyge is on dry land & now 
we must lake care that we have sufficient 
ballast for the riging — every hand on board 
this ship must clasp hands and condescend to 
each others humour, this will pro-good cheer 
and smooth the raging billows of life. Sur- 
rounded by innumerable hords of human 
lieiir_;s. who resemble in manners the 
Ourang Outang — let us keep aloof from 
them & not embark in (lie same matrimon- 
ial ship (with them). At the same time we 
will treat them with good cheer & enlighten 
their dark souls with good instruction. By 
continuing a distinct people & preserving 
mil customs, manners, religion & arts and 
sciences another Italy will grow up in this 
wilderness .V we shall he celebrated as the 
Fathers of a great & happy nation. 



And it came to pass thai Lib did pursue 
him until he came to the plains of Agosh, 

Ami Coriantumr had taken all the | pie 

with him, as he fled before Lib in that 
quarter of the land whither he fled. 

And when tie had come to the plains of 
Agosh, he gave battle unto Lib, and he 
smote upon him until he died ; nevertheless, 
the brother of Lib did come against Corian- 
tumr in the stead thereof, and the battle 
became exceeding sore, in the which Co- 
riantumr fled again before the army of the 
brother of Lib. 

Now the name of the brother of Lib was 
called Shiz. And it came to pass that Shiz 
pursued after Coriantumr, and lie did over- 
throw many cities, and he did slay both 
women and children, and he did burn the 
cities thereof, 

And there went a fear of Shiz throughout 
all the land: yea. a cry went forth through- 
out the land, who can stand before the army 
of Shiz? Behold he sweepeth the earth 
before him ! 

And il came to pass that the people began 
to flock together in armies, throughout all 
the lace of the land. 

And they were divided, and a part of 
them fled to the army of Shiz. and a part 
of them fled to the army of Coriantumr. 

And so great and lasting had been the 
war. and SO long had been the scene of 
bloodshed and carnage, thai the whole lace 
of the land was covered with the bodies of 

the dead : 

And so swill and speedy was Ihe war, 

thai there was uone left to bury (be dead, 
bm they did march forth from the shedding 
of bl I to the shedding of blood, leaving 

Ihe bodies of both men. women, and chil- 
dren. Strewed upon the lace of the land. In 
become a prey In the wnnns of Ihe llesh : 

And ihe scenl thereof wenl forth upon 
the face of ihe land, even upon all the face 

of the land: wherefore ,ple aine 

troubled by day and hv [light, because of ihe 

scent thereof: 

Determined to conquer or die. it was 

would have gained Ihe victory had Ihe di- 
visions or bands in the rear of each army 
remained inactive. Bui anxious lo engage 
with the boldest warriors. Ihe Keninck- 
Bands, led on by their heroic princes, rushed 
between Ihe division of the grand arm) & 
made a nmsl furious charge upon Ihe Scio- 
tans — They broke thro' their Ranks — polic- 
ing with deadly wounds their indignanl 
foes — heroes fell before I hem — & many of 
ihe Sciotans being strnck with sin-prise & 
terror began to retire back — But Ihe hands 
in the rear of their army instantly rushed 
fin waul & met their furious combatants — 
The battle was now spread in every direc- 
tion. Many valiant chiefs who commanded 
under their respective Kings were over- 
thrown — & many thousand robust A brave 
warriors, whose names were not dis- 
linguislied by office, were compeled lo 
receive deadly wounds & lo bite the dust. 
— It was Elseon fortune to attack the 
division led by the valiant HainolT — He 
broke his ranks A killed many warriors — 
while driving them furiously before him — 
he met Hamkol al the head "I' many 
thousand Sciotans— Hamkol beheld the 
young Prince A knew him .V being fired 
with 'the greatesl rage & thirsl lor revenge, 
he urged on Ihe combat with the most 
daring violence Now he Ihot. was a 
favorable chalice lo gain immortal renown 
— Elseon says he shall feel the effects of m\ 
Conquering sword — The warriors on both 
side charged each other with incredible fury 
— & Elseon & Hamkol mel in the center of 
their divisions— 1 have found you says 
Hamkol perliduous i ster— 1 will leach 


Hi. hi I 





rtheless, Shi/, did nol cease to pur- quick as the lightning Elseon darted his 
iantumr, for he had sworn to avenge sword thro 1 his heart — \_IInmkor\ knashed 
upon Coriantumr of the blood oi his teeth together & \yoith a groari] tumb- 
ling, who had been slain, and the ling headlong with a groan expired. — 
r the Lord which came to Ether, 
iriantumr should no1 fall by the 

A portion of Christ's prophecy to the Nephrites, concerning the 
gathering of Israel and the destiny of the Lamanites in the last 
days, is also here given: 


Ami. verily, I say unto you, I give unto you a sign, that ye may know the time 
when these things shall be about to take place, that I shall gather in from their lung 
dispersion, my people, house of Israel, and shall establish again among them my Zion. 

Therefore when these works, and the works which shall be wrought among you 
hereafter, shall come forth from the Gentiles, unto your seed, which shall dwindle ill 
unbelief because of iniquity; 

For thus il behoveth the Father thai it should come forth from the Gentiles, that he 
may show forth his power unto the Gentiles, for this cause, that the Gentiles, if they will 
not harden their hearts, that they may repent and come unto me. and he baptized in my 
name, and know of the true points of my doctrine, that they may be numbered among 
my people, house of Israel: 

And when these things come to pass, that thy seed shall begin to know these things, 
il shall be a sign unto them, that they may know that the work of the Father hath already 
commenced unto the fulfilling of the covenant which he hath made unto the people who 
are of the house of Israel. 

And when that day shall come, it shall come to pass that kings shall shut their 
mouths; lor thai which had nol been told them shall they see: and that which they had 
nol heard shall they consider. 

For in that day. for my sake shall the Father work a work, which shall he a greal 
and marvellous work among them: and there shall he among them who will not believe 
it. although a man shall declare il unto them. 

Bui behold, the life of my servant shall he in my hand: therefore they shall not 
hurl him. although he shall he marred because of them. Vet I will heal him. lor I will 
shew unto them thai my wisdom is greater than the cunning of the devil. 

Therefore il shall cane to pass, that whosoever will not believe in my words, who 

am JesUS Christ, whom the Father shall cause him lo bring forth unto the Gentiles, and 

shall give i him power that he shall bring them forth unto the Gentiles, (it shall he 

done even as Moses said.) they shall he cut oil' from among my people who are of the 



Ami my people who are a remnant of Jacob, shall be among the Gentiles, yea. in the 
midst of them as a lion among the beasts of the forest, as a young lion among the flocks 
of sheep, who. if he go through both treadeth down and teareth in pieces, and none can 

Their hand shall be lifted up upon their adversaries, and all their enemies shall be 
cut off. 

Yea, wo he unto the Gentiles, except they repent, for it shall come to pass in that 
day. saith the Father, that I will cut off lhy horses out of the midst of thee, and I will 
destroy thy chariots. 

## * * ■ # # * # * 

And 1 will execute vengeance and fury upon them, even as upon the heathen, such 
as they have not heard. 

But if they will repent, and hearken unto my words, and harden not their hearts, I 
will establish my church among them, and they shall come in unto the covenant, and he 
numbered among this the remnant of Jacob, unto whom 1 have given this land for their 

And they shall assist my people, the remnant of Jacob, and also, as many of the 
house of Israel as shall come, that they may build a city, which shall lie called the New 
Jerusalem ; 

And then shall they assist my people that they may lie gathered in. who are scattered 
upon all the face of the land, in unto the New 7 Jerusalem. 

And then shall the power of heaven come down among them: and I also will he in 
the midst: 

And then shall the work of the Father commence at tliat day. even when this gospel 
shall be preached among the remnant of this people. Verily I say unto you, at that day 
shall the work of the Father commence among all the dispersed of my people; yea. even 
the tribes which have been lost, which the Father hath led away out of Jerusalem. 

Yea, tin-' work shall commence among all the dispersed of my people, with the 
Father, to prepare the way whereby they may come unto me. that they may call on the 
Father in my name. 

In a little work called "The Myth of the Manuscript Found,"* 
by Elder George Reynolds of Salt Lake City, the arguments pro and 
con upon the question of the alleged identity of the Book of Mor- 
mon and the Spaulding romance, are clearly and intelligently set 
forth. Mr. Reynolds, being a believer in the Book of Mormon, 
devotes himself to the task of puncturing and shattering the 
Hurlburt-Howe hypothesis, but Ibis does not prevent him from doing- 
justice to the other side in the controversy, by stating fully and 
fairly the position that he assails. 

* "Manuscript Found" is the more generally known title of the Spaulding tale. 


President James H. Fairchild, in the New York Observer of 
February 5th, 1885, speaking of the discovery by Mr. Rice of the 
Spaulding romance, says : " The theory of the origin of the Book of 
Mormon in the traditional manuscript of Solomon Spaulding will 
probably have to be relinquished. * * * Mr. Rice, myself 
and others compared it (the Spaulding manuscript) with the Book of 
Mormon, and could detect no resemblance between the two. in general 
or detail. There seems to be no name nor incident common to the 
two. The solemn style of the Book of Mormon, in imitation of the 
English Scriptures, does not appear m the manuscript. :;: * * 
Some other explanation of the origin of the Book of Mormon must 
be found, if any explanation is required." 

Here we take leave of the subject. Up to the present time — 
1892 — the Book of Mormon has passed through no less than thirty 
American and English editions, aggregating many tens of thousands 
of volumes, scattered broadcast upon both hemispheres. It has been 
translated and published in eleven foreign vernaculars, namely : 
English, Welsh. French. Spanish. Italian. German. Dutch. Danish. 
Swedish. Hawaiian and Maori. — including, as seen, all the leading 
languages of modern times. It has also been translated, but not 
published, in Hindoostanee and the Jewish. A Russian translation. 
unauthorized, is likewise reported to have passed through the press. 





Organization of the church of jesus christ of latter-day saints — the doctrine of 

common consent oliver cowdery the first public preacher of mormonism newel 

knight the first conference of the church the elders at colesville joseph 

smith arrested for ''preaching the book of mormon'" his trial and acquittal 

at south bainbridge re-arrested and tried at colesville another failure to 

convict return to pennsylvania a* schism threatening the church revival of 

opposition at harmony the prophet removes with his family to fayette the 

schism averted a mission to the lamanites announced. 

1g) ESUMING from the spring of 1830 the thread of our his- 
-■■T torical narrative. On the 6th of April of that year, at the 
town of Fayette, Seneca County, New York, was organized the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Mormonism at thai 
time had two score or more disciples, — persons who had embraced 
its principles and been baptized. Only six of these, however. — no 
less than that number being required by law to form a religious 
society, — participated in the organization. They were Joseph Smith, 
junior, Oliver Cowdery, Hyrum Smith, Peter Whitmer. junior. Samuel 
H. Smith and David Whitmer. Other believers were present at this 
initial meeting, which was held at the house of Peter Whitmer. 

From the first the doctrine of common consent was practically 
exemplified in all the meetings and deliberations of the Latter-day 
Saints: the right of the people to a voice in the selection of their 
leaders, and in the establishment of the laws which govern them, 
being a cardinal principle of their religious, no less than of their 
political faith. Accordingly, in this instance. Joseph Smith and 
Oliver Cowdery, who were to be the first and second Elders of the 
Church, prior to ordaining each other or proceeding at all with the 


organization, called upon the disciples present to manifest whether 
or not they would accept them as their spiritual teachers, and were 
willing to be organized as a religious body. Unanimous consent 
being given, the purpose of the meeting was effected. Joseph 
first laid hands upon Oliver and ordained him an Elder in 
the Church of Christ. Oliver then ordained Joseph in like manner. 
The sacrament of the Lord's supper was administered to those 
who had been baptized, and they were then confirmed members of 
the Church by the laying on of the Elders' hands. Others of the 
brethren — for the Saints were thenceforth to each other "brethren 
and sisters" — were likewise ordained to various offices in the Priest- 
hood. While together on this occasion, the Prophet voiced to his 
flock the following revelation : :;: 

Behold there shall be a record kept among you, and in it thou shalt be called a seer, 
a translator, a prophet, an apostle of Jesus Christ, an elder of the church through the will 
of God the Father, and the grace of your Lord Jesus Christ. 

Being inspired of the Holy Ghost to lay the foundation thereof, and to build it up 
unto the most holy faith, 

Which church was organized and established in the year of your Lord eighteen hun- 
dred and thirty, in the fourth month, and on the sixth day of the month, which is called 

Wherefore, meaning the church, thou shalt give heed unto all his winds and com- 
mandments which he shall give unto you as he receiveth them, walking in all holiness 
before me; 

For his word ye shall receive, as if from mine own mouth, in all patience and faith; 

For by doing these things the gates of hell shall not prevail against you; yea. and 
the Lord God will disperse the powers of darkness from before you, and cause the 
heavens In shake for your good, and his name's glory. 

For thus saith the Lord God, him have I inspired to move the cause of Zion in 
might] power for good, and his diligence 1 know, and his prayers I have heard. 

Yea his weeping for Zion I have seen, and I will cause thai he shall mourn for her 
no longer, lor his days of rejoicing are come unto the remission of his sins, and tin- man- 
ifestations of mj blessings upon bis works. 

For, behold, I will bless all those who labor in my vineyard with a mighty blessing. 
ami the] shall believe on his words, which are given him through me by the Comforter, 
which iiianifestelh that Jesus was crucified by sinful men for the sins of the world, yea. 
for the- remission of sins unto the contrite heart. 

Doctrine and Covenants, Section xxi. 


Wherefore it behoveth me that he should be ordained by you. Oliver Cowdery, 
mine apostle ; 

This being an ordinance unto you. that you arc an elder under his hand, he being 
the first unto you, that you might be an elder unto this church of Christ, bearing my 


And the first preacher of this church unto the church, and before the world, yea, 
before the Gentiles: yea. and thus saith the Lord God, lo. lo! to the Jews also. Amen. 

Thus was founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints. Thus arose, as a system, what the world terms Mormon- 
ism. — universally regarded as the most remarkable religious move- 
ment of modern times ; detested and denounced throughout Christ- 
endom as a dangerous and soul-destroying imposture, but revered 
and defended by its disciples as the wonderful work of the Almighty, 
the veritable "marvelous work and wonder" foretold by Isaiah and 
other ancient seers, which was to prepare the world, by the preach- 
ing of a restored gospel and the founding of a latter-day Zion for 
Messiah's second coming and the advent of the Millennium. 

Five days after the organization — Sunday. April 11th — at the 
house of Peter Whitmer, in Fayette, Oliver Cowdery preached the 
first public sermon delivered by a Mormon Elder. Many persons 
were present besides the Saints. The seed sown took instant root, 
and that day several more were added to the Church. 

The following paragraphs of a revelation recorded about 
this time will give some idea of the Church government and 
discipline :* 

The duty of the elders, priests, teachers, deacons, and members of the church of 
Christ. — An apostle is an elder, and it is his calling to baptize, 

And to ordain other elders, priests, teachers, and deacons, 

And lo administer bread and wine — the emblems of the flesh and blood of Christ — 

And to confirm those who are baptized into the church, by the laying on of hands for 
the baptism of fire and the Holy Ghost, according to the scriptures; 

Ami lo leach, expound, exhort, baptize, ami watch over Hie elnnrli ; 

And to confirm the church by the laying on of hands, and the giving of the Holy 

And lo lake the lead of all meetings. 

* Doctrine and Covenants. Sec. xx.. 38-59; 


The elders are to conduct the meetings as they are led by the Holy Ghost, according 
to the commandments and revelations of God. 

The priest's duty is to preach, teach, expound, exhort, and baptize, and administer the 

And visit the house of each member, and exhort them to pray vocally and in secret 
and attend to all family duties; 

And he may also ordain other priests, teachers, and deacons. 

And he is to take the lead of meetings when there is no elder present ; 

But when there is an elder present, he is only to preach, teach, expound, exhort, and 

And visit the house of each member, exhorting them to pray vocally and in secret, 
and attend to all family duties. 

In all these duties the priest is to assist the elder if occasion requires. 

The teacher's duty is to watch over the church always, and be with and strengthen 

And see that there is no iniquity in the church — neither hardness with each other — 
neither lying, backbiting, nor evil speaking ; 

And see that the church meet together often, and also see that all the members do 
their duty. 

And he is to take the lead of meetings in the absence of the elder or priest — 

And is to be assisted always, in all his duties in the church, by the deacons, if occa- 
sion requires ; 

But neither teachers nor deacons have authority to baptize, administer the sacrament, 
or lay on hands : 

They are. however, to warn, expound, exhort, and teach and invite all to come unto 

During the month of April the Prophet visited Colesville, the 
home of Joseph Knight, who had ministered to his necessities on a 
former occasion. Mr. Knight and several members of his family 
were Universalists. At his home the Prophet held several meetings, 
which subsequently bore fruit in the baptism of many. The first 
miracle recorded in the Church, — for it was a gospel of "signs" 
following the believer, as in days of old. that was being preached by 
the Elders, — is accredited to Joseph Smith during tbis visit. It 
was the casting out of Satan from the person of Newel, son of 
Joseph Knight. Newel was baptized at Fayette in the latter part of 
May. Martin Harris, Joseph Smith, senior, Lucy Smith. Orrin Porter 
Rockwell and other historic names, by this time had also been added 
to the Church roll of membership. 

The first conference of the organized Church convened at 


Fayette on the first day of June. Thirty members were present on 
the opening day, besides many others who were investigating tbe 
new faith. More baptisms followed, more Elders, Priests, Teachers 
and Deacons were ordained, and Mormonism began spreading rapidly. 
As a matter of course it encountered opposition, much excitement 
at times prevailing over the preaching of its strange doctrines and 
the exercise of its novel " gifts," and its disciples suffered more or 
less petty persecution. Still it spread. The smoking flax was every- 
where bursting into flame, and all efforts to quench it proved 

Again visiting his borne in Pennsylvania, Joseph returned 
bringing his wife, and in company with her and three Elders repaired 
to Colesville. There they found many awaiting baptism. It was 
Saturday, and the Elders constructed a dam in a stream, which they 
designed using next day for baptizing. That night a party of men, 
instigated it was believed by ministers of other denominations, tore 
away the dam, thus preventing the Elders from executing their 
purpose on the Sabbath. Early Monday morning, however, before 
their opponents could assemble in sufficient force to prevent, they 
reconstructed their dam, and Oliver Cowdery, entering the water, 
immersed thirteen converts to the faith ; Emma Smith, the Prophet's 
wife, being one of the number. 

Fierce was the anger of their foes when they learned whal had 
taken place. Fifty strong they surrounded the house of Joseph 
Knight, to which the Elders had retired, foaming with rage and 
threatening violence. But Joseph Smith was no coward : neither a 
physical weakling. Calmly confronting the mob he btrove, though 
in vain, to pacify them. Finally they withdrew to malhre their 
plans, and the Elders, deeming it prudent, departed also, g^ing QOW 
to the house of Newel Knight. 

That evening, just as they were about to confirm their 
converts, a constable appeared upon the scene and arrested the 
Prophet on the charge of being a disorderly person, for preaching 
the Book of Mormon and setting the country in an uproar. The 


officer, however, became friendly and informed Joseph that some 
men were in ambush, not far away, whose purpose was to get 
him into their power and maltreat him. He added that he was 
determined to defend him at all hazards. The statement proved 
true. A crowd of men surrounded the wagon in which the con- 
stable drove away with the Prophet, and would undoubtedly have 
taken him from custody had not the officer plied his whip, given 
his horse full rein and left them far behind. The two drove on 
rapidly to South Bainbridge, in Chenango County, where they put 
up at a tavern. The constable permitted his prisoner to occupy 
the bed in their room, while he slept with his feet against the 
door and a loaded musket at his side, ready to defend him against 

At the trial, next day, various charges were preferred against 
the Prophet. Some of them were of a very frivolous character. 
For instance, he was accused of obtaining from Josiah Stoal, his 
former employer, a horse, and from one Jonathan Thompson a yoke 
of oxen, by telling them that he had received revelations that he was 
to have them. Messrs. Stoal and Thompson, taking the witness 
stand, testified in the prisoners favor, and he was promptly 
acquitted. On leaving the court-room, however, he was re-arrested 
on a warrant from Broome County, and taken back to Colesville for 
trial. This time he was in the custody of an officer who treated him 
with great harshness; subjecting him to the insults of the rabble, 
refusing him for many hours any refreshment, and finally allowing 
him for his supper only a diet of bread-crusts and water. 

At the Colesville trial Newel Knight was put upon the stand and 
made to testify concerning the miracle reported to have been per- 
formed upon him. 

" Did the prisoner, Joseph Smith, junior, cast the devil out of 
you?" asked the prosecuting attorney of the witness. 

"No, sir." replied Mr. Knight. 

"Why. have not you had the devil cast out of you .'" 

"Yes, sir." 

G^W^i- Q^n^n-C 


•'And had not Joe Smith some hand in its being done?" 

"Yes, sir." 

"And did not he cast him out of you ? " 

" No, sir. It was done by the power of C4od. and Joseph Smith 
was the instrument in the hands of God on the occasion. He com- 
manded him out of me in the name of Jesus Christ." 

" And are you sure that it was the devil ? *' 

•• Yes. sir." 

" Did you see him after he was cast out of you ? " 

•• Yes, sir; I saw him." 

" Pray, what did he look like '? " 

Here the prisoner's counsel informed the witness that he need 
not answer the question. Mr. Knight, however, replied : 

" I believe I need not answer your last question, but I will do it 
provided I be allowed to ask you one question first, and you answer 
me. namely : Do you, Mr. Seymour, understand the things of the 
spirit ? " 

" No," answered Mr. Seymour. "I do not pretend to such big- 

" Well then," rejoined Knight, " it would be of no use to tell 
you what the devil looked like, for it was a spiritual sight, and spir- 
itually discerned ; and of course you would not understand it were I 
to tell you of it." 

A roar of laughter, at the lawyer's expense, shook the court- 
room. Mr. Seymour then arose and addressing the court paid his 
respects in no gentle terms to the prisoner. Among other things 
he repeated the story of his having been a "money-digger." The 
defendant, however, was not on trial for money digging, and his 
counsel having returned the forensic fire of the prosecution, he was 
again set at liberty. 

In the breasts of many, hitherto hostile, a revulsion of feeling 
now took place. Even the officer who had treated the prisoner so 
harshly came forward and apologized for his conduct, and offered to 
help him evade a mob that had assembled outside the court-room, to 


" tar and feather" the Prophet and ride him on a rail. Taking 
advantage of this opportunity to escape, Joseph, rejoining his anx- 
ious wife, returned with her to Pennsylvania. 

A few days later Joseph and Oliver revisited Colesville for the 
purpose of confirming their converts ; but the mob, again gathering, 
compelled them to forego their purpose and beat a hasty retreat, 
hotly pursued by the belligerent multitude. A subsequent visit was 
more successful. The inciters of this opposition were said to be 
prominent Presbyterians. 

At his home in Harmony the Prophet now devoted some 
time to making a record of and arranging in their proper order the 
revelations he had from time to time delivered. At first Oliver Cow- 
dery assisted him, but he soon departed for Fayette, and Emma 
Smith then acted as a scribe to her husband. 

Hitherto the relations between Joseph and Oliver seem to have 
been of the most friendly character. Mutually helpful, — Oliver to 
Joseph by means of a better education, and Joseph to Oliver by 
reason of superior intelligence and strength of character, — they were 
congenial in spirit and united in purpose. The first intimation 
of a change of heart in Oliver was contained in a letter from him 
to the Prophet, calling in question certain words of one of the 
revelations, and demanding that they be changed. The First Elder 
replied to the Second that the revelation came from God, and must 
stand as it had been delivered until God should change it. A per- 
sonal visit to Fayette followed, where Joseph found that some of 
the Whitmer family were in sympathy with Oliver. It required 
much pleading and persuasion on the part of the Prophet to finally 
convince them that they were in error. Even then the breach was 
closed only to be soon re-opened. 

During August the persecutive spirit revived at Harmony, where 
the Methodists now conspired to create trouble for the hated founder 
of the rapidly growing rival Church. The influence brought to 
bear was such as to alienate from Joseph the friendship of his father- 
in-law, Isaac Hale, who joined the ranks of his opponents and 


became his bitter and relentless foe. Life at Harmony for Joseph 
and Emma, was now rendered intolerable. He therefore accepted a 
second invitation from the Whitmers to remove to Fayette, this time 
with his family, and take up his abode in their domicile. He arrived 
there during the last week in August. 

Again, to his surprise and sorrow, the Prophet found the spirit 
of dissension among his followers. The trouble this time was 
over a certain stone in the possession of Hiram Page, one of the 
eight witnesses. From this stone, it was claimed, sundry mys- 
terious communications had been received, of a tenor and purport at 
variance with revelations already on record. These communications 
Joseph pronounced spurious, but Elder Cowdery and some of the 
Whitmers still placed reliance in them. The Prophet then spoke to 
them in the name of the Lord. Oliver was reminded that while he 
was as Aaron to Israel — a spokesman to the Prophet — Joseph was 
as Moses, the mouthpiece of the Almighty. He alone had the right 
to voice revelations to the Church for its guidance. Oliver was 
required to use his influence with Hiram Page to induce him to dis- 
card the stone — the apple of discord — and was informed of an 
important mission in store for him, a mission to the Lamanites, 
upon which he should set out as soon as the differences then agitat- 
ing the Church had been settled. Allusion was made in this revela- 
tion to a certain "city" that was to be built "on the borders by the 

Subsequently, at a conference held early in September, Hiram 
Page and his associates renounced the stone and "all things con- 
nected therewith," and in common with the whole Church renewed 
their covenant of fealty to Joseph, as its supreme prophet, seer and 
revelator. Thus was "the imminent deadly breach" closed, and 
what threatened to be for Mormonism. in its infancy, a serious it not 
a fatal wound, healed. Immediately afterward preparations went for- 
ward for the departure of the mission to the Lamanites. 













HE significance of the missionary movement inaugurated by 
the Prophet, in sending forth Elders to evangelize the 
American Indians and distribute among the dusky tribes 
copies of the Book of Mormon, is only to be fully comprehended by 
those who have made careful study of the contents of that record, 
and of the various revelations voiced to the world by Joseph Smith. 
Indeed, the only key to the real history of Mormonism, from 
Cumorah to Carthage, and from Carthage to Deseret, is a knowledge 
of the aims and motives of its founders and disciples, as learned 
from their own lips or reflected from the pages of the records 
esteemed by them divine. Neither the enemies of a people, nor the 
disinterested, uninitiated observers of that people, however fair and 
honest, are trustworthy oracles and reliable exponents of their views 
and doctrines. Methodism, Catholicism, Mormonism, or any other 
ism. in order to be properly understood, must be permitted, like Paul 
before Agrippa, to speak for itself. In this light let us take a brief 
general glance at Mormonism. 

First of all it must be borne in mind, as a basic fact, upon 
which to found all further argument or theory in relation to the 


Saints and their religion, that they sincerely believe themselves 
to be literally of the blood of Israel; children of Abraham, Isaac 
and Jacob, — mostly of Joseph through the lineage of Ephraim. The 
loss of their tribal identity, and their scattered state among the 
nations, — whence the gospel, they say, has. begun to gather them, — 
is explained to them by the scriptures, which declare that Ephraim 
hath "mixed himself with the people ;" that is, with other nations, 
presumably from the days of the Assyrian captivity. They believe, 
moreover, that in this age, ''the dispensation of the fullness of 
times. "" — a figurative spiritual ocean, into which all past dispensations 
of divine power and authority like rills and rivers run. — it is the 
purpose of Jehovah, the God of Israel, to gather His scattered people 
from their long dispersion among the nations, and weld in one vast 
chain the broken links of the fated house of Abraham. They quote 
from Jeremiah: "Hear the word of the Lord, ye nations, and 
declare it in the isles afar off, and say, He that scattered Israel will 
gather him. and keep him as a shepherd doth his flock."" This gath- 
ering of Israel, they claim, is a step preparatory to the ''gathering 
together in one" of "all things in Christ," both in heaven and on 
earth, as spoken of by Paul the Apostle. Mormonism. to its disci- 
ples, is no more nor less than primitive Christianity restored ; and 
Christianity in its primitive state, unpaganized, unapostate, no more 
nor less than the restored religion of Adam, Enoch, Noah, Mel- 
chisedek. Abraham, Moses and other ancient worthies who received 
the same from God, successively, all down the dispensations. 

Israel's gathering in the " last days," — the closing period of our 
planet's mortal probation, — is a cardinal doctrine with the Latter- 
day Saints, accounting as it does for their world-wide proselytism, 
the wanderings abroad of their Apostles and Elders in quest of the 
seed of Ephraim, their fellows, and their migrations from the ends of 
the earth to the American continent, believed by them to be the 
land of Zion.* Upon this land, winch they hold to be the inherit- 

: Tli is in a ucnt'ial sense; speeilieally their " land of Zion " is Jackson County, ML 



ance of Joseph, — given him by the Almighty in the blessings of Jacob 
and Moses,* and occupied for ages by his descendants, the Nephites 
and Lamanites. — is to arise the latter-day Zion,- New Jerusalem, 
concerning which so many of the prophet-poets of antiquity have 
sung. It was for this purpose, say the Saints, that the land 
was held in reserve, hidden for ages behind Atlantic's waves — the 
wall of waters over which, in Lehi and his colony, climbed Joseph's 
-fruitful bough." Next came the Gentiles, with Columbus in their 
van, to unveil the hidden hemisphere ; then a Washington, a Jeffer- 
son and other heaven-inspired patriots to win and maintain the 
liberty of the land, — a land destined to be "free from bondage." 
And all this that Zion might here be established, and the Lord's 
latter-day work founded and fostered on Columbia's chosen soil. 
Yes. these Latter-day Saints, — false and fanatical as the view may 
seem to most, — actually believe that the greatest and most liberal of 
earthly governments, that of the United States, was founded for the 
express purpose of favoring the growth of what the world terms 

Ephraim and Manasseh, the half tribes of Joseph, are to com- 
bine for the up-building of Zion, which is to become, in due time, 
" the joy of the whole earth." the glorious head and front of the 
world's civilization. ••And the Gentiles shall come to thy light, and 
kings to the brightness of thy rising." Much of the seed of Ephraim 
is mixed with the Gentiles; therefore is he to be gathered from 
among them. Manasseh is largely to be found among the Laman- 
ites. the American Indians, and the dark-hued dwellers of the neigh- 
boring ocean islands. Though cursed of God and smitten by the 
Gentiles, the red men are yet to be reclaimed and the curse lifted 
from off them. Then will they become ''white and delightsome," 
as of yore. ^The Book of Mormon and its believers declare that 
these Lamanites — Manasseh — will yet build the Zion of God, the 
Jerusalem of America, in which work they will lie .joined — some say 

* Genesis xlix: 22-26. Deuteronomy xxxiii: 13-17. 


assisted, some directed — by. the Latter-day Saints, the children of 

But the gathering of Israel is to include the whole house of 
Jacob ; not merely the half tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh. It 
involves the restoration of the Jews and the. re-building of old Jeru- 
salem, prior to the acceptance by Judah of the gospel and mission 
of the crucified Messiah: also the return of the lost Ten Tribes 
from '" the north country" and their re-establishment in Palestine, 
their ancient Canaan. 

The preliminary work of founding Zion. as well as a greater 
spiritual mission to follow, when the Ten Tribes from the north will 
receive in Zion their blessings under his hands, devolves upon 
Ephraim. the "first-born," empowered by a restored gospel and 
priesthood unto this very end and purpose. Hence, say the Sain Is. 
the mission and calling of Joseph Smith, the Prophet of Ephraim, who 
claimed to be a lineal descendant of Joseph who was sold into Egypt. 

Again, the message borne by Ephraim in the last days, reversing 
the order of ancient-day evangelism, is first to the Gentiles, and then, 
when "the fullness of the Gentiles" has "come in," to the whole 
house of Israel. Perhaps it was a type, designed to foreshadow the 
anticipated fulfillment, this sending of the Elders, in the fall of 1830, 
after several months proselyting among the Gentiles of New York 
and Pennsylvania, to Lamanitish Israel, mostly inhabiting the wilder- 
ness beyond the nation's western frontier. The mission of these 
Elders was to preach the Gospel to the red men, as contained in the 
Bible and the Book of Mormon, — the sticks of Judah and of Joseph 
now •' in the hand of Ephraim." — * deliver to them the record of 
their forefathers, and inasmuch as they received their teachings to 
establish the Church of Christ among them. In other words, to pre- 
pare Manasseh for his part of the work of building up Zion. Such, 
from a Mormon standpoint, was the significance of that Lamanite 
mission, and such in general is the Mormon view of Mormonism. 

Ezekiel xxxvn : in 


The Elders chosen for this service were Oliver Cowdery, Peter 
Whitmer, junior, Parley P. Pratt and Ziba Peterson. 

A word here in relation to Parley P. Pratt, the future poet- 
Apostle of Mormonism, whose personal history interweaves at this 
point with several important events of that period. He was a native 
of the state of New York, and was now in his twenty-fourth year. 
Prior to his baptism by Oliver Cowdery in Seneca Lake about the 
1st of September, 1830, he had been connected with a religious 
society called Reformed Baptists, or Campbellites, which he had 
joined two years before in the wilds of northern Ohio. In fact 
he had been a preacher of the Campbellites, who numbered among 
their leading men Alexander Campbell, the founder of the sect, and 
Sidney Rigdon. the latter, like Parley, an eloquent and gifted 
expounder of the scriptures. The magnet which had drawn Parley 
into the Campbellite fold was the scriptural nature of their doctrines, 
which included not only faith, repentance and baptism by immersion, 
— which, as a good Baptist, he believed in already, — but baptism for 
the remission of sins and the promise of the Holy Ghost, tenets not 
taught by the orthodox sects of Christendom. These doctrines had 
been preached by Sidney Rigdon in Parley's neighborhood : he being 
then a colonizer on the shores of Lake Erie. Soon after embracing 
the Campbellite faith, in August, 1830, he resolved to devote himself 
entirely to the work of the ministry. Selling out at a sacrifice, and 
abandoning his home in the wilderness, he traveled eastward to his 
native state; his young wife, nee Thankful Halsey, accompanying 
him. Near the city of Rochester, leaving his wife to pursue the 
journey homeward, Parley felt impelled to stop and preach, and 
walked ten miles into the country for that purpose. There, at the 
house of an old Baptist deacon named Hamlin, he first heard of and 
first saw the Book of Mormon. Deeply interested in its perusal. — 
particularly in that part descriptive of the personal ministry of the 
Savior to the Nephites, — he decided to visit the young man who 
claimed to have translated the record from plates of gold. Arriving 
at Manchester, the parental home of the Smiths, he learned that 

tfL-L #<&&- 


the Prophet was then living in Pennsylvania. He met Hyrum 
Smith, however, who entertained him kindly, presented him with a 
copy of the Book of Mormon and subsequently accompanied him to 
Fayette. There, being fully converted to the new faith, he was bap- 
tized, as stated, confirmed and ordained an Elder. He then revisited 
his old home in Canaan, Columbia County, where he converted and 
baptized his brother Orson, then a youth of nineteen years; destined 
like himself to achieve fame as a Mormon Apostle, and as one of the 
pioneer founders of Utah. Returning westward, Parley met for the 
first time Joseph Smith, who had returned from Pennsylvania and 
was visiting his parents at Manchester. Soon afterward, being 
called to accompany Elders Cowdery, Whitmer and Peterson upon 
their mission, he set out for the land of the Lamanites. 

It was late in October, 1830, that the four Elders departed for 
the west. As was customary then with itinerants, unable to 
afford a nag or vehicle, or to pay coach and steamboat fares, they 
started afoot, husbanding their scanty means and trusting in Provi- 
dence to "'open up the way." They first visited the Catteraugus 
Indians, near Buffalo, New York. By them they were kindly 
received, much interest being manifested by the red men in the 
strange things told them by the Elders. Presenting them with copies 
of the Book of Mormon, for the perusal of such of the Indians as 
could read, the missionaries bade them farewell and continued their 
journey westward. 

The scene now changes to northern Ohio, a region at that time 
almost if not quite a wilderness, in the midst of which, among the 
hills and dales and glens and groves and streams that beautify the 
shores and give back the echoing music of Erie's rolling waves, not 
only these Mormon Elders, — who were merely the vanguard of a 
general migratory movement haying westward as its watchword and 
religion as its guiding star. — but Mormonism itself, their parent 
church, was destined soon to plant its pilgrim feet. 

Kirtland, a few miles inland from Lake Erie, was a picturesque 
and flourishing little town of one or two thousand inhabitants, doing 


business across the lakes with the fur-trapping regions of Michigan 
and some of the principal cities of the east. The leading "store'' of 
the town, and indeed in all that region, was owned and conducted 
by Messrs. Gilbert and Whitney, who had formerly been in business 
at Painesville. 

In this vicinity the Campbellites, or Disciples, as they called 
themselves, had made many converts. Among those now associated 
with them were Edward Partridge, of Painesville, and Newel K. 
Whitney, of Kirtland. both merchants. — the former a native of Pitts- 
field. Berkshire County. Massachusetts, and the latter of Marlborough, 
Windham County, Vermont. Like Parley P. Pratt, these men, who 
became the first two Bishops of the Mormon Church, were converts 
in the Campbellite faith of Sidney Rigdon's. 

The prominent part played by this notable man in the affairs of 
Mormonism entitles his past record to some mention. Sidney Bigdon 
was born in St. Clair Township. Allegheny County. Pennsylvania, on 
the 19th of February, 1793. Connecting himself in his twenty-fifth 
year with the regular Baptist Church, he became, in March, 1819. a 
licensed preacher of that persuasion. Two months afterward 
he removed to Trumbull County, Ohio, where he subsequently mar- 
ried. Called in 1821 to the pastorate of the First Baptist Church of 
Pittsburg, he there became a very popular minister. Less than three 
years later, becoming dissatisfied with the doctrines of the Baptists, 
he conscientiously resigned his pastorate and withdrew from the 
society. During the next two years he labored in a tannery for a 
livelihood. Again removing to Ohio, — this time to Bainbridge, in 
Geauga County, — he there re-entered the ministry. He now preached 
the Campbellite doctrines. It seems that the founder of that sect. 
Alexander Campbell, had been one of Rigdon's parishioners at Pitts- 
burg. Following his pastor's example, he had left the Baptist 
Church, and with Mr. Walter Scott, and warmly supported by Mr. 
Rigdon, had founded the society of Beformed Baptists, or Camp- 
bellites. Rigdon's success, always pronounced, was now remarkable. 
The fame of his eloquence and reasoning powers spread far and wide. 


After a year's effective service in and around Bainbridge, he accepted 
a call to Mentor, thirty miles distant. There, in the midst of much 
persecution, occasioned by his phenomenal success, he continued to 
flourish. He converted and baptized multitudes, and organized 
congregations in all the country round. One of these was near the 
mouth of Black River, where Parley P. Pratt was converted. Sidney 
Rigdon was at the summit of his fame and popularity as a Campbell- 
ite preacher when Oliver Cowdery and his confreres, — the first 
missionaries sent westward by the Latter-day Saints from the cradle 
of their Church, — set out for the land of the Lamanites. 

It was to Kirtland, not far from Mentor, that those Elders now 
made their way ; Parley P. Pratt being desirous of laying before his 
former friends and associates the principles he had recently espoused. 
As a reminder to the reader of what those principles comprised, 
the Articles of Faith of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints, as formulated a few years later by the Prophet, are here 
presented : 

1. We believe in God, the Eternal Father, and in His Son Jesus Christ, and in the 
Holy Ghost. 

2. We believe that men will be punished for their own sins, and not for Adam's 

3. We believe that through the atonement of Christ all men may be saved, by 
obedience to the laws and ordinances of the gospel. 

4. We believe that these ordinances are : First, faith in the Lord Jesus Christ ; sec- 
ond, repentance; third, baptism by immersion for the remission of sins; fourth, laying 
on of hands for the gift of the Holy Ghost. 

5. We believe that a man must be called of God by ''prophecy, and by the laying 
on of hands," by those who are in authority, to preach the Gospel and administer in the 
ordinances thereof. 

6. We believe in the same organization that existed in the primitive church, viz.: 
apostles, prophets, pastors, teachers, evangelists, etc. 

7. We believe in the gift of tongues, prophecy, revelation, visions, healing, inter- 
pretation of tongues, etc. 

8. We believe the Bible to be the word of God. as far as it is translated correetlj ; 
we also believe the Book of Mormon to be the word of God. 

9. We believe all that God has revealed, all that He does now reveal, and we 
believe llial He will yet reveal many great and important things pertaining to the Kingdom 
of God. 

10. We believe in the literal gathering of Israel and in the restoration of the Ten 

6-VOL. 1. 


Tribes. That Zion will be built upon this continent. That Christ will reign personally 
upon the earth, and that the earth will be renewed and receive its paradisic glory. 

11. We claim the privilege of worshiping Almighty God according to the dictates 
of our conscience, and allow all men the same privilege, let them worship how, where 
or what they may. 

12. We believe in being subject to kings, presidents, rulers and magistrates, in obey- 
ing, honoring and sustaining the law. 

13. We believe in being honest, true, chaste, benevolent, virtuous, and in doing good 
to all men: indeed we may say that we follow the admonition of Paul, ; ' We believe all 
things, we hope all things," we have endured many things, and hope to be able to endure 
all things. If there is anything virtuous, lovely or of good report or praiseworthy, we seek 
after these things. 

Such were the doctrines that Parley P. Pratt desired to present 
to his former friends in and around Kirtland. The commission of 
the Elders being to ''preach the gospel to every creature." regardless 
of creed or color, they were nothing loth to tarry for a season 
within the confines of civilization and "thrust in their sickles 
and reap," wherever the field of souls appeared " white unto the 
harvest." Calling on Mr. Rigdon, they presented him with the Book 
of Mormon, at the same time relating to him its history. This was 
his first knowledge of the record which, a few years later, he was 
accused of assisting Joseph Smith to create out of the materials of 
the Spaulding story. He entertained the Elders hospitably, and 
promised to read the book carefully. The result was his conversion 
to Mormonism. After due deliberation he offered himself to the 
Elders as a candidate for baptism. Many of his flock were likewise 
converted. Within three weeks after their arrival at Kirtland. the 
Elders baptized one hundred and twenty-seven souls. Among these 
were Sidney Rigdon, Newel K. Whitney. Frederick G. Williams. Isaac 
Morley, Lyman Wight, John Murdock and others whose names 
became more or less notable in the annals of Mormonism. Edward 
Partridge was also converted, but was not immediately baptized. 

But the Elders must not tarry too long at Kirtland. The season 
is far advanced, the storms of winter will soon burst forth, and a 
vast journey still lies before them. They now prepare for departure. 
Ordaining Sidney Rigdon and others to the priesthood, and setting 


them apart to minister for the rest, the four Elders reported by letter 
to the Prophet, and bidding their new-found brethren and sisters 
adieu, resumed their westward pilgrimage. Frederick G. Williams 
accompanied them. 

Near the mouth of Black River, in the neighborhood of 
Parley P. Pratt's former home, they stopped one night at the house 
of Simeon Carter. Here Parley was arrested on some trivial charge 
and held in durance till morning. Escaping by strategy he rejoined 
his companions, and they trudged on through mud and rain toward 
the interior. Everywhere they found that their fame had preceded 
them. Though ill-treated by some, they preached to crowded con- 
gregations, and sowed the seed broad-cast of a future bounteous har- 
vest. Simeon Carter, at whose home Parley, on the night of his 
arrest, had left a copy of the Book of Mormon, perused it carefully, 
was converted, and walked fifty miles to Kirtland, where he was bap- 
tized and ordained an Elder. Returning, he began himself to 
preach and baptize, and built up a branch of the Church in his 
neighborhood numbering sixty members. 

At Sandusky, Elder Cowdery and his companions came upon 
another Indian nation, the Wyandots, with whom they spent several 
days very agreeably. Like the Catteraugus Indians, they warmly 
welcomed the missionaries, listened with interest to their teachings, 
and at parting gave them God-speed. They also requested the Elders 
to write to them regarding their success among the tribes farther 
west. Proceeding to Cincinnati, the Elders tarried certain clays, 
preaching, and in the latter part of December took passage on a 
steamboat bound for St. Louis. The mouth of the Ohio River being- 
blocked with ice, their boat could proceed no farther. At that point, 
therefore, they landed and continued their journey afoot. Two hun- 
dred miles traveled in this manner brought them to the vicinity of 
St. Louis. Heavy storms of rain and snow now detained them for 
over a week, during winch they were kindly cared for by hospitable 
people in that section. 

With the opening year — 1831 — they resumed their journeyj 


passing through St. Louis and St. Charles. Then out over the bleak 
and storm-swept prairies, through wintry winds and stinging hail 
and driving sleet, at times half frozen, often fatigued, but never dis- 
heartened. Their frequent diet was frozen bread and raw pork, 
munched by the wayside, as they trudged along weary and foot-sore 
through deep and drifting snows, looking in vain for house or sign of 
shelter. Three hundred miles were thus traversed. Finally, after 
much privation and some suffering, they reached Independence. 
Jackson County, Missouri, then on the extreme western frontier of 
the United States. Their pilgrimage was now practically ended. 
Beyond lay the trackless wilderness, — trackless indeed save for the 
foot-prints of wild beast or savage, hovering in friendliness near the 
border, or roaming at will the vast plains stretching westward to the 
unexplored regions of the Rocky Mountains. 

The country in which they found themselves was settled, or 
partly settled by whites, mostly ignorant and half civilized, with 
Indians and negroes interspersed, — a typical frontier population. 
Renegades and refugees from justice, who had fled from the older 
states to this out-of-the-way region, formed at that time no inconsid- 
erable portion of the inhabitants of western Missouri. Civilization, 
however, was advancing; schools had been introduced and were 
beginning to thrive, and to offset the reckless criminal element many 
intelligent, upright and respectable people were numbered among the 
citizens. The curse of the country was the political demagogue, 
playing as ever for personal ends behind the mask of patriotism. — 
proverbially "the last refuge of a scoundrel." Missouri, only nine 
years a state, — having been admitted to the Union under the cele- 
brated pro-slavery compromise of 1821, — was just the field where 
such characters might flourish, and flourish they did. to the infinite 
sorrow of their betters. 

Jackson County, named for General Andrew Jackson — then 
President of the United States — was settled principally by people 
from Tennessee and farther south. Clay County, immediately north, 
and separated from Jackson County by the Missouri River, had 


been named for Henry Clay, Jackson's opponent in the presidential 
contest of 1828. Its settlers were mostly Kentuckians. Indepen- 
dence, the county seat of Jackson, was a new town prettily situated 
on a piece of rising ground, about three miles south of the river, and 
twelve miles east of the state boundary line. It contained a court- 
house built of brick, two or three merchants' stores, and a score or 
more of private dwellings. The houses generally were log cabins, 
without glass windows or floors, and many of the settlers, women as 
well as men, dressed entirely in skins. Their food was also of the 
coarsest, consisting usually of wild meat, wild honey, pork and corn 
bread, prepared in the most primitive manner. These conditions 
prevailed among the poor. The rich and those well-to-do of course 
had things in much better style. The settlers of Jackson County, as 
said, were mostly from the south, and were either slaveholders or 
advocates of slavery. Christian churches had their representatives 
there, as elsewhere, and the general government its Indian agents 
and other functionaries. West of Jackson County was the Indian 
Territory, now the State of Kansas. 

Leaving their companions at Independence, where two of them 
obtained temporary employment as tailors, Oliver Cowdery and 
Parley P. Pratt crossed over the line into Indian Territory, entering 
the country of the Shawnees and Delawares. The Delaware chief 
was the sachem of ten tribes. He was also a polygamist, having 
several wives. He welcomed his white visitors cordially, and though 
averse to missionaries in general, after some hesitation called a 
council of his leading men and permitted Elder Cowdery to address 
them. The Elder explained through an interpreter the import of 
his visit, and the mission of himself and his brethren to that land ; 
gave an account of the coming forth of the Book of Mormon, with a 
brief statement of its contents, and closing presented the aged chief 
with one of the volumes. The gift was graciously accepted, the 
sachem testifying his appreciation of the efforts of the Elders in 
behalf of him and his people, and promising that in the spring they 
would build a large council house wherein they might be taughl 


more fully. Several clays elapsed, during which the two Elders 
continued to instruct the aged sachem and his people. They 
lodged meanwhile at the house of Mr. Pool, a blacksmith employed 
for the Indians by the government. He became a believer in the 
Book of Mormon, and served the Elders as an interpreter. The 
Indians manifested great interest in what was told them, insomuch 
that considerable excitement began to prevail among them. This 
coming to the ears of Christian missionaries, excited their jealousy, 
and inspired by them the agents of the government ordered the 
Elders to quit the Indian country. Threatened with the military if 
they failed to comply, Elders Cowdery and Pratt reluctantly recrossed 
the border and rejoined their companions. During the remainder of 
their sojourn in that land, they confined their proselyting labors 
mainly to the white settlers of Jackson County, some of whom were 
converted and baptized. And so ended this mission to the Laman- 










EANTIME, in Ohio and in the east the cause of Mormonism 
J^A- had heen steadily, even rapidly progressing. The Prophet 
and his co-laborers, after the departure of the Lamanite mission, had 
been kept busy preaching, baptizing and building up the Church in 
the states of New York and Pennsylvania. Among those who had 
recently become associated with the Mormon leader were Thomas B. 
Marsh, the future President of the Twelve Apostles, and Orson Pratt, 
another member of that council. 

In December, 1830, there came to Fayette on a visit to the 
Prophet, Sidney Rigdon and Edward Partridge, from Kirtland, Ohio. 
Sidney, as seen, had been baptized, and was now an Elder of the 
Church. His companion, though converted, had not yet entered the 
fold, but was baptized by Joseph in Seneca River, a few days after 
his arrival at Fayette. Both these men, Sidney Rigdon and Edward 
Partridge, whose acquaintance with the Mormon leader here began, 
afterwards attained high positions in the Church. 

A work now engaging the attention of the Prophet was a revi- 
sion of the Scriptures. In the absence of Oliver Cowdery in the 
west, and of John Whitmer, who had been sent to preside over I lie 


Saints in Ohio, he had need of an expert scribe to assist him in his 
literary labors. Such an assistant he found in Sidney Piigdon, who 
now became his secretary and near associate. In a revelation re- 
corded about this time, Sidney is likened unto John the Baptist, — 
referring to his former labors as a Campbellite preacher, whereby, he 
was informed, he had prepared the way unwittingly for a greater one 
to follow. 

It now became evident to the Prophet, whose mind had already 
conceived the idea that the west, and not the east, was the field of 
Mormonism's greater destiny, that the season was ripe for a general 
movement of his people in the direction of their promised Zion. 
The site of the future city had not yet been definitely declared, 
though it was understood in general terms to be "on the borders by 
the Lamanites." Thither Oliver Cowdery and his companions were 
now wending their way. But the success of those Elders in northern 
Ohio had indicated an eligible spot for the founding of a "stake of 
Zion," a temporary gathering place, where, pending further move- 
ments toward the building up of their central city, the Saints might 
assemble.* Accordingly, ere the month of December had expired, 
the word went forth from the Prophet to his followers in the eastern 
states to dispose of their possessions, migrate westward and "assem- 
ble together at the Ohio." 

Not that the east was to be relinquished as a field for prose- 
lytism. Not that the Prophet and his people, as might be imagined, 
had become dispirited and lost confidence in the cause with which 
they were identified. On the contrary, never had the sun of hope 
beamed for them more brightly ; never had their thorny pathway 
seemed so thickly bestrewn with flowers. True, they were hated and 
opposed on every hand, their leader's life was threatened, and 
secret plots, he had been warned, were even then forming for his 
destruction. But such had been their experience heretofore, and 

* The distinction between Zion and the Stakes of Zion should lie borne in mind by 
be reader who desires to properly understand Mormon history. 


these were not the impelling causes of the migratory movement now 
in contemplation. Joseph Smith's character has not been read 
aright, nor the record of his people from the beginning, if it be 
imagined that fear for his personal safety or the hope of immunity 
from further persecution were the motives that then actuated them. 
No ; it was to them the beginning of Israel's latter-day gathering, 
an initiatory step toward the building up of Zion ; and though the 
reason may have been, in part, that Mormonism, — hated, defamed, 
and struggling against apparently overwhelming odds, — might gain a 
firmer foot-hold for its fight of faith than seemed possible amid the 
warring spiritual elements of the more thickly populated portions of 
the land, it was far from being the chief purpose and principal end 
in view. These Latter-day Saints believed they were fulfilling a 
God-given destiny in thus flocking Zionward, — in fleeing, as Isaiah 
had said Israel should, "upon the shoulders of the Philistines 
toward the west." They were destined to make literal these words 
of the ancient seer to an extent little dreamed of at that time in 
their philosophy. 

A farewell conference was held at Fayette on the 2nd of Jan- 
uary, 1831. The affairs of the Church in the eastern parts were 
settled, or left in the hands of trusty agents to wind up as speedily 
as possible, and the Prophet, accompanied by his wife, and by Sidney 
Rigdon, Edward Partridge, Ezra Thayre and Newel Knight, toward 
the latter part of the month set out for Kirtland. 

They arrived there about the 1st of February. Driving his 
sleigh through the streets of the little town, the Prophet drew up at 
the mercantile door of Messrs. Gilbert and Whitney. Alighting from 
his vehicle he entered the store and introduced himself as "Joseph 
the Prophet," to Newel K. Whitney, the junior partner of the firm. 
By him and his household, Joseph and his wife, pending other 
arrangements for their reception, were cordially received and enter- 

The first step taken by the Prophet, after setting in order the 
Church at Kirtland, — the affairs of which, after the departure of 


Elder Gowdery and his confreres, had become somewhat demoralized 
spiritually, — was to lay the foundation of what is known to 
Latter-day Saints as the United Order. A brief exposition of this 
principle of their religion will here be necessary. 

Some of the views of the Saints relative to the up-building of 
Zion have already been dwelt upon. Of the United Order, or the 
Order of Enoch, as it is otherwise named, it may be said it is a 
religio-social system involving the methods whereby that "up-build- 
ing" is to be accomplished. Said Joseph Smith: "It is not given 
that one man should possess that which is above another.*' This is 
the key-note of the United Order. 

Co-operative or communistic schemes the world had known 
before. Saint Simon and Fourier in France, Owen in England and 
in America, each ere this had launched his bark of philanthropic 
thought and theory upon the waters of social reform. As early as 
1825 Robert Owen and his associates had established industrial 
communities on both sides of the Atlantic. There was even at this 
time, in the vicinity of Kirtland — though not of Owen*s origin — a 
small community called "the family," which, following the example 
of some of the early Christians, held their temporal possessions in 
common. But the United Order introduced by Joseph Smith proba- 
bly went further toward realizing, or foreshadowing, the Millennarian 
dream of the prophet, poet and philanthropist, than anything the 
world had before witnessed. 

Nor are these idle words, words of unmerited eulogy. A Mil- 
lennium without a God is impossible. A communistic scheme, a plan 
for social reconstruction, without a religious basis, the love of God 
and man as its central idea, is born but to perish, howsoever for a 
season it may thrive. And even with religion, — the highest and 
strongest motive that can impel selfish humanity. — will it not be 
found a stupendous and all but impossible task? Instance the fail- 
ures of those would-be social reformers, secularists, who have 
thought to leave God and religion out of their otherwise grand 
schemes for society's reconstruction and regeneration. Deity must 


be recognized, must be at the head and helm of all plans for man's 
perfecting. Otherwise they cannot endure. The "natural man"* is 
too much an enemy to God, too much the enemy of his fellow man, to 
conquer covetousness and love his neighbor as himself, save God 
be with him. And without self-conquest, without love of humanity, 
no Millennium, no universal brotherhood, no reign of peace and 
righteousness is possible. 

Herein lay the superiority of Joseph Smith's concept over those 
of the eminent social reformers, his predecessors and cotempor- 
aries. The United Order was not a mere financial scheme, not a 
co-operative, joint-stock mercantile concern; not a mere plan for 
social reconstruction, involving only a community of temporal inter- 
ests. It was all these and more. It was religious, not secular in its 
character; spiritual, not temporal in its genius; and yet, being spir- 
itual, it comprehended and circumscribed the temporal. How and 
where Joseph Smith obtained it is not the question to be here deter- 
mined. He declared that it was revealed to him by the Almighty. 
Impartial history can neither affirm nor deny it. The province of 
the historian is the field of facts, and it is a fact that Joseph Smith 
so stated. At all events, God was recognized as its author, its laws 
as His laws, its aim and purpose His. Its avowed object was to glor- 
ify God by lifting up man, mentally, physically, morally, spiritually. 
It was to the Saints the Millennial lever that was to move the world, 
gradually but effectually, toward the glorious goal of universal 
brotherhood and good will. It was as the voice of Elias, — the voice 
of one crying in the wilderness : " Prepare ye the way of the 
Lord."' " Make His paths straight." " Every valley shall be exalted, 
and every mountain and hill shall be made low ; and the crooked 
shall be made straight, and the rough places plain." In other words, 
it meant the leveling of class distinctions, — the bringing down of 
the mountains of pride, the exalting of the valleys of humility ; the 
extirpation of fraud and crookedness, and the eventual triumph of 
true culture and civilization. By means of it Zion was to "'arise and 
shine," the "joy of the whole earth," ere the coming of Him whose 


peaceful and righteous reign has been the theme of prophet tongues 
and poet pens in all ages. 

It was an order of industry, too, and not of idleness ; a rule of 
law and not of anarchy, wherein each soul, having consecrated his 
all. and being assigned his stewardship, was to labor faithfully for 
the common weal in that field or pursuit for which he proved best 
fitted and designed. " Every man seeking the interest of his neigh- 
bor, and doing all things with an eye single to the glory of God." 
Such was the theory of the United Order. 

More practically speaking, the system meant that each indi- 
vidual, on entering the Order, was to deed to the Church, or its 
authorized representative, his or her property in toto, utterly relin- 
quishing its possession. It might be a farm, a workshop or a sum 
of money, much or little, that was thus "consecrated." But what- 
ever it was, it thenceforth belonged to the Order, and not to the indi- 
vidual. All would then be owners alike, and equality in temporal 
things be inaugurated. 

A deed would then be given by the Church, or its representa- 
tive, to each member of the Order, conveying to him or her a certain 
portion of the general property, probably the same farm or work- 
shop that the individual had before consecrated. This was a " stew- 
ardship," thenceforth possessed by the individual, but to be used 
for the general good ; all gains reverting to a common fund or store, 
whence each steward should derive his or her support. All were 
required to labor diligently — there were to be no drones in the hive 
— and to deal fairly and justly with one another. Apostasy from 
the Church was equivalent to withdrawal from the Order. The 
individual might then retain his stewardship, but not reclaim the 
residue of property, over and above that portion, which he had conse- 
crated to the common cause. Unity and equality were the watch- 
words of the Order; man's salvation and God's glory the ends to be 
kept constantly in view. 

According to the faith of the Saints, it was just such a system 
as this that sanctified in antediluvian times the City of Enoch and 


prepared it for translation, when, according to the record, " the Lord 
called his people Zion, because they were of one heart and one 
mind and dwelt in righteousness, and there was no poor among 
them;** a system established in after ages by the Apostles at Jerusa- 
lem, when "the multitude of them that believed were of one heart 
and of one soul, — neither said any of them that ought of the things 
which he possessed was his own ; but they had all things common ; "" 
a system which, according to the Book of Mormon, prevailed upon 
this land among the Nephites for nearly two centuries after the 
coming of Christ. An order of unity and equality, a system of 
consecrations and stewardships, the abolition of fraud and monopoly 
in all their phases, a sinking of individual interests into and for 
the purpose of the common good, the sacrifice of self at the shrine 
of principle — of pure religion — whose incense, call it charity, phil- 
anthropy, or what we will, is the pure love of God and humanity. 

It was to the establishment of such an order, — one object of 
which, in the arcana of the faith, was to pave the way for the return 
of the Zion of Enoch, which the Saints believe will yet descend to 
earth, the planet whence it was taken, — that Joseph Smith, as early 
as February, 1831, more than fifty years before Edward Bellamy and 
his ingenious book "Looking Backward" were heard of, directed his 
thoughts and labors. 

A movement to that end was the organization of the Bishopric, 
representing the temporal wing of the Mormon Church government. 
The Apostleship, which pertains to the Priesthood of Melchisedek, 
though possessing general powers has a special calling to minister 
in spiritual things ; while the Bishopric, which is the presidency of 
the Priesthood of Aaron, administers, under the direction of the 
higher authority, in things temporal. 

The first call to the Bishopric was that of Edward Partridge, 
who received his appointment on the fourth day of February. He 
was required " to leave his merchandise and spend all his time in 
the service of the Church," for which he was to receive his support, 
or a just remuneration. Two other Elders were called to officiate 


as his counselors. The duties of this Bishopric were outlined as 
follows : * 

And behold, thou wilt remember the poor, and consecrate of thy properties for 
their support, that which thou hast to impart unto them with a covenant and a deed which 
cannot be broken. 

And inasmuch as ye impart of your substance unto the poor, ye will do it unto me, 
and they shall be laid before the bishop of my church and his counselors, two of the 
Elders, or High Priests, such as he shall or has appointed and set apart for that purpose. 

And it shall come to pass, that after they are laid before the bishop of my church, 
and after that he has received these testimonies concerning the consecration of the pro- 
perties of my church, that they cannot be taken from the church agreeable to my com- 
mandments ; every man shall be made accountable unto me, a steward over his own 
property, or that which he has received by consecration, inasmuch as is sufficient for 
himself and family. 

Wherefore let my servant Edward Partridge, and those whom he has chosen, in 
whom I am well pleased, appoint unto this people their portion, every man equal accord- 
ing to their families, according to their circumstances, and their wants and needs. 

And let my servant Edward Partridge, when he shall appoint a man his portion, 
give until him a writing that shall secure unto him his portion, that he shall hold it, even 
this right and this inheritance in the church, until he transgresses and is not accounted 
worthy by the voice of the church, according to the laws and covenants of the church, to 
belong to the church ; 

And if he shall transgress and is not accounted worthy to belong to the church, he 
shall not have power to claim that portion which he has consecrated unto the bishop for 
the poor and needy of my church ; therefore, he shall not retain the gift, but shall only 
have claim on that portion that is deeded unto him. 

And thus all things shall be made sure, according to the laws of the land. 

Ami again, let the bishop appoint a storehouse unto this church, and let all things 
both in money and in meat, which is more than is needful for the want of this people, be 
kept in the hands of the bishop. 

And let him also reserve unto himself for his own wants, and for the wants of his 
family, as he shall be employed in doing this business. 

And thus 1 grant unto this people a privilege of organizing themselves according to 
my laws: 

And 1 consecrate unto them this land for a little season, until I. the Lord, shall pin- 
vide for them otherwise, and command them to go hence: 

And the hour and the day is not given unto them, wherefore let them acl upon this 
laud as for yours, and this shall turn unto them for their good. 

■'■'• Doctrine and Covenants, Sec.. 4'_\ verses 30—32; Sec. 51, verses 3—6 and lo-17. 


Such was the general outline of the United Order, which the 
Mormon Prophet sought to establish, and did introduce, among his 
people in Ohio and in Missouri. That it was not permanently estab- 
lished was clue partly to persecution, and partly to the innate selfish- 
ness of human nature. It is still with the Saints one of the prob- 
lems of the future, as they hold that Zion cannot be built up 
without it. 

The fourth general conference of the Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints convened at Kirtland on the 6th of June, 1831. 
Nearly two thousand Saints assembled, including those who had 
followed the Prophet from New York and Pennsylvania. Among 
the Elders present was Parley P. Pratt, who had returned in Feb- 
ruary to report the labors of himself and his confreres in Missouri. 
There Elder Cowdery and the others yet remained. Several High 
Priests, the first known to the Church, were ordained at this confer- 
ence. Most of the Elders were now commissioned to go forth two 
by two, after the manner of the Apostles anciently, proclaiming that 
the kingdom of heaven was at hand, preaching and baptizing. 
The appointed destination of the majority of them was the Mis- 
souri frontier, toward which they were directed to travel by differ- 
ent routes. It was decided that the next conference of the Church 
should be held upon that land. The burden of the message the 
Elders were to bear as they wended their way, was as follows : * 

Wherefore I, the Lord, have said, gather ye out from the eastern lands, assemble 
ye yourselves together ye elders of my church; go ye forth into the western countries, 
call upon the inhabitants to repent, and inasmuch as they do repent, build up churches 
unto me ; 

And with one heart and with one mind, gather up your riches that ye may purchase 
an inheritance which shall hereafter be appointed unto you. 

And il shall he called the New Jerusalem, a land of peace, a city of refuge, a place 
of safety for the saints of the must High God ; 

And the glory of the Lord shall be their, and the terror of the Lord also shall be 
there, insomuch that the wicked will not come unto it, and il shall be called Zion. 

And it shall come lo pass, among the wicked, thai every man thai will not take bis 

sword againsl his neighbor, must needs flee unto Zion for safety. 

Doctrine and Covenants, Sec. 4.1. verses tit- 


And there shall be gathered unto it out of every nation under heaven : and it shall 
be the only people that shall not be at war one with another. 

And it shall be said among the wicked, Let us not go up to battle against Zion, for 
the inhabitants of Zion are terrible; wherefore we cannot stand. 

And it shall come to pass that the righteous shall be gathered out from among all 
nations, and shall come to Zion, singing with songs of everlasting joy. 

Among the Elders thus commissioned were Joseph Smith, junior, 
Sidney Rigdon, Lyman Wight, John Corrill, John Murdock, Hyrum 
Smith, Thomas B. Marsh, Ezra Thayre, Isaac Morley, Ezra Booth, 
Edward Partridge, Martin Harris, David Whitmer, Harvey Whitlock, 
Parley P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, Solomon Hancock, Simeon Carter, Edson 
Fuller, Jacob Scott, Levi Hancock, Zebedee Coltrin, Reynolds Cahoon. 
Samuel H. Smith. Wheeler Baldwin, William Carter, Newel Knight, 
Selah J. Griffin, Joseph Wakefield, Solomon Humphrey, A. S. Gilbert, 
William W. Phelps, and Joseph Coe. Newel Knight and the Coles- 
ville branch of the Church, formerly of Broome County, New York, 
but now at Thompson, Ohio, were instructed to migrate in a body to 

On the 19th of June the Prophet set out from Kirtland on his 
first visit to Missouri. He was accompanied by Sidney Rigdon, 
Martin Harris, Edward Partridge, William W. Phelps. Joseph Coe and 
A. S. Gilbert and wife. Journeying by wagon, stage and canal-boat 
to Cincinnati, they there took steamer for Louisville, Kentucky; 
whence, after a brief delay, they proceeded by water to St. Louis. 
From that point Sidney Rigdon and the Gilberts continued by steamer 
up the Missouri river, while the Prophet and the rest of his party 
walked across the state of Missouri, reaching Independence, Jackson 
County, about the middle of July. The meeting with Elder Cowdery 
and his companions was one of great rejoicing. 

Immediately after the Prophet's arrival the site of the City of 
Zion. the central gathering place, where the Saints, according to their 
faith, will yet assemble to await Messiah's coming, was for the first 
time definitely designated. Independence and its vicinity was the 
chosen spot. Here lands were to be purchased by the Saints, and the 
soil dedicated for the gathering of Israel and the building of the New 


Jerusalem. Here Bishop Edward Partridge was to take his stand 
as "a judge in Israel," to receive the consecration of properties, 
assign stewardships and apportion to the Saints their inheritance. 
Martin Harris, who had before contributed so generously for the 
publication of the Book of Mormon, was selected as. "an example to 
the Church," in laying his monies at the feet of the Bishop. 

It may interest the reader to know. what form of conveyance 
was used in connection with the consecration of properties. It was 
as follows: 

BE IT KNOWN, THAT I, , Of Jackson county, and state of Missouri, 

having become a member of the Church of Christ, organized according to law, and estab- 
lished by the revelations of the Lord, on the 6th day of April, 1830, do, of my own free 
will and accord, having first paid my just debts, grant and hereby give unto Edward Partridge 
of Jackson county, and state of Missouri, bishop of said church, the following described 
property, viz: — Sundry articles of furniture valued fifty five dollars twenty seven cents, — 
also two beds, bedding and extra clothing valued seventy three dollars twenty five cents, — 
also farming utensils valued forty one dollars, — also one horse, two wagons two cows and 
two calves valued one hundred and forty seven dollars. 

For the purpose of purchasing lands in Jackson County Mo. and building up the New 
Jerusalem, even Zion, and for relieving the wants of the poor and needy. For which I the 

said ■ do covenant and bind myself and my heirs forever, to release all my 

right and interest to the above described property, unto him the said Edward Partridge 
bishop of said church. And I the said Edward Partridge bishop of said church, having 

received the above described property, of the said ■ do bind myself, that I 

will cause the same to be expended for the above mentioned purposes of the said 

to the satisfaction of said church ; and in case I should be removed from the 

office of bishop of said church, by death or otherwise, I hereby bind myself and my heirs 
forever, to make over to my successor in office, for the benefit of said church, all the above 
described property, which may then be in my possession. 

In testimony whereof, WE have hereunto set our hands and seals this day of 

in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and thirty — 


The legal document securing to the individual his stewardship, 
was in this form: 

BE IT KNOWN, THAT 1. Edward Partridge of Jackson county, and state of Mis- 
souri, bishop of the church of Christ, organized according to law, and established by the 
revelations of the Lord, on the 6th day of April, 1830, have leased and by these presents, 

do lease unto of Jackson county, and state of Missouri, a member of -aid 

church, the following described piece or panel of land, being a part of section No. three 

7-VOL. 1. 


township No. forty nine range No. thirty two situated in Jackson county, and state of Mis- 
souri, and is bounded as follows, viz: — beginning eighty rods E, from the S. W. corner of 
Sd Sec, thence N. one hundred and sixty rods thence E. twenty seven rods 25 L, thence 
S. one hundred and sixty rods, thence W. twenty seven rods 25 L, to the place of begin- 
ning, containing twenty seven & i acres be the same more or less subject to roads and 
highways. And also have loaned the following described property, viz: — Sundry articles of 
furniture valued fifty five dollars twenty five cents, — also two beds, bedding and clothing 
valued seventy three dollars twenty seven cents, — also sundry farming utensils valued forty 
one dollars, — also one horse, two cows, two calves and two waggons valued one hundred 
forty seven dollars to have and to hold the above described property, by him the said 

to be used and occupied as to him shall seem meet and proper. And as 

a consideration for the use of the above described property, I the said 

do bind myself to pay the taxes, and also to pay yearly unto the said Edward Partridge 
bishop of said church, or his successor in office, for the benefit of said church, all that I 
shall make or accumulate more than is needful for the support and comfort of myself and 
family. And it is agreed by the parties, that this lease and loan shall be binding during 

the life of the said unless he transgress, and is not deemed worthy by the 

authority of the Church, according to its laws, to belong to the church. And in that case 

I the said do acknowledge that I forfeit all claim to the above described 

leased and loaned property, and hereby bind myself to give back the lease, and also pay 
an equivalent for the loaned, for the benefit of said church, unto the said Edward 
Partridge bishop of said church, or his successor in office. And further, in case that said 

or family's inability in consequence of infirmity or old age, to provide for 

themselves while members of this church, I the said Edward Partridge bishop of said 
church, do bind myself to administer to their necessities out of any fund in my hands 
appropriated for that purpose, not otherwise disposed of, to the satisfaction of the church. 

And further, in case of the death of said his wife or widow, being at the 

time a member of said church, has claim upon the above described leased and loaned 
property, upon precisely the same conditions that her said husband had them, as above 

described; and the children of said in case of the death of both their 

parents, also have claim upon the above described property, for their support, until they 
shall become of age, and no longer; subject to the same conditions yearly that their 
parents were : provided however, should the parents not be members of said church, and 
in possession of the above described property at the time of their deaths, the claim of the 
children as above described, is null and void. 

In testimony whereof, WE have hereunto set our hands and seals this day of 

in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and thirty 

In presence of 

The dual duty of dedicating the land of Zion and writing a 
description of ii for the benefit of the Church, was devolved upon 
Sidney Rigdon. "William W. Phelps, assisted by Oliver Cowdery. was 
to establish himself as the Church printer in that land, and A. S. 


Gilbert, senior partner of the firm of Gilbert and Whitney, was given 
a mission to open a store at Independence, and act as an agent for the 
Church in purchasing lands in the surrounding region. 

The first formal step toward the founding of the city of Zion 
was taken on the 2nd of August, 1831. In Kaw Township, twelve 
miles west of Independence, in which locality the newly arrived 
Colesville Saints were settling, the first log of the first house was 
that day borne to its place by twelve men, representing the twelve 
tribes of Israel. The Prophet was one of the number. The same 
day Elder Rigdon dedicated the land of Zion. On the day following, 
the site of the future temple, near Independence, was consecrated by 
the Prophet. Then came the appointed conference. It was held at 
the house of Joshua Lewis, in Kaw Township, all or most of the 
Saints in that region being present. 

On the 9th of August the Prophet and ten other Elders set out 
to return to Kirtland. From Independence Landing a fleet of sixteen 
canoes carried them and their provisions clown the Missouri. Three 
days they rowed and drifted. The Prophet, with Elders Cowdery and 
Rigdon, then left the canoes in charge of their companions, and con- 
tinued the journey by land. They reached Kirtland on the 27th of 

Having thus planted a colony of his people in their "land of 
promise," and set in motion a migratory stream of the Saints in that 
direction, the Prophet resumed his task of revising the scriptures, — a 
work suspended since the previous December. For this purpose he 
and Elder Rigdon retired to the little town of Hiram, in Portage 
County, thirty miles south-east of Kirtland, where, on September 
12th. Joseph took up his abode at the home of John Johnson, a 
member of the Church there residing. Emma Smith accompanied 
her husband, taking with her two infants, twins, the children of 
John Murdock, which she had adopted in lieu of twins of her own 
that had died. John Johnson was the father of Luke S. and Lyman 
E. Johnson, two of the future Twelve Apostles, and father-in-law to 
Orson Hyde, who also became one of that council. Orson had 


recently been a clerk in the store of Gilbert and Whitney, at Kirtland. 
At Hiram the Prophet continued his literary labors, and from time to 
time took active part in the ministry, attending frequent conferences 
and issuing verbal or written instructions to the Church at large. 
Many of these were in the form of revelations, now of record in the 
book of Doctrine and Covenants. It was about this time that 
William E. McLellin, a prominent Elder, lost some prestige with the 
Saints by attempting, in a spirit of rivalry, to write revelations sim- 
ilar to those uttered by the Prophet. 

Kirtland as a Stake of Zion continued to grow and prosper, her 
numbers increasing as converts multiplied, despite the constant 
drain upon her population by the Missouri emigrations. The Ohio 
Saints, like those in Missouri, being required to enter " the Order,*' 
an accession to the Bishopric now became necessary. On December 
4th, 1831, Newel K. Whitney was called to be the Bishop of Kirt- 
land ; two counselors being chosen to assist him. The powers and 
duties of the Bishopric of Kirtland were similar to those of the Bish- 
opric in Missouri. 

It was during his sojourn at Hiram that the Prophet enunciated 
the doctrine of universal salvation. He declared that all men would 
be saved except a certain few called "sons of perdition," — shedders of 
innocent blood and sinners against the Holy Ghost, — but that souls 
would be saved upon principles of justice and mercy, according to 
their merits, in different degrees of glory. There was hope, he said, 
for the heathen, who had never heard the name of Christ ; hope 
even for the wicked, who were " thrust down to hell," after they had 
paid the "uttermost farthing" and suffered sufficiently for their sins* 
No soul, he maintained, could escape merited punishment, designed 
to purge away uncleanness, simply by confessing Christ. As for 
little children, there was no damnation for them. They were irre- 
sponsible innocents redeemed by the blood of Christ from the 

* Joseph Sinilli taught thai ••eternal punishment" did not mean 
ishment, but punishment inflicted by Him who is Eternal. 


foundation of the world. A few excerpts from the "Vision" of 
February 16th, 1832, wherein are set forth the Prophet's views relat- 
ing to the various states of man hereafter, will here be appropriate :* 

We, Joseph Smith, jun., and Sidney Rigdon, being in the Spirit on the sixteenth of 
February, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, 

By the power of the Spirit our eyes were opened and our understandings were 
enlightened, so as to see and understand the things of God — 

Even those things which were from the beginning before the world was, which were 
ordained of the Father, through his Only Begotten Son, who was in the bosom of the 
Father, even from the beginning, 

Of whom we bear record, and the record which we bear is the fullness of the gospel 
of Jesus Christ, who is the Son, whom we saw and with whom we conversed in the 
heavenly vision; 

And this we saw also, and bear record, that an angel of God who was in authority 
in the presence of God, who rebelled against the Only Begotten Son, whom the Father 
loved, and who was in the bosom of the Father — was thrust down from the presence of 
God and the Son, 

And was called Perdition, for the heavens wept over him — he was Lucifer, a son of 
the morning. 

And we saw a vision of the sufferings of those with whom he made war and over- 
came, for thus came the voice of the Lord unto us. 

Thus saith the Lord, concerning all those who know my power, and have been made 
partakers thereof, and suffered themselves, through the power of the devil, to be overcome, 
and to deny the truth and defy my power — 

They are they who are the sons of perdition, of whom I say that it had been better 
for them never to have been born, 

For they are vessels of wrath, doomed to suffer the wrath of God, with the devil 
and his angels in eternity ; 

And the only ones on whom the second deatli shall have any power; 

Yea, verily, the only ones who shall not be redeemed in the due time of the Lord, 
after the sufferings of his wrath; 

For all the rest shall lie brought forth by the resurrection of the dead, through the 
triumph and the dory of the Lamb, who was slain, who was in the bosom of the Father 
before the worlds were made. 


And again, we bear record, for we saw and heard, and this is the testimony of the 
gospel of Christ, concerning them who come forth in the resurrection of the jus! ; 

* Doctrine and Covenants, Section 70. 


They are they who received the testimony of Jesus, and believed on his name and 
were baptized after the manner of his burial, being buried in the water in his name, and 
this according to the commandment which he has given, 

That by keeping the commandments they might be washed and cleansed from all 
their sins, and receive the Holy Spirit by the laying on of the hands of him who is 
ordained and sealed unto this power, 

And who overcome by faith, and are sealed by the Holy Spirit of promise, which 
the Father sheds forth upon all those who are just and true. 

They are they who are the church of the first born. 

They are they into whose hands the Father has given all things — 

They are they who are Priests and Kings, who have received of his fullness, and of 
his glory, 

And are Priests of the Most High, after the order of Melchisedek, which was after 
the order of Enoch, which was after the order of the Only Begotten Son ; 

Wherefore, as it is written, they are Gods, even the sons of God — 

Wherefore all things are theirs, whether life or death, or things present, or things to 
come, all are theirs and they are Christ's and Christ is God's. 

These are they whose bodies are celestial, whose glory is that of the sun, even the 
glory of God, the highest of all, whose glory the sun of the firmament is written of as 
being typical. 

And again, we saw the terrestrial world, and behold and lo, these are they who are 
of the terrestrial, whose glory differs from that of the church of the first born, who have 
received the fullness of the Father, even as that of the moon differs from the sun in the 

Behold, these are they who died without law, 

And also they who are the spirits of men kept in prison, whom the Son visited, and 
preached the gospel unto them, that they might be judged according to men in the flesh, 

Who received not the testimony of Jesus in the flesh, but afterwards received it. 

These are they who are honorable men of the earth, who were blinded by the crafti- 
ness of men. 

These are they who receive of his glory, but not of his fullness. 

These are they who receive of the presence of the Son, but not of the fullness of 
the Father ; 

Wherefore they are bodies terrestrial, and not bodies celestial, and differ in glory as 
the moon differs from the sun. 

These are they who are not valiant in the testimony of Jesus; wherefore they obtain 
not the crown over the kingdom of our God. 

:■: * * * $ * * :•: :•: 

And again, we saw the glory of the telestial, which glory is that of the lesser, even 
as'tlic glory of the stars differs from that of the glory of the moon in the firmament. 

These are they who received not the gospel of Christ, neither the testimony of Jesus. 
These are they who deny not the Holy Spirit. 


These arc they who are thrust down to hell. 

These are they who shall not be redeemed from the devil, until the last resurrection, 
until the Lord, even Christ the Lamb shall have finished his work. 

These are they who receive not of his fullness in the eternal world, but of the Holy 
Spirit through the ministration of the terrestrial ; 

* * * * * * * * * 

And the glory of the celestial is one, even as the glory of the sun is one. 

And the glory of the terrestrial is one, even as the glory of the moon is one. 

And the glory of the telestial is one, even as the glory of the stars is one, for as one 
star differs from another star in glory, even so differs one from another in glory in the 
telestial world; 


For they shall be judged according to their works, and every man shall receive 
according to his own. works, his own dominion, in the mansions which are prepared, 

And they shall be servants of the Most High, but where God and Christ dwell they 
cannot come, worlds without end. 

Joseph Smith here virtually declares that Gocl is man made per- 
fect, and that man in his highest estate, resurrected and glorified, — 
the child developed to the status of the parent, — is nothing less than 
Deity. The idea of "Lords many and Gods many," a celestial 
brotherhood, a divine United Order, is also plainly set forth. What- 
ever may be thought of such views, one thing is certain, the charge 
that Mormonism teaches a narrow salvation here falls to the 
ground. Nor is the thought that man by development becomes 
Gocl. — retaining his individuality, while doffing his mortal nature 
and blossoming into an eternal being, — a groveling concept of 
human destiny. The Nirvana of Buddhism pales before it, as do the 
mystical views of most Christian divines. 

About the time of the Prophefs removal to Hiram, Ezra Booth, 
one of the Elders who had accompanied him to Missouri, aposta- 
tized, and in a series of letters published in the Ohio Star was now 
assailing the system and principles he had once accepted and advo- 
cated as divine. He succeeded in creating considerable prejudice 
against the Prophet, and through his influence several others 
turned from the Church. A feeling of intense hostility was awak- 
ened at Hiram, where, on the night of March 25th, a violent assault 
was committed upon the Prophet and Elder Rigdon. Joseph and his 


wife had been watching at the bedside of the twins, who were dan- 
gerously ill, and weary and worn from loss of sleep he had thrown 
himself down and was slumbering heavily. Suddenly the door was 
burst open, and in rushed a mob of ten or a dozen men, who, sur- 
rounding the sleeper, seized him and attempted to drag him from 
the house. His wife's screams aroused him, and he struggled des- 
perately with his assailants. His hands being held, he felled one 
man to the floor with a vigorous kick. Enraged at bis resistance, 
they threatened to kill him if he did not desist, and suiting the 
action to the word seized him by the throat and choked him until 
he was insensible. 

Father Johnson, whom the mob had locked in a room prior to 
attacking his guest, regaining his liberty, pursued them, club in 
hand. Encountering another party who had captured Elder Rigdon, 
he knocked one of them down, and was about to fell another when 
the crowd turned upon him and held him at bay. 

Joseph, recovering consciousness, found himself lying upon the 
ground surrounded by his captors, about a mile from the house 
where his weeping and half frantic wife still watched beside the sick 
babes, one of whom was now death-stricken. Near him lay the 
motionless form of Elder Rigdon, whom the mob had dragged by his 
heels over the hard frozen earth until life was almost extinct. 
Joseph supposed him dead. He himself was now hurried into a 
meadow, a mile farther away, where the mob stripped off his clothes, 
cursing and beating him meanwhile, and coated his naked form with 
tar. They forced a tar paddle into his mouth, and a phial contain- 
ing aqua fortis between his lips. The phial broke against his tightly 
clenched teeth, and the deadly acid was spilled. One of the mob 
then fell upon him like a wild-cat. tearing his flesh and shrieking in 
his ear: "That's the way the Holy Ghost falls on folks." Having 
sated their fury, they departed, leaving their bleeding victim to find 
his way, as best he might, through the cold and darkness back to 
Father Johnson's. At sight of his lacerated form, covered with tar, 
his wife screamed and fainted, supposing him to have been horribly 


mangled. He spent the rest of the night cleansing the tar from his 
bruised and bleeding body. 

Next day was the Sabbath, and the Saints in that vicinity 
assembled for their usual worship. Methodists. Baptists, Campbell- 
ites and Mormon apostates came also. Some of them had helped 
compose the mob party of the previous night. Scarred and wounded 
the Prophet appeared before them, bore a ringing testimony to the 
truth of his mission, and that day baptized three more into the 

But the mobocratic spirit was now rampant, not only at Hiram, 
where fresh plots were at once formed against the Mormon leader, 
but also at Kirtland, and throughout the surrounding region. Elder 
Rigdon, after recovering from the effects of the ill-treatment he had 
received, fled with his family from Hiram to escape further outrage. 

Joseph and Emma remained another week, during which one of 
the sick twins died. He then sent his wife to Kirtland. and set out 
upon his second visit to Missouri. He was accompanied by Sidney 
Rigdon, Bishop Whitney and others, who joined him at different 
points along the way. A circuitous route was taken, to evade mobo- 
cratic ambush and pursuit. The party reached Independence late in 

The affairs of the Church in Missouri were found to Lie pros- 
pering, though some prejudice had been created against the Saints 
by certain persons who had misinterpreted their motives in settling 
there. A series of petty persecutions had resulted. Stones and 
brick-bats were thrown through their windows, and they were other- 
wise insulted and annoyed. It was the beginning of sorrows. I lie 
precursor of the coming storm, the first, faint sparks of a furious 
conflagration, destined ere many months to burst forth as a besom 
of fire, sweeping before it into exile the whipped and plundered 
Saints of Jackson County. 

Early in May the Prophet started back to Kirtland, Elder 
Rigdon and Bishop Whitney accompanying him. Near Greenville, 
Indiana, the Bishop bad his leg broken, while jumping from a run- 


away stage-coach. This delayed him and the Prophet for a month 
at a public house in Greenville. Elder Rigdon meanwhile proceeding 
on to Kirtland. During the stay at Greenville an attempt was made 
to murder the Prophet by mixing poison with his food at dinner. 
He narrowly escaped death. Next morning he and his friend 
departed from the dangerous neighborhood, and sometime in June 
arrived at Kirtland. The birth of the Prophet's son Joseph, the 
present leader of the sect known as Josephites, or. as they call 
themselves, the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints, occurred on November 3rd of this year, just prior to the 
return of his father and Bishop Whitney from a hasty trip to the 

On Christmas Day, 1832, was recorded the following "revelation 
and prophecy on war:"* 

Verily, thus saith the Lord, concerning the wars that will shortly come to pass, begin- 
ning at the rebellion of South Carolina, which will eventually terminate in the death and 
misery of many souls. 

The days will come thai war will be poured out upon all nations, beginning at that 
place ; 

For behold, the Southern States shall be divided against the Northern States, and the 
Southern States will call on other nations, even the nation of Great Britain, as it is called, 
and they shall also call upon other nations, in order to defend themselves against other 
nations; and thus war shall be poured out upon all nations. 

And it shall come to pass, after many days, slaves shall rise up against their masters, 
who shall be marshalled and disciplined for war: 

And it shall come to pass also, that the remnants who are left of the land will 
marshal themselves, and shall become exceeding angry, and shall vex the Gentiles with a 
sore vexation ; 

And thus, with the sword, and by bloodshed, the inhabitants of the earth shall 
mourn; and with famine, and plague, and earthquakes, and the thunder of heaven, and 
the fierce and vivid lightning also, shall the inhabitants of the earth be made to feel the 
wrath, the indignation and chastening hand of an Almighty God. until the consumption 
decreed hath made a full end of all nations. 

The Saints claim that this prediction began to be fulfilled on 
April 12th. 1861. when the Confederate batteries at Charleston. South 
Carolina, opened fire on Fort Sumter. 

Doctrine and Covenants. Section 81 


During the winter of 1832-3, the Mormon leader organized at 
Kirtland the School of the Prophets, designed for the instruction of 
the Elders in the "things of the Kingdom." He also completed his 
revision of the scriptures. 

On the 18th of March, 1833, was organized the First Presidency, 
the highest depository of authority in the Church. This council 
consists of three High Priests after the order of Melchisedek, chosen 
and sustained by the whole body, over which they preside. The 
personnel of the Presidency at this first organization was as follows : 
Joseph Smith, junior, President; Sidney Rigdon, First Counselor; 
Frederick G. Williams, Second Counselor. 

It was now decided to purchase lands in and around Kirtland, 
surnamed "the land of Shinehah," and build up and beautify the 
city while awaiting further developments in Missouri, "the land of 
Zion." Farms were accordingly purchased, work-shops and mills 
erected, and various industries established. During the early part of 
1833 a temple at Kirtland was projected. 












•LwELVE to fifteen hundred Latter-day Saints now inhabited 
\K Jackson County, Missouri. They had purchased lands and 
improved them, built houses — mostly log- cabins — and were 
occupying them, sowed their farms and fields and reaped 
repeated harvests. A store had been established by them at Inde- 
pendence, a printing press and type had been procured from the east, 
and a periodical called the Evening and Morning Star, edited by 
William W. Phelps, was being issued. A school of Elders, number- 
ing sixty members, with Parley P. Pratt as its president and 
preceptor, had been instituted, and preaching to the Missourians was 
continued with success. 

Plans for the city and temple of Zion had been forwarded by the 
Prophet from Kirtland, but so far little had been done toward the 
building of the New Jerusalem. The Book of Commandments, or 
revelations, had also been sent from Ohio to be published in 
Missouri. The United Order, though still in its incipiency, was being 
established as fast as circumstances would allow. 

The Saints, as a rule, were poor, but were sober, moral, honest 


and industrious; attending strictly to their own affairs, and not med- 
dling with the concerns of their neighbors. Indeed, so thoroughly 
did they "mind their own business" as to lay themselves open to 
the charge of exclusiveness. 

They were far from being a perfect people — an ideal Zion. On 
the contrary, they manifested many of the faults that are the com- 
mon heritage of weak humanity. But those faults were chiefly man- 
ifested among themselves, and were violative of the precepts of their 
religion rather than of the laws of the land. Seldom were they 
subversive of the rights of the Missourians. But in an Order such 
as theirs, demanding strict unselfishness of its members, it could 
not be but some would slip and frequently break the rigid rules that 
bound them. They were repeatedly warned by the Prophet of dire 
consequences that would follow these infractions, and were especially 
admonished against covetousness and disunion. 

But with the esoteric views of the Saints, as to divine punish- 
ments visited upon them for transgressing the rules of their 
Order, the historian has naught to do. He has only to consider here 
their every-day dealings with their fellow-men. So considering, it 
must be admitted by those cognizant of the truth, that not to their 
misdeeds against the Missourians — though some misdeeds there may 
have been — but to their social and religious peculiarities, are we to 
look for the main causes of the calamities that now befell them. 
These peculiarities, which have ever rendered the Mormons unpopu- 
lar with other sects and parties, were made doubly obnoxious by 
the misrepresentations of those politically, religiously or pecuniarily 
interested in decrying them. 

Allusion has been made to the fact that the motives of the Mor- 
mons in migrating to Missouri had been misinterpreted by the older 
settlers. Some of these actually supposed, and others affected to 
believe, that it was the purpose of the Prophet's followers, when 
they became strong enough, to take forcible possession of the coun- 
try, unite with the Indians across the border and drive the Gentiles 
from the land. That this fear, wherever sincerely felt, was due in 


part to ill-advised and vain-glorious utterances of persons connected 
with the Church, — whose views were as much at variance with truth 
and the teachings of authority as the deductions of the ignorant and 
inflammable masses around them, — is more than probable. That it 
was also due to misrepresentation by Mormon apostates, political 
and religious opponents of the Saints, bent upon furthering their own 
ends and playing for that purpose upon the credulity of the common 
people, is not only probable, but an established fact. 

The teachings of the Book of Mormon and the Church authori- 
ties upon these points were as follows : That God had given into 
the hands of the Gentiles this land ; had inspired them to discover 
it and maintain it as a land of liberty ; that the Gentiles, such as 
embraced the faith, were to assist Ephraim and Manasseh in building 
up Zion and would share in her glory; and that the duty of the 
Saints in relation to the Gentiles was to preach to them the gospel 
of peace, and honestly purchase every inch of ground to be used or 
occupied in the rearing of the New Jerusalem. 

True, the Book of Mormon contains certain prophecies of retri- 
bution upon the Gentiles, such as rejected the Gospel and oppressed 
the Lamanites. But the Lamanites themselves were to avenge their 
own wrongs, and that Avithout aid or instigation from Ephraim. The 
queerest phase of the subject, and it would be extremely funny but 
for the terrible tragedy to which it led, was that the Missourians. 
who like most people scoffed at the Book of Mormon and scouted 
the idea of "Joe Smith" being a prophet, should have allowed these 
predictions to so alarm them. Perhaps it was their effect upon the 
Saints that was feared. In that event the hapless Mormons were 
punished, not for crimes committed, but for crimes they were 
expected to commit. 

Besides the charge of "tampering with tbe Indians," the Mor- 
mons were accused by the Missourians of being abolitionists — anti- 
slavery advocates — which charge, supported only by the fact that 
tln\ were mostly eastern and northern people, was sufficient at that 
time, and in that region, to blacken their characters irredeemably. 


Their United Order theories were dubbed "Communism," and were 
said to involve a community, not only of goods and chattels, but of 
wives. Also, — though the reader may smile incredulously at the 
statement, — the fact that they were poor was urged as an accusation 
of evil against them. This charge, unlike the rest, had the merit of 
being strictly true. 

A man named Pixley, local agent for a Christian missionary 
society, took an active and initiative part in circulating these reports, 
which were caught up by others and sown broad-cast until well-nigh 
all Jackson County with the anti-Mormon spirit was aflame. As 
early as April, 1833, meetings were held to consider the most effec- 
tive means of ridding the county of the unpopular Mormons. Law- 
ful methods were not considered, for obvious reasons. The Mormons 
were law-abiding and peaceable. Poverty, superstition, unity, unpop- 
ular doctrines, — these were their crimes. What law, in a land of 
civil and religious liberty, could reach them I No ; law could not, 
but mob violence, trampling on law, strangling liberty in her very 
sanctuary, could and would, and did. 

Three hundred men assembled one day in April, at Indepen- 
dence, and endeavored to unite upon a plan for the proposed Mormon 
extirpation. Too much liquor having been imbibed beforehand, the 
meeting, after much cursing and quarreling, broke up in confusion. 

Other attempts, in July, were more successful. On the 20th of 
that month a mass meeting of five hundred convened, presided over 
by Colonel Richard Simpson. James H. Flournay and Colonel 
Samuel D. Lucas acted as secretaries. A declaration against the 
Saints, embodying charges similar to the foregoing, was unanimously 
adopted, and it was resolved that they be required to leave the 
county forthwith, and that no Mormon be permitted in future to 
settle there. It was demanded that the publication of the Evening 
and Morning Star be at once suspended. A committee of thirteen 
was sent to confer with the local Mormon leaders, acquaint them with 
the decision made concerning them and their people, and repori to 
the mass meeting within two hours. The committee having executed 


its errand returned, reporting that the Mormons requested sufficient 
time to fully consider the matter and consult their leaders in Ohio. 

A furious yell was the only answer vouchsafed, and forth rushed 
the mob to begin its work of outrage and destruction. A red flag led 
them on. Surrounding the house of William W. Phelps, editor of 
the Star, they razed it to the ground, confiscating the printing press. 
type and other materials found upon the premises. The editor's 
family, including his wife with a sick child in her arms, were brutally 
thrust into the street, and the household furniture, books, etc., 
destroyed or carried away by the rabble. The editor himself was 
captured, but escaped through the crowd. 

The Church store was next assailed, but the mob soon desisted 
from their work of plunder and gathered upon the public square. 
Thither, Bishop Edward Partridge had been dragged from his 
fireside. Refusing to at once leave the county, he was stripped 
of most of his apparel, covered with tar. and feathers were thrown 
over him. Elder Charles Allen suffered similar treatment. Mixed 
with the tar was a powerful acid which severely burned their flesh. 
Other Mormons were threatened and abused. Night coining on, the 
mob dispersed. 

These lawless acts were committed, not alone by the rabble, 
ignorant, easily inflamed, and perhaps not wholly accountable for 
their frenzy, but by men of prominence and position. Clergymen, 
magistrates, state and county officials, who had sworn to honor and 
sustain the law, looked on approvingly while the law was being- 
violated, and even participated in its infraction. It is said that the 
leaders of the mob, prior to engaging in these acts of vandalism, in 
imitation of the patriot founders of the nation pledged to each other 
" their bodily powers, their lives, fortunes and sacred honor." 
Shortly alter the affair. Lilburn W. Boggs, Lieutenant-Governor of 
Missouri, said to some of the Mormons: "You now know what our 
Jackson boys can do. and you must leave the county."' 

Three days after the assault upon Bishop Partridge and his 
brethren, the mobocratic mass-meeting again convened, this time in 


greater numbers than before. The recent acts of violence had seem- 
ingly sated in part their anger. At all events they were a little more 
reasonable than before. A new committee was appointed to confer 
with the leading Mormons, and the result was a mutual agreement 
between the two parties. By the terms of this compact, one half the 
Saints were to be permitted to remain in the county until the 1st of 
January, 1834, and the other half until the 1st of April. It was 
agreed that the Star should not again be published, nor a printing- 
press set up by any Mormon in Jackson County. Their immigration 
thither was at once to cease. In return for these concessions by the 
Saints, the committee gave a pledge that no further attacks 
should be made upon them. This agreement the mass meeting 
ratified and then adjourned. 

Oliver Cowdery now carried to Kirtland a full account of what 
had taken place in Missouri. Affairs in Ohio at that time were 
far from peaceable. The Prophet was harassed with law-suits, and 
frequently threatened with violence. Yet the Kirtland Stake was 
progressing. The corner-stone of the Temple was laid on the very 
day that the Jackson County mob issued its decree of expatriation 
against the Saints. It was decided, after Elder Cowdery*s arrival, to 
purchase a new printing press and continue the publication of the 
Evening and Morning Star at Kirtland ; also that another paper 
called the Latter-day Saints' Messenger and Advocate be published 
there. The latter was succeeded by the Elders' Journal. 

About the middle of September the Prophet sent Orson Hyde 
and John Gould to Missouri, with a message of comfort and 
instruction to his people in that State. By this time the mob 
troubles in Jackson County had resumed. It was Punic faith in 
which the Saints had trusted. The pledge given by the mass 
meeting in July had been broken. Two months had not elapsed 
before the mob renewed hostilities. Some of the Saints then moved 
into adjoining counties, hoping thereby to allay excitement anil 
secure peace and tranquility. Vain hope. They had no sooner 
settled there than they were threatened with expulsion from these 


newly acquired homes. " The Mormons must go ! " was now the 
prevailing sentiment south of the Missouri river. 

An appeal was next made to the Executive of the State. Daniel 
Dunklin was then Governor of Missouri. A document setting forth 
the wrongs the Saints had suffered from their fellow-citizens of 
Jackson County, describing the situation, and asking for military aid 
and protection while seeking redress in the courts, was carried to 
Jefferson City and delivered at the Governor's mansion by William 
W. Phelps and Orson Hyde. This document was dated September 
28th, 1833. A reply was received late in October. The Governor 
declined to give the military aid requested, but advised the peti- 
tioners to make a trial of the efficacy of the laws, and promised that 
if they failed to obtain a proper execution of the same he would then 
take steps for their relief. 

Pursuant to the Governor's advice, though not without some 
apprehension as to the result, the Mormons, having secured for the 
sum of a thousand dollars the services of four lawyers, instituted 
legal proceedings against their oppressors. It was as the application 
of the lighted match to the mine. An explosion of popular fury fol- 
lowed, before which, like stones and timbers of some huge building 
blown, to atoms, the entire Mormon community, men, women and 
children, were driven in every direction from Jackson County. 

It was about the last of October. Night attacks by armed mobs 
were made simultaneously at several points. Beyond the Big Blue 
river, in the western part of the county, houses were unroofed, men 
beaten, and women and children driven screaming into the wil- 
derness. Similar scenes were enacted elsewhere. For three con- 
secutive nights the work of rapine and ruin went on. At Independ- 
ence houses were attacked and the expelled inmates whipped and 
pelted with stones. The Church store was broken open and plun- 
dered, its goods strewing the streets. One man, caught in the act of 
robbing the store, was taken before Justice of the Peace Samuel 
Weston, who refused to issue a warrant for his arrest. The robber 
was thus turned loose to rejoin his companions. Later, the Mor- 


mons who had arrested him were taken into custody, charged with 
assaulting their prisoner. Being fired at while under arrest, they 
were placed in jail to save them from the fury of the rabble. Every 
effort of the Mormons to obtain justice was unavailing. The 
officers of the law were either too timid to come to their rescue, or 
were in league with the mob against them. The circuit judge at 
Lexington, being applied to for a peace warrant, refused to issue one, 
but advised the Mormons to arm themselves and shoot down the 
outlaws who came upon them. 

To the Saints such advice was most repugnant. Their religion 
forbade strife, and strictly prohibited the needless shedding of blood. 
To meet violence with violence, however, now seemed their only 
recourse. The mob, emboldened by their policy of non-resistance, 
were hourly becoming more aggressive. The Mormons must either 
defend themselves, or supinely submit to wholesale outrage, plun- 
der and massacre. Preferring the former course, they followed the 
advice of the Lexington judge and armed themselves, and the next 
onslaught of their foes found them ready to receive them. 

On the 4th of November a marauding band fired upon some of 
the settlers beyond the Big Blue. A battle ensued. Several Mor- 
mons were wounded, one fatally, and it was found that two of the 
banditti had bitten the dust. The Mormon mortally wounded was a 
young man named Barber. He died next day. Philo Dibble, who 
was thought to be fatally shot, recovered and is still living, an aged 
and respected citizen of Utah. 

A " Mormon uprising" was now widely heralded. The purpose 
of the Missourians had been accomplished. They had goaded their 
victims to desperation, and at length blood had been shed. The rest 
of the program was comparatively easy. On November 5th Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Boggs ordered out the militia to suppress the alleged 
insurrection. Colonel Thomas Pitcher, a radical anti-Mormon, was 
placed iu command. He permitted the mobocrats, who had caused 
the trouble, to enroll themselves among the troops called out to put 
down the "uprising." He required the Mormons to lay down their 


arms, and deliver up to be tried for murder certain men who had 
taken part in the previous day's battle. The rest of the community 
were required to leave the county forthwith. 

The first two behests being obeyed, Colonel Pitcher, to enforce 
speedy compliance with the other, turned loose his mob militia to 
work their will upon the disarmed and helpless Saints. Scenes beg- 
garing description were now enacted. Armed bands of ruffians 
ranged the county in every direction, bursting into houses, terrify- 
ing women and children and threatening the defenseless people 
with death if they did not instantly flee. One of these bands was 
led by a Christian minister heading, like another Peter the Hermit, 
this holy crusade. Out upon the bleak prairies, along the Missouri's 
banks, chilled by November's winds and drenched by pouring rains, 
hungry and shelterless, weeping and heart-broken, wandered forth 
the exiles. Families scattered and divided, husbands seeking wives, 
wives husbands, parents searching for their children, not knowing if 
they were yet alive. Such was the sorrowful scene — a veritable 
Acadian tableau — enough, it might be thought, to melt a heart of 
stone. But alas, the human heart, inhumanized by hate, is harder 
than stone. 

.Most of the refugees, after much suffering from hunger and 
exposure, found an asylum in Clay County, on the opposite shore, 
where they were kindly received and their woes compassionated. All 
the other counties to which the Mormons had fled followed the 
example of Jackson and expelled them from their borders. Ten 
settlements were now left desolate. 

But the exiles did not despair. It was a lawless mob that had 
driven them from their homes and robbed them of their possessions. 
Surely in a land of law and order there was recompense and redress 
for such wrongs. The Governor, Judges and other state officials 
were in turn appealed to, and even the President of the United 
Stales was memorialized in relation to the Jackson County tragedy. 
Courteous replies came back, deprecating and deploring what had 
taken place, lull that was all. Governor Dunklin held that he could 


not lawfully extend military aid to maintain the Mormons in posses- 
sion of their homes, and the reply of the President, hy the Secretary 
of War, was to the same effect. The mob then was supreme. So 
seemed it to these homeless and plundered American citizens, suing 
in vain for redress at the feet of the highest civil and military 
authority in the land. 

. President Jackson, as well as Governor Dunklin, doubtless sin- 
cerely desired to right the wrongs of the exiles. It was not like 
"Old Hickory,"* with his "anti-nullifying" record, to hesitate or falter 
in the presence of what he deemed a duty unperformed. He evidently 
thought, as most Democrats would think, that the Jackson County 
episode was a local wrong to be locally rectified, and that he was 
powerless, unless requested by the Governor or the Legislature of the 
State, to interfere and take action against the Missouri mob, as he 
had formerly against the South Carolina nullifiers. 

As to Governor Dunklin, a well-meaning though rather weak 
official, he perhaps did all that a man of his calibre and stamina 
could be expected to do under the circumstances. At his instance a 
court of inquiry was held, and Colonel Pitcher for his conduct was 
court-martialed. It was decided that there had been no Mormon 
uprising, and that the calling out of the troops and the enforced sur- 
render of arms by citizens defending themselves against unrighteous 
aggression, was therefore unnecessary and unlawful. The Governor 
commanded the officers of the militia to restore to the Mormons their 
arms. This order they ignored. Further efforts for the relief 
of the Saints were made by fair-minded citizens, — who regarded the 
Jackson County affair as a grave crime, a stain upon the fair fame of 
the State, — but owing to popular prejudice, and the difficulty of 
enforcing in a mobocratic community the edicts of law and order, no 
adequate recompense was eVer given, and the Mormons remain dis- 
of their lands in that locality to this day. 

Nearly sixty years have passed since then, yet Jackson County, 

* A surname of Andrew Jackson's. 


Missouri, to the Latter-day Saints, is still "the land of Zion." Stakes 
of Zion have multiplied, and the people have flocked thereto ; but 
" the place for the city " has remained unchanged. Zion has not 
been "moved out of her place, notwithstanding her children are scat- 
tered." The generation which once possessed the land — whose 
descendants still possess it — after repeated mobbings and massacres, 
endured for conscience-sake, have nearly all fallen asleep. But 
their aims and aspirations survive in the hearts of their children, 
who as confidently look forward as did ever their exiled sires, who 
followed Joseph Smith to Nauvoo and Brigham Young into the 
wilderness, to the eventual return of the Saints to Jackson County. 
and the rearing upon its sacred soil, consecrated by their fathers for 
that purpose, of the glorious Zion of their hopes. 





Brigham Young, the founder of utah, embraces mormonism — heber c. kimball enters 

the fold wilford woodruff george a. smith jedediah m. grant erastus 

snow the first high council organized zion's camp the twelve apostles 

chosen the seventies selected a revelation on priesthood mormonism and edu- 
cation the kirtland temple dedicated lorenzo snow the missouri mormons 

their removal from clay county to caldwell the founding of far west. 

JUST prior to the Jackson County expulsion, the main incidents of 
which tragic event were narrated in the preceding chapter, 
there arrived at Kirtland two men, both destined to become 
prominent and powerful in the future of Mormonism, and one of whom 
was fated to win a place in fame's pantheon among the most remark- 
able men of history. That man was Brigham Young. His com- 
panion was Heber C. Kimball. 

It was not their introduction to Mormonism, nor indeed their 
first visit to the head-quarters of the Saints. Twice before had 
Brigham, and once before had Heber been to Kirtland. Both had 
espoused the cause at Mendon, Monroe County, New York, from 
which place they had now permanently removed, to take up their 
abode in the bosom of the Church and thenceforth follow the for- 
tunes of their people. 

Both these men were natives of Vermont; Brigham Young 
having been born at Whitinghani. in Windham County, June 1st, 
1801, and Heber C. Kimball at Sheldon. Franklin County, on June 
14th of the same year. At the time that Mormonism was taking 
root in western New York and northern Pennsylvania they were 
dwelling in the town of Mendon. Heber was by trade a poller: 
Brigham a carpenter and joiner, painter and glazier. Though nut 


highly educated, — a common school training, and a limited amount 
of that, being all that either could boast, — they were men of gifted 
minds, possessing unusual intelligence and strength of character. 

Brigham Young was a man of undoubted genius, — a master 
mind, well balanced and powerful, thoroughly practical in thought 
and method, and of Napoleonic energy and intuition. Heber C. 
Kimball was a natural prophet, — a poet he would have been, had 
education lent his genius wings. A deep spiritual thinker, a great 
yet simple soul, replete with eccentricity. In religion Heber, when 
Mormonism found him, was a Baptist ; while Brigham, like Joseph 
Smith in his boyhood, leaned toward Methodism. 

Brigham Young first saw the Book of Mormon in the spring of 
1830, at the home of his brother Phineas in Mendon. It had been 
left there by Samuel H. Smith, brother to the Prophet. Two years 
later a party of Mormon Elders from Pennsylvania came preaching 
in that neighborhood. Being converted to the faith, Brigham was 
baptized by Eleazer Miller on the 14th of April, 1832. Heber C. 
Kimball was baptized by Alpheus Gifford on the day following. 
John Young, senior, Phineas H., Joseph and Lorenzo D. Young, 
John P. Greene, Israel Barlow and a score of others with their 
families, in and around Mendon, also embraced Mormonism about the 
same time. Ordained to the ministry, Brigham, Heber and others 
rendered the Church efficient service in that region. 

Not long afterward Brigham and Heber. accompanied by Joseph 
Young, visited Kirtland and became acquainted with the Prophet. It 
was the summer or fall of 1832. This was the first meeting of 
Joseph Smith with the man who was destined to be his successor. 
It is said that Joseph predicted about this time that Brigham Young- 
would yet preside over the Church. 

Returning east the three visiting Elders re-engaged in the work 
of the ministry, Brigham and Joseph Young visiting Upper Canada, 
whence the former, in July, 1833, led several families of converts to 
Kirtland. Again returning to Mendon. where his wife had died the 
year before, Brigham and his two motherless daughters dwelt for a 


season under the roof-tree of his friend Heber, and in the fall of that 
year accompanied him and his family to Kirtland. 

Other notable stars were likewise dawning or were about to 
dawn upon Mormonism's cloud-hung horizon. Wilford Woodruff, 
afterwards an Apostle and the fourth President of the Church, was 
baptized by Zera Pulsipher at Richland, Oswego County, New York, 
on December 31st. 1833. He was a native of Farmington — now 
Avon — Hartford County, Connecticut, and was born March 1st, 1807. 
George A. Smith, a cousin of the Prophet's, had come to Kirtland 
with his parents from Potsdam. St. Lawrence County, New York, in 
May, 1833. Jedediah M. Grant, of Broome County. New York, had 
joined the Church in March, and Erastus Snow, in February, had 
espoused the faith in his native State of Vermont. George A. and 
Jedediah were then youths of sixteen and seventeen respectively, and 
Erastus only a lad of fourteen. 

It was about this time that D. P. Hurlburt was severed from the 
Church for immoral conduct. He felt his disgrace keenly. He first 
threatened the Prophet's life, — for which he was tried and put under 
bonds at Chardon, — and then set diligently to work to stir up strife 
and prejudice against the Mormons and their leader. He was quite 
successful in this, and the Prophet was guarded night and day by 
trusty friends, who feared his attempted assassination. We have 
already seen how Hurlburt, after his expulsion from the Church, 
originated the theory identifying the Book of Mormon with the 
Spaulding story. 

On the 17th of February, 1834, was organized at Kirtland the 
fust High Council of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints. It was composed of twelve High Priests, presided over by 
three of the same order. A few words here in relation to High 
Councils and Mormon religious tribunals in general. 

It is pretty well known by this time that the Mormon leaders do 
not favor litigation among their followers; that ••brother going to 
law against brother" is an offense against the precepts and regula- 
tions of the Church. To obviate the need of such things there are 


instituted among the Saints tribunals called Bishops" Courts and 
High Councils, the members of which serve gratuitously and - labor 
much in the capacity of peace-makers ; adjusting difficulties between 
Church members in such a way as to save expense and prevent ill- 
feeling at the same time. 

The Teacher is the peace-maker proper of the Church, but if he 
finds it impossible to reconcile the parties disagreeing, it is his duty 
to report the case to the Bishop, — whose officer he is, — together with 
any iniquity he may discover from time to time in visiting among the 
Saints of his '•district. - * There may be many districts and many 
teachers, — two of whom usually act together, — in the "ward" over 
which the Bishop and his two counselors as High Priests preside. 

The Bishop's Court hears evidence pro and con and decides 
accordingly. An appeal from its decision may be taken, if the 
gravity of the case warrants, to the High Council of the Stake in 
which the Bishop"s ward is located. A Stake may have many 
wards, as the Church at large has many Stakes. Each Stake has its 
High Council, consisting of twelve High Priests, presided over by 
three other High Priests who are known as the Stake Presidency. 
This presidency, to whom the ward Bishops are accountable, are 
amenable themselves to the First Presidency. The High Councils 
are the appellate courts of the Church, having also original jurisdic- 

Each party to a case before the High Council has a right to be 
represented by half the members of that body. — one or more on 
either side being appointed to defend him. — and the matter in 
dispute having been thoroughly ventilated, the President renders 
his decision, which, if sustained by a majority of the Council, is the 
end of controversy, unless a rehearing is ordered by the First 
Presidency on a review of the evidence. 

The greatest punishment inflicted by the Bishop's Court is disfel- 
lowshipment, — suspension from all privileges of Church membership.* 

This applies to persons holding llio MelehisenVk Priesthood. Members not holdi 
that Priesthood maj be excommunicated 1 >y llie Bishop's Couri. 


The extreme penalty adjudged by the High Council is excommunica- 
tion from the Church. All its members are amenable for transgres- 
sion to these tribunals, one of the main objects of which is to pre- 
vent expensive and strife-breeding litigation among the Saints. 
They were not designed, though it is often alleged, to supersede or 
in any way interfere with the operations of the civil courts. Accord- 
ing to Mormon doctrine, offenders against the laws of the land 
are amenable to those laws, as interpreted by legally constituted 

The twelve High Priests composing the fmt High Council, 
organized in February 1834. were Oliver Cowdery, Joseph Coe, 
Samuel H. Smith. Luke Johnson, John S. Carter, Sylvester Smith, 
John Johnson, Orson Hyde, Jared Carter, Joseph Smith, senior, John 
Smith and Martin Harris. The presidency of this council was 
identical with the First Presidency of the Church, namely : Joseph 
Smith, junior, Sidney Rigdon and Frederick G. Williams. 

In the latter part of February, the Prophet began organizing at 
Rutland, an expedition for the relief of his people in Missouri. This 
organization is known in Mormon history as Zion's Camp. It con- 
sisted when complete of two hundred and five men, nearly all Elders. 
Priests, Teachers and Deacons, organized as a military body, with 
Joseph Smith as their general. They took with them twenty wagons, 
well laden with supplies. The object of the expedition was to 
"redeem Zion:" in other words to regain possession of the lands in 
Jackson County from which the Saints had been driven. It subse- 
quently transpired that the Prophet had another purpose in view : 
that of proving the mettle of the men who were to be his future 

One hundred of the Camp left Kirtland on the 5th of May, 
1834. The remainder reinforced them on the way. They crossed 
the Mississippi early in June, and in the latter part of the month 
pitched their tents between two forks of Fishing River, Missouri. 
between Richmond. Ray County, and Liberty, the county seal of 
Clay. There they were joined by some of their brethren of those 


parts, and from them learned particulars of further outrages upon 
the few remaining Saints in Jackson County. 

The news of the coming of Zion's Camp, with exaggerated 
rumors concerning their numbers and the purpose of the expedition, 
created considerable excitement in western Missouri. Armed bands 
went out to meet them, and dire threats were uttered as to their 
doom. They were saved from attack one night on Fishing River by 
a terrible storm which beat back their foes and rendered the raging 
stream impassable. Colonel Sconce, of Ray County, Sheriff Gilliam, 
of Clay, and other prominent men of that vicinity then visited the 
camp and conversed with the Mormon leader. Having learned from 
him that his design was merely to secure an amicable adjustment of 
the difficulties between his despoiled disciples and the people of Jack- 
son County, they were soon placated and became friendly. 

Certain dissensions had broken out in Zion*s Camp while on the 
way from Kirtland, and the Prophet, it is said, severely reprimanded 
some of his followers and predicted that a scourge would come upon 
the camp in consequence. Certain it is that a scourge did come, in 
the form of cholera, appearing among them about the 22nd of June. 
Sixty-eight were attacked by the malady, and thirteen or fourteen 
died. Among those who fell victims was Algernon S. Gilbert, who 
had kept the Church store at- Independence. 

During the plague the camp removed from Fishing River to 
within a few miles of Liberty. There they were met by General 
David R. Atchison and others, who in a friendly spirit recpuested that 
they come no nearer the town, as the excitement caused by the sen- 
sational rumors concerning them had not yet abated. This request 
was complied with, the Camp changing its course to Rush Creek, 
where some of the Mormons had settled. In order to show still 
further that his motives were not hostile, the Prophet disbanded his 
force and apprised General Atchison of the fact, requesting him to 
inform Governor Dunklin, whose ears were being filled with all sorts 
of tales from Jackson County regarding "Joe Smith and his army."' 

Negotiations, already begun, now continued between the Mormon 


leaders and the men of Jackson County. The latter proposed to pur- 
chase the possessions of the Saints in that locality. To this the Mor- 
mons would not listen, deeming it sacrilege to sell their •'sacred 
inheritance." On their part they submitted a proposition to buy out 
all residents of Jackson County who did not desire to dwell as their 
near neighbors. This offer their opponents rejected. It was evident 
that upon no condition would the Mormons be permitted to return. 
Samuel C. Owens, a prominent mobocrat, advised the Mormons to 
"cast an eye back of Clinton" — a distant county — and seek a new 
home in the wilderness. Believing that further effort would be vain, 
at all events for the present, the Prophet concluded to return to Kirt- 

Before starting, however, he organized a High Council among 
his followers in Clay County, and set apart a presidency to take 
charge of the Church in Missouri. David Whitmer, William W, 
Phelps and John Whitmer were that presidency. The twelve high 
councilors were as follows : Simeon Carter, Parley P. Pratt, William 
E. McLellin, Calvin Beebe, Levi Jackman. Solomon Hancock, Chris- 
tian Whitmer, Newel Knight, Orson Pratt, Lyman Wight, Thomas B. 
Marsh and John Murdock. This High Council was organized early 
in July, 1834. On the 9th the Prophet and his friends set out for 
Kirtland. And so ended the Zion's Camp expedition. 

Work on the Kirtland Temple was now zealously prosecuted. 
The Saints, as before stated, were poor, and of late their numbers in 
Ohio had been much diminished by the Missouri emigrations. But 
all united with a will. — the Prophet and other Elders setting the 
example by laboring in the quarry or upon the building, while the 
women sewed, knit, spun and made clothing for the workmen. The 
walls of the edifice, which were only partly reared when the Missouri 
expedition took from Kirtland nearly all the bone and sinew of the 
Church, now that the laborers had returned climbed rapidly toward 

The next notable event in Mormon history was the choosing of 
the Twelve Apostles, the council next in authority to the Firsl Presi- 



dency. It took place at Kirtland on Saturday, February 14th, 1835. 
The survivors of Zion's Camp were that day called to assemble, and 
the Twelve were selected from their numbers. The choosing was 
done by the Three Witnesses to the Book of Mormon, after which 
each Apostle was blessed and set apart by the First Presidency. 

The Twelve Apostles were equal in authority, but the order of 
precedence in council was determined by their ages. According to 
seniority they ranged as follows: Thomas B. Marsh, David W. Pat- 
ten, Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Orson Hyde. William E. 
McLellin, Parley P. Pratt, Luke Johnson, William Smith, Orson Pratt, 
John F. Boynton, Lyman E. Johnson. 

The same month witnessed the selection of the Seventies — 
assistant Apostles — who were likewise chosen from the ranks of the 
survivors of Zion's Camp. Two quorums of Seventies were ordained. 
Their names are here given : 


Hazen Aldrich, 

Joseph Young, 
Levi W. Hancock. 
Leonard Rich, 
Zebedee Coltrin, 

Lyman Sherman. 
Sylvester Smith. 


Elias Hutchings 
Cyrus Smalling, 
Levi Gilford. 
Stephen Winchester, 
Roger Orton. 
Peter Buchanan, 
John D. Parker, 
David Elliot. 
Samuel Brown. 
Salmon Warner, 
Jacob Chapman, 
Charles Kelley, 
Edmund Fisher, 
Warren Parrish, 
Joseph Hancock, 

Alden Burdick, 
Hiram Winters. 
Hiram Blackmail, 
William D. Pratt, 
Zera S. Cole. 
Jesse Huntsman, 
Solomon Angell, 
Henry Herriinan, 
Israel Barlow. 
Jenkins Salisbury. 
Nelson Higgins, 
Harry Brown. 
Jezaniah B. Smith, 
Lorenzo Booth, 
Alexander Badlam. 
Zerubbabel Snow, 
1 Lupin RiggS, 
Edson Bail icy, 
Joseph B. Noble, 
Henry Benner. 
David Evans, 
Nathan B. Baldwin 
Burr Riggs, 
Lewis Bobbins. 

Alex. Whitesides, 
George W. Brooks, 
Michael Griffith, 
Royal Barney. 
Libbeus T. Coons, 
Willard Snow, 
Jesse D. Harmon, 
Heman T. Hyde. 
Lorenzo D. Barnes, 
Hiram Stratton, 
Moses Martin, 
Lyman Smith, 
Harvey Stanley. 
Almon W. Babbitt, 
William F. Cahoon, 
Darwin Richardson, 
Milo Andrus, 
True Glidden, 
Henry Shiblcy. 
Harrison Burgess, 
Jedediab M. Giant. 
Daniel Stevens. 
Amasa M. Lyman, 
Crm-r A. Smith, 



Elijah Fordham, 
Hyrum Dayton, 
Joel H. Johnson, 
Daniel Wood, 
Reuben McBride, 
Jonathan Holmes, 
Lorenzo D. Young, 
Wilford Woodruff, 
Jonathan Crosby, 
Truman 0. Angell, 
Chauncey G. Webb, 
Solon Foster, 
Erastus Snow, 
Nathan Tanner, 
John Gould, 
Stephen Starks, 
Levi Woodruff, 
William Carpenter. 
Francis G. Bishop, 
William Gould. 
Sherman A. Gilbert. 
William Redfield, 
John Herrit, 
Jonathan Hampton. 


Samuel Phelps, 
Joel McWithy, 
Selah J. Griffin, 
Shadrach Rouudy, 
Zera Pulsipher, 
King Follett, 
Joseph Rose, 
Robert Culbertson, 
John Young, 
James Foster. 
Salmon Gee, 
Nathaniel Millikin. 
Gad Yale. 
Josiah Butterfield, 
Elias Benner, 
Ariel Stephens, 
William Perry, 
Milton Holmes, 
James Dalay, 
Arvin A. Avery, 
Charles Thompson, 
Joshua Grant, 
Andrew J. Squires, 

Bobert Rathburn, 
Giles Cook, 
John E. Page, 
William Tenney, 
Edmund Marvin. 
Marvel C. Davis, 
Almon Shearman, 
Isaac H. Bishop, 
Elijah Beed, 
Bums Fisher, 
Dexter Stillman, 
Thomas Gates, 
Uriah B. Powell. 
Amasa Bonney, 
Ebenezer Page, 
Loren Babbitt, 
Levi S. Nickerson, 
Edmund Durfee, jr 
Henry Wilcox. 
Edmund M. Webb. 
William Miller, 
Stephen Post, 
William Bosley, 

From the following paragraphs of a revelation on Priesthood the 
reader may derive all desired information regarding the duties and 
powers of the various councils and quorums in the Church: * 

There are, in the church, two Priesthoods, namely, the Melchisedek, and Aaronic 
including the Levitical priesthood. 

Why the first is called the Melchisedek Priesthood, is because Melchisedek was such 
a great High Priest. 

Before his day it was (ailed the Holy Priesthood, after the order of the Son of God. 

Hut mil of respect or reverence In the name of the Supreme Being, to avoid the too 
frequent repetition of his name, they, the church, in ancient days, called that Priesthood 
after Melchisedek. or the Melchisedek Priesthood. 

All other authorities <>r offices in the church are appendages to this Priesthood; 

But there arc two divisions or grand heads — one is the .Melchisedek Priesthood, and 
the other is the Aaronic, or Levitical priesthood. 

( lovenants, Se 


The office of an elder comes under the Priesthood of Melchisedek. 

The Melchisedek Priesthood holds the right of Presidency, and 1ms power and 
authority over all the offices in the church in all ages of the world, to administer in spirit- 
ual things. 

The Presidency of the High Priesthood, alter the order of Melchisedek. have a right 
to officiate in all the offices of the church. 

High Priests after the order of the Melchisedek Priesthood, have a right to officiate in 
their own standing, under the direction of the Presidency, in administering spiritual 
things: and also in the office of an elder, priest, (of the Levitical order.) teacher, dea- 
con and member. 

An elder has a right to officiate in his stead when the High Priest is not present. 

The High Priest and elder are to administer in spiritual things, agreeable to the cove- 
nants and commandments of the church; and they have a right to officiate in all these 
offices of the church when there are no higher authorities present. 

The second priesthood is called the priesthood of Aaron, because it was conferred 
upon Aaron and his seed, throughout all their generations. 

Why it is called the lesser priesthood, is because it is an appendage to the greater or 
the Melchisedek Priesthood, and has power in administering outward ordinances. 

The bishopric is the presidency of this priesthood and holds the keys or authority of 
the same. 

No man has a legal right to this office, to hold the keys of this priesthood, except he 
lie a I i lend descendant of Aaron. 

But as a High Priest of the Melchisedek Priesthood has authority to officiate in all 
the lesser offices, he may officiate in the office of bishop when no literal descend. ml ..I 
Aaron can be found, provided he is called and set apart and ordained unto this power by 
the hands of the Presidency of the Melchisedek Priesthood. 

The power and authority of the Higher or Melchisedek Priesthood, is to hold the keys 
of all the spiritual blessings of the church — 

To have the privilege of receiving tin' mysteries of the kingdom of heaven — to have 
the heavens opened lo them — to Commune with the general assembly and church of the 
first horn, anil to enjoy the communion and presence of God the Father, and .lesus the 
Mediator of the new covenant. 

The power and authority of tin/ lesser, or Aaronic priesthood, is to hold the keys of 
the ministering of angels, and to administer in outward ordinances, the letter of the gospel 
— the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins, agreeable to the covenants and 

Of necessity there are presidents, or presiding offices growing out of, or appointed of 
or from among those who are ordained to the several offices in those two priesthoods. 

Of the Melchisedek Priesthood, three Presiding High Priests, chosen by the body, 
appointed and ordained to thai office, and upheld by the confidence, faith, and prayer of 
the church, form a quorum of the Presidency of the church. 

The Twelve traveling counselors are called lo be the Twelve apostles, or special wit- 
nesses of the name of Christ in all the world; thus differing from other officers in the 
church in the duties of their calling. 


And they form a quorum, equal in authority and power to the three Presidents pre- 
viously mentioned. 

The seventy are also called to preach the gospel, and to be especial witnesses unto 
the Gentiles and in all the world. Thus differing from other officers in the church in the 
duties of their callings ; 

And they form a quorum equal in authority to that of the Twelve special witnesses 
or apostles just named. 

And every decision made by either of these quorums, must be by the unanimous 
voice of the same : that is, every member in each quorum must be agreed to its decisions, 
in order to make their decisions of the same power or validity one with the other. 

(A majority may form a quorum, when circumstances render it impossible to be 

The Twelve are a traveling presiding High Council, to officiate in the name of the 
Lord, under the direction of the Presidency of the church, agreeable to the institution of 
heaven; to build up the church, and regulate all the affairs of the same in all nations : 
first unto the Gentiles, and secondly unto the Jews. 

The seventy are to act in the name of the Lord, under the direction of the Twelve or 
the traveling High Council, in building up the Church and regulating all the affairs of the 
same in all nations — first unto the Gentiles and then unto the Jews ; 

The Twelve being sent out, holding the keys, to open the door by the proclamation of 
the gospel of Jesus Christ — and first unto the Gentiles and then unto the Jews. 

Verily, I say unto you, says the Lord of hosts, there must needs be presiding elders 
In preside over those who are of the office of an elder; 

And also priests to preside over those who are of the office of a priest ; 

Ami also teachers to preside over those who are of the office of a teacher: in like 
manner, and also the deacons ; 

Wherefore, from deacon to teacher, and from teacher to priest, and from priest to 
elder, severally as they are appointed, according to the covenants and commandments of 
the church. 

Then comes the High Priesthood, which is the greatest of all: 

Wherefore it must needs be that one be appointed of the High Priesthood to preside 
over the Priesthood, and he shall be called President of the High Priesthood of the 
church ; 

Or. in other words, the Presiding High Priest over the High Priesthood of the 

From the same comes the administering of ordinances and blessings upon the church, 
by the laying on of the hands. 

Wherefore the ol'liee of a bishop is nol equal unto il : for the office of a bishop is in 
administering all temporal things; 

Nevertheless a bishop must be chosen from the High Priesthood, unless he is a literal 
descendant of Aaron ; 


For unless he is a literal descendant of Aaron he cannot hold the keys of that priest- 

Nevertheless, a High Priest that is after the order of Melchisedek, may be set apart 
unto the ministering of temporal things, having a knowledge of them by the Spirit of 

And also to be a judge in Israel, to do the business of the church, to sit in judgment 
upon transgressors upon testimony as it shall be laid before him according to the laws, by 
the assistance of bis counselors, whom he has chosen, or will choose among the elders of 
the church. 

This is the duty of a bishop who is not a literal descendant of Aaron, but has been 
ordained to the High Priesthood after the order of Melchisedek. 

* * * * * * * * * 

But a literal descendant of Aaron has a legal right to the presidency of this priest- 
hood, to the keys of this ministry, to act in the office of bishop independently, without 
counselors, except in a case where a President of the High Priesthood, after the order of 
Melchisedek, is tried, to sit as a judge in Israel. 

And again, verily I say unto you, the duty of a president over the office of a deacon 
is to preside over twelve deacons, to sit in council with them, and to teach them their duty 
— edifying one another, as it is given according to the covenants. 

And also the duty of the president over the office of the teachers is to preside over 
twenty-four of the teachers, and to sit in council with them, teaching them the duties of 
their office, as given in the covenants. 

Also the duty of the presMent over the priesthood of Aaron is to preside over forty- 
eight priests, and sit in council with them, to teach them the duties of their office, as is 
given in the covenants. 

This president is to be a bishop; for this is one of the duties of this priesthood. 

Again, the duty of the president over the office of elders is to preside over ninety-six 
elders, and to sit in council with them, and to teach them according to the covenants. 

This presidency is a distinct one from that of the seventy, and is designed for those 
who do not travel into all the world. 

And again, the duty of the President of the office of the High Priesthood is to pre- 
side over the whole church, and to be like unto Moses. 


And it is according to the vision, showing the order of the seventy, that they should 
have seven presidents to preside over them, chosen out of the number of the seventy; 

And the seventh president of these presidents is to preside over the six; 

And these seven presidents are to choose other seventy besides the first seventy, to 
whom they belong, and are to preside over them; 

And also other seventy, until seven times seventy, if the labor in the vineyard of 
necessity requires it. 

And these seventy are to be traveling ministers unto the Gentiles first, and also unto 
the .lews; 

Whereas other officers of the church, who belong not unto the Twelve, neither to the 


seventy, are not under the responsibility to travel among all nations, but are to travel as 
their circumstances shall allow, notwithstanding they may hold as high and responsible 
offices in the church. 

Early in May the Twelve Apostles started upon their first mis- 
sion. They traveled through the Eastern States and Upper Canada, 
preaching, baptizing, advising the scattered Saints to gather west- 
ward, and collecting means for the purchase of lands in Missouri and 
the completion of the Kirtland Temple. They went two by two, 
but met together in councils and conferences at various points. Late 
in September they returned to Kirtland. 

It is often asserted by opponents of Mormonism that the 
founders of the Church were coarse and illiterate men, and that the 
system itself fosters ignorance and is opposed to education. The 
assertion is for the greater part groundless. That many of the early 
Elders were at the outset of their careers uncultured and unlearned, 
is true. No Latter-day Saint disputes it. But that Mormonism 
fosters or favors ignorance, or in any Avay opposes education, they 
emphatically deny. •'It is impossible to be saved in ignorance." 
"A man is saved no faster than he gets knowledge." " The glory of 
God is intelligence." "Seek ye out of the best books words of wis- 
dom ; seek learning even by study and also by faith." Sample 
precepts, these, of Joseph Smith's. No teacher ever taught more 
plainly that knowledge in any sphere, in or out of the world, is 

Reference has already been made to the establishment of the 
School of the Prophets at Kirtland, and its counterpart the School of 
Elders in Missouri. These were instituted mainly for spiritual 
culture. Other schools were founded by the Prophet for secular 
instruction. A grammar school at Kirtland. taught by Sidney 
Rigdon and William E. McLellin, was supplemented by a school of 
science and languages, presided over by learned preceptors engaged 
for that purpose. Professor Seixas, a finished scholar, was one of 
these. The Prophet and many other Elders attended these schools. 

At the age of thirty Joseph Smith was no longer an illiterate 


youth, but had become, if not a ripe and rounded scholar, at least a 
proficient student, uniting with the lore of ancient languages the 
far-seeing wisdom of a statesman and a social philosopher. Later he 
added to these acquirements a knowledge of law. It was about this 
time that he translated, from papyrus found upon some mummies 
brought from the catacombs of Egypt, the record known as the Book 
of Abraham. 

The views of the Prophet and his people on civil government 
and its relationship with religion are set forth in the following pro- 
nunciamento of August, 1835 : * 

We believe that governments were instituted of God for the benefit of man, and that 
he holds men accountable for their acts in relation to them, either in making laws or 
administering them, for the good and safety of society. 

We believe that no government can exist in peace, except such laws are framed and 
held inviolate as will secure to each individual the free exercise of conscience, the right 
and control of property, and the protection of life. 

We believe that all governments necessarily require civil officers and magistrates to 
enforce the laws of the same, and that such as will administer the law in equity and 
justice, should be sought for and upheld by the voice of the people (if a republic,) or the 
will of the sovereign. 

We believe that religion is instituted of God, and that men are amenable to him, and 
to him' only, for the exercise of it, unless their religious opinions prompt them to infringe 
upon the rights and liberties of others ; but we do not believe that human law has a right 
to interfere in prescribing rules of worship to bind the consciences of men, nor dictate 
forms for public or private devotion ; that the civil magistrate should restrain crime, but 
never control conscience; should punish guilt, but never suppress the freedom of the 

We believe that all men are bound to sustain and uphold the respective governments 
in which they reside, while protected in their inherent and inalienable rights by the laws 
ut -mil governments; and that sedition and rebellion are unbecoming every citizen thus 
protected, and should be punished accordingly; and that all governments have a right to 
enact such laws as in their own judgment are best calculated to secure the public interest, 
.ii the same time, however, holding sacred the freedom of conscience. 

We believe that every man should he honored in his station: rulers and magistrates 
as such, being placed for the protection of the innocent, and the punishment of the guilty : 

mill that In Mie laws, nil ii owe respect and deference, as without them peace and harmony 

would he supplanted by anarchy and terror: human laws being instituted for the express 
purpose of regulating our interests as individuals and nations, between man and man. and 

* I (octrine and < lovenants, Se< 


divine laws given of heaven, prescribing rules on spiritual concerns, for faith and worship, 
both to be answered by man to his Maker. 

We believe that riders, states, and governments, have a right, and are bound to enact 
laws for the protection of all citizens in the free exercise of their religious belief; but we 
do not believe that they have a right in justice, to deprive citizens of this privilege, or 
proscribe them in their opinions, so long as a regard and reverence are shown to the laws, 
and such religious opinions do not justify sedition nor conspiracy. 

We believe that the commission of crime should be punished according to the nature 
of the offence; that murder, treason, robbery, theft, and the breach of the general peace, 
in all respects, should be punished according to their criminality, and their tendency to 
evil among men, by the laws of that government in which the offence is committed ; and 
for the public peace and tranquility, all men should step forward and use their ability in 
bringing offenders against good laws to punishment. 

We do not believe it just to mingle religious influence with civil government, whereby 
one religious society is fostered, and another proscribed in its spiritual privileges, and the 
individual rights of its members as citizens, denied. 

We believe that all religious societies have a right to deal with their members for dis- 
orderly conduct according to the rules and regulations of such societies, provided that such 
dealings be for fellowship and good standing ; but we do not believe that any religious 
society has authority to try men on the right of property or life, to take from them this 
world's goods, or to put them in jeopardy of either life or limb, neither to inflict any physi- 
cal punishment upon them, they can only excommunicate them from their society, and 
withdraw from them their fellowship. 

We believe that men should appeal to the civil law for redress of all wrongs and 
grievances, where personal abuse is inflicted, or the right of property or character infringed, 
where such laws exist as will protect the same ; but we believe that all men are justified 
in defending themselves, their friends, and property, and the government, from the unlaw- 
ful assaults and encroachments of all persons, in times of exigency, where immediate 
appeal cannot be made to the laws, and relief afforded. 

We believe it just to preach the gospel to the nations of the earth, and warn 
the righteous to save themselves from the corruption of the world ; but we do not 
believe it right to interfere with bond servants, neither preach the gospel to, nor baptize 
them, contrary to the will and wish of their masters, nor to meddle with or influence 
them in the least, to cause them to be dissatisfied with their situations in this life, thereby 
jeopardizing the lives of men ; such interference we believe to be unlawful and unjust, 
and dangerous to the peace of every government allowing human beings to be held in 

The Kirtland Temple was dedicated on the 27th of March, 1836. 
Part of the interior at the time was in an unfinished state. It had 
occupied three years in construction, and had cost between sixty and 
seventy thousand dollars. The dimensions of the edifice were eighty 
by sixty feet; the walls being fifty-seven feet high to the eaves. It 


comprised two stories and an attic ; the whole surmounted by a 
tower. The building, which was chiefly of stone, stood upon a hill, 
and was the most conspicuous object visible for miles. 

The main purpose of the temple was the administration of relig- 
ious ordinances, but it was also designed and used for schools, meet- 
ings and councils of the Priesthood. Unlike all temples since 
erected by the Saints, there was no baptismal font in this building ; 
the ordinance of baptism for the dead — for which such fonts are 
principally used — not yet being practiced in the Church. We will 
here state, for the benefit of the uninformed, that the Mormons 
believe that vicarious work, such as baptisms, confirmations, ordina- 
tions, marriages, etc., may be performed by the living for the dead ; 
for their friends and progenitors who died without a knowledge of 
the gospel. This is one of their chief objects in temple building. 

Accounts of many miraculous manifestations are recorded in 
connection with the Kirtland Temple ; among them the following by 
Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery, dated April 3rd, 1836 : * 

The vail was taken from our minds, and the eyes of our understanding were opened. 

We saw the Lord standing upon the hreastwork of the pulpit, before us, and under 
his feet was a paved work of pure gold in color like amber. 

His eyes were as a flame of fire, the hair of his head was white like the pure snow, 
his countenance shone above the brightness of the sun, and his voice was as the sound of 
the rushing of great waters, even the voice of Jehovah, saying — 

I am the first and the last, I am he who liveth, I am he who was slain, I am your 
advocate with the Father. 

Behold, your sins are forgiven you, you are clean before me, therefore lift up your 
heads and rejoice, 

Let the hearts of your brethren rejoice, and let the hearts of all my people rejoice, 
who have, with their might, built this house to my name, 

For behold, I have accepted this house, and my name shall be here, and I will man- 
ifest myself to my people in mercy in this house, 

Yea, 1 will appear unto my servants, and speak unto them with mine own voice, if 
my people will keep my commandments, and do not pollute this holy house, 

Yea tin' hearts of thousands and tens of thousands shall greatly rejoice in conse- 
quence <>l the blessings which shall be poured out, and the endowment with which my 
servants have been endowed in this house; 

* Dnclrine and (lovcnanls. Section 110. 


And (lie feme of this house shall spread to foreign lands, anil this is the beginning of 
the blessing which shall be poured out upon the heads of my people. Even so. Amen. 

After this vision closed, the heavens were again opened unto us, and Moses appeared 
before us, and committed unto us the keys of the gathering of Israel from the four parts 
of the earth, and the leading of the ten tribes from the land of the north. 

After this, Elias appeared, and committed the dispensation of the gospel of Abraham, 
saying, that in us, and our seed, all generations after us should be blessed. 

After this vision had closed, another great and glorious vision burst upon us, for 
Elijah the prophet, who was taken to heaven without tasting death, stood before us, and 
said — 

Behold, the time has fully come, which was spoken of by the mouth of Malachi, tes- 
tifying that he (Elijah) should be sent before the great and dreadful day of the Lord come, 

To turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the children to the fathers, lest 
the whole earth be smitten with a curse. 

Therefore the keys of this dispensation are committed into your hands, and by this 
ye may know that the great and dreadful day of the Lord is near, even at the doors. 

Among those who came to Kirtland during this period, attracted 
thither not by the religion of the Saints, but by the advantages for 
lingual training in the Hebrew school founded by the Prophet, was 
Lorenzo Snow, a native of Mantua, Portage County, in that State, who 
had been pursuing his studies at Oberlin College. Lorenzo was then 
a youth of twenty-two. His sister, Eliza R. Snow, the poetess, had 
joined the Church in April, 1835, and at the time that her brother 
came to Kirtland was living in the Prophet's household. Lorenzo 
was baptized in June, 1836, by Apostle John F. Boynton. 

Returning now to the Mormons in Missouri. Expelled with fire 
and sword from Jackson County in the fall of 1833, they had dwelt 
since then among the hospitable and kindly disposed people of Clay 
County. Nearly three years they had dwelt there in peace and amity. 
Though that section was regarded by them as only a temporary abid- 
ing place, where they awaited the day when law and justice should 
restore them to their former homes, they had nevertheless secured 
lands, purchased or erected dwellings, workshops, etc., and were re- 
ceiving constant accessions to their numbers by immigration. With 
these peaceful and legitimate pursuits little or no fault had hitherto 
been found. 

But now a change had come. The people of Clay County had 


partaken in a measure of the anti-Mormon spirit which reigned in 
Jackson. The Saints were on the eve of another exodus, another 
general abandonment of their homes; though not threatened, as 
before, with "fire and brand and hostile hand." with robbery and 
expulsion from the roofs which of late had sheltered them. They 
had been recraestecl, however, to remove as a community from Clay 
County, and "seek some other abiding place, where the manners, the 
habits and customs of the people would be more consonant with their 
own." Such was the action taken regarding them by a mass meet- 
ing of reputable citizens which convened at Liberty on the 29th of 
June, 1836. 

No charge of crime had been preferred against the Mormons. 
It was not claimed that they had infringed upon the rights of their 
fellow citizens, broken the laws of the land, or been wanting in 
respect and loyalty to the local or the general government. True, 
the old charges were afloat of what they intended doing, what their 
opinions were on the negro and Indian questions, etc., and these, 
with their continuous immigrations into the county, were doubtless 
among the chief reasons for the change of sentiment concerning 
them. The men of Jackson County too, were constantly sowing the 
seeds of ill-will between the old settlers of Clay County and the Mor- 
mons. Doubtless some of the latter, — for there are cranks and 
criminals among all peoples, — warranted the adverse opinions 
formed respecting them. But this, despite the fly-in-the-ointment 
proverb, ought not to have condemned the whole community. 

Yet they were not accused of crime, of any overt act against 
peace and good order. It was argued merely that " they were east- 
ern men, whose manners, habits, customs and even dialect, were 
essentially different*' from those of the Missourians; that they were 
"non-slaveholders, and opposed to slavery ; " and that their religious 
tenets were "so different from the present churches of the age" that 
they "always had, and always would, excite deep prejudices against 
them in any populous country where they might locate." Such a 
prejudice, it was claimed, had taken root in Clay County, and had 


grown into "a feeling of hostility that the first spark might ignite 
into all the horrors and desolations of a civil war." 

Hence, in the spirit of mediation, with an earnest desire to 
avert such a calamity for the sake of all, had the mass meeting 
spoken. Such was its candid and no doubt truthful claim. "We 
do not contend," said these citizens of Clay County, " that we have 
the least right, under the constitution and laws of the country to 
expel them (the Mormons) by force. * * * We only ask 
them, for their own safety and for ours, to take the least of the two 
evils." The " least evil " in question was that no more Mormons 
should settle in Clay County, and that those already there should 
remove to some other place at as early a period as possible. 

Though perfectly aware that in complying with this request they 
would surrender some of their dearest rights as American citizens, 
and that if they saw fit they might entrench themselves behind the 
bulwark of the Constitution and defy their opponents to legally dis- 
lodge them, for the sake of peace and through a sense of gratitude 
for former kindness, the Mormons decided to make the required sac- 
rifice and leave the county. First, however, they determined to put 
upon record their denial of the charges afloat concerning them. 

At a meeting held on July 1st, presided over by William W. 
Phelps, a preamble and resolutions were reported by a committee 
previously appointed for the purpose. Therein the Mormons 
expressed gratitude and good will toward the people of Clay County 
for past kindness; denied having any claim to lands further than 
they purchased with money, or more than they were allowed to pos- 
sess under the Constitution and laws of the country; denied being 
abolitionists, or that they were holding communications with the 
Indians, and affirmed their fealty to the government, its laws and 
institutions. They agreed, however, for the sake of peace and 
friendship, to comply with the requisitions of the mass meeting held 
in June. 

Within three months they were on their way, migrating, after 
selling out at a sacrifice, to the spot selected as the site of their new 


home. It was known as the Shoal Creek region, comprising the 
upper part of Ray County, north and east of Clay. It was a wilder- 
ness, almost entirely unoccupied, seven men only inhabiting its 
solitudes. These were bee-hunters. The Mormons purchased their 
possessions, pre-empted other lands in the vicinity, and were left the 
sole occupants of that region. Here, in this isolated spot, where the 
question of social and religious differences could not well arise, at 
least for the present, they hoped to dwell unmolested, worshiping 
God in their own way, — in the way that they believed He bad com- 

In December, 1836, in response to their petition, the Legislature 
of Missouri incorporated the Shoal Creek region and some adjoining- 
lands containing a few settlers, as a separate county, to which was 
given the name of Caldwell. The Mormons were permitted to organ- 
ize the county government and select its officers. Here the Saints 
settled in large numbers, and founded during the winter of 1836-7 
the city of Far West. 




The kirtland apostasy — the temporal at war with the spiritual — financial 

disasters " something new must be done to save the church" opening of the 

british mission heber c. kimball and his confreres in lancashire marvelous 

success of mormonism abroad affairs at kirtland continued a dark hour 

brigham young's fidelity john taylor setting in order the church flight of 

the prophet and his friends from kirtland the church removes to missouri 

excommunications new calls to the apostleship the law of tithing instituted. 

HILE the events last narrated were occurring in Missouri, 
affairs at Kirtland had bee"n hastening to a crisis. A spirit 
essentially antagonistic to the genius of religion, — opposed to the 
success of any great spiritual movement such as Mormonism, had 
crept into the Church and was playing havoc with the faith and once 
fervent zeal of many of its members. 

The spirit of speculation, then so prevalent throughout the 
nation; the greed of worldly gain, so fatal to religious enthusiasm 
in all ages, was rapidly permeating the Mormon community at 
Kirtland, cooling the spiritual ardor of the Saints, and diverting 
the minds of many followers of the Prophet from the aims and 
purposes for which they had renounced "the world" to become his 
associates and disciples. 

Even some of the leading Elders,— Apostles. High Priests and 
Seventies, — whose especial mission, unless otherwise directed by 
their superiors, was to administer in spiritual things, were neglecting 
the duties enjoined upon them and plucking greedily the golden fruit 
that hang so temptingly from the tree of mammon. Reproved for 
their remissness by the Prophet, they became angry, and falling 


away from their fealty to Joseph, sowed the seeds of disaffection 
among their friends and sympathizers. 

Thus occurred the first serious apostasy in the Church. Before 
it was over, about half the council of the Apostles, one of the First 
Presidency and many other prominent Elders had become disaffected, 
and some of them bitterly hostile to the Prophet and all who adhered 
to him. Outside enemies were not slow to take advantage of this 
situation, and unite with the Church's internal foes in various 
schemes for its destruction. 

The Kirtland '-boom** — as it would now be styled — began in the 
summer or fall of 1836. and during the following winter and spring 
went rushing and roaring on toward the whirlpool of financial ruin 
that soon swallowed it. The all-prevailing desire to amass wealth 
did not confine itself to mercantile pursuits, real estate dealings, and 
other branches of business of a legitimate if much inflated character, 
but was productive of "wild-cat" schemes of every description, 
enterprises in every respect fraudulent, designed as traps for the 

An effort was made by the Prophet, who foresaw the inevitable 
disaster that awaited, to stem the tide of recklessness and cor- 
ruption now threatening to sweep everything before it. For this 
purpose the Kirtland Safety Society was organized, the main object of 
which was to control the prevailing sentiment and direct it in legiti- 
mate channels. The Prophet and some of his staunches! supporters 
became officers and members of this association. 

The career of the Kirtland Bank was very brief. Unable to col- 
lect its loans, victimized by counterfeiters, and robbed by some of its 
own officials — subordinates having charge of the funds — it soon col- 
lapsed. A heroic effort was made to save it. Well-to-do members of 
the Church beggared themselves to buy up the bank's floating paper 
and preserve its credit.* But in vain. In common with many other 
banks and business houses throughout the country, — for it was a 

Isaac Decker, a prosperous farmer, was one of these. 


year of general financial disaster, — it went down in the ruinous 
crash of 1837. 

Another opportunity was thus given to heap censure upon the 
Prophet ; an opportunity of which his enemies, in and out of the 
Church, cphckly availed themselves. As a matter of fact Joseph had 
withdrawn from the Society some time before, not being satisfied 
with the way events were shaping. It mattered not. Someone had 
done wrong, and someone must be blamed. As usual the most promi- 
nent target was the one fired at. Before this, however, so intense 
had become the feeling against the Prophet at Kirtland, that it was 
almost as much as one's life was worth to defend him against his 
accusers. Affairs with Mormonism had reached a culminating point, 
where it was evident — to use the Prophet's own words — that '-some- 
thing new must be done for the salvation of the Church." 

Joseph Smith believed, — as all men must, into whose ideas the 
philosophy of the divine Nazarene enters, — that the spiritual must 
save the temporal ; that life alone can redeem from death. Conse- 
quently, he kneAV that in the crisis now reached, — a stagnation of the 
spiritual life-blood of the Church, — a strong reactionary movement 
was essential to its resuscitation. Too much care for the temporal, 
with a corresponding neglect of the spiritual, had nearly proved the 
ruin of Mormonism. The supremacy of the spiritual over the tem- 
poral, — the basic and crowning principle of the salvation offered by 
Jesus Christ, — must needs be emphasized and reasserted. At this 
period, therefore, the Prophet planned and executed a project as a 
measure of rescue from the ruin which seemed impending. It was 
to send his Apostles across the sea and plant the standard of Mor- 
monism upon the shores of Europe. 

Hitherto the labors of the Elders had been confined to various 
parts of the United States and Upper Canada. Into that province 
such men as Brigham and Joseph Young, Orson Pratt. Parley P. 
Pratt and even the Prophet himself had penetrated and made many 
converts. Parley P. Pratt's missions to Canada had been especially 
productive. Among his converts in the city of Toronto, in the 


spring or summer of 1836, was John Taylor, afterwards an Apostle, 
and the third President of the Church. But as yet no foreign 
mission had been attempted. Indeed, at that time, when the age of 
steamships and railways was in its infancy, and months instead of 
days were consumed in crossing the Atlantic, the idea of a voyage 
over the ocean was to ordinary minds little less awe-inspiring and 
miraculous than a projected flight to the moon. To send the Elders 
to Great Britain, however, and "open the door of salvation to that 
nation," was the plan conceived by the Prophet early in the summer 
of 1837. 

The Apostle chosen to stand at the head of this important 
mission was Heber C. Kimball, a staunch friend of Joseph's, a man 
unlettered, but possessed of much native ability and mental and 
physical force. Hifc companion Apostle was Orson Hyde, better 
educated and considerable of an orator. Orson was a native of 
Oxford, New Haven County, Connecticut, where he was born on the 
8th of January, 1805. Another of the party was Elder Willard 
Richards, a cousin to Brigham Young, late of Berkshire County. 
Massachusetts, who had but recently joined the Church. Willard 
was the pioneer of the numerous and distinguished Richards family 
in Mormonism. 

The other members of the mission were Joseph Fielding, a 
Canadian convert, Isaac Russell, John Goodson and John Snider. 
The last three were now in Canada. 

Apostle Kimball and the others left Kirtland on the 13th of June. 
Being joined by the Canadian party in New York, they sailed from 
that port July 1st, on board the packet Grarrick bound for Liverpool. 

It is not our purpose in these pages to give a detailed account of 
the rise and progress of the British Mission, — the first and so far 
greatest foreign mission established by the Latter-day Saints. — 
nor of the various missions which radiated from and grew out of it. 
Such a work would necessarily fill volumes. Only the main incidents 
of that wonderfully successful missionary movement. — which was 
destined to bring into the Church and emigrate to America, from 


Great Britain alone, between fifty and seventy-five thousand souls, — 
can here be touched upon. 

Landing at Liverpool on July 20th, 1837, the day that Queen 
Victoria ascended the throne, Apostle Kimball and his confreres 
tarried two days in that city, and then repaired by coach to Preston, 
thirty miles distant. There Joseph Fielding had a brother, the 
pastor of a church, who had previously been informed by letter from 
Joseph and other relatives in Canada, of the rise and spread of Mor- 
monism in America. He opened his church— Vauxhall Chapel — to 
the Elders, who, the day after their arrival at Preston, it being the 
Sabbath, preached from his pulpit the first sermons delivered by 
Mormon Elders on the eastern hemisphere. 

Baptisms soon followed, then the usual opposition, — though of 
a much less violent character than had been experienced in some 
parts of America. The Reverend James Fielding, the first to wel- 
come the Elders and extend to them ministerial courtesy, was also 
the first to withdraw from them the hand of friendship. Learning 
that some of his flock had been converted by their preaching, and 
had applied to them for baptism, he quickly closed his pulpit against 
the Elders and was thenceforth their bitter opponent. Later, the 
Reverend Robert Aitken, a famous minister of that period, entered 
the lists against them. Nothing daunted, for they were inured to 
such treatment, the Elders betook themselves to the streets and 
public squares, preaching in the open air to vast crowds — tradesmen, 
laborers, factory hands, farmers, etc., — that thronged from all sides 
to hear them. They also addressed audiences in private houses, thai 
were opened for their accommodation. More opposition ensued, and 
greater success followed. 

From Preston, having there gained a foothold, the missionaries. 
separating, passed into other counties. Richards and Goodson went 
to the city of Bedford, Russell and Snider to Alston, in Cumberland, 
while the two Apostles with Joseph Fielding remained to spread the 
work in Preston and introduce it into other towns and villages of 


Everywhere success attended them. — success nothing short of 
marvelous. Whole villages were converted at a sweep, and fresh 
friends flocked round them almost daily. The people as a rule were 
very poor, and the Elders, themselves penniless, preaching "without 
purse or scrip," and most of the time laboring arduously, suffered 
many privations. But there was no dearth of warm hearts and 
willing hands, and though the fare was often less than frugal, the 
shelter never so scant, the guests whom these poor people delighted 
to honor were ever welcome to the best and most of it. 

Sunday. July 30th. 1837— the tenth day of the Elders on 
British soil — witnessed their first baptisms, nine in number, in the 
river Babble, which runs through Preston. Sunday, April 8th, 1838, 
a little over eight months afterward, at a conference held there prior 
to the return of the Apostles to America, their total following in that 
land was reported at about two thousand souls. Three-fourths of 
these had been converted by one man. — the unlettered but magnetic 
Apostle, Heber C. Kimball. Twenty-six branches of the Church were 
represented. Thus was laid the foundation of the British Mission. 

Apostles Kimball and Hyde with Elder Bussell on the 20th of 
April sailed from Liverpool aboard the Garrick, homeward bound. 
Joseph Fielding was left to preside over the British Mission, with 
Willard Richards and William Clayton as his counselors. Clayton 
was an English convert. Goodson and Snider — the former being 
disaffected — had returned to America some months before. 

On the 12th of May the returning Apostles landed at New York. 
There they met Orson Pratt, who. with his brother Parley, had suc- 
ceeded after much labor in raising up a branch of the Church in 
that city. Parley's celebrated work, the Voice of Warning, which 
was destined to convert thousands to Mormonism. had been pub- 
lished there the year before. Two days after landing, the Kimball 
party proceeded on to Kirtland, arriving there on the 22nd of May. 

Returning now to the summer of 1837. While Mormonism had 
been prospering abroad, what had been its fortunes in America '. 
The tidal wave of disaffection still swept over Kirtland. The Mor- 


mon leader was denounced as "a fallen prophet" by men who 
had been his trusted friends and associates. A plot was formed 
to depose him from the Presidency and put another in his 
stead. Concerned in this conspiracy were several of the Apostles 
and some of the witnesses to the Book of Mormon. Their choice 
for Joseph's successor was David Whitmer, one of the Three 

Heber C. Kimball, when appointed to his foreign mission, had 
asked the Prophet if Brigharn Young might go with him. The 
answer was : "No; I want him to stay with me. I have something 
else for him to do." 

Doubtless it was well for Joseph and for Mormonism in general 
that he decided to keep by him a't that time the lion heart and 
intrepid soul of Brigharn Young. Firm as a rock in his fealty to his 
chief, he combined sound judgment, keen perception, with courage 
unfaltering and sublime. Like lightning were his intuitions, his 
decisions between right and wrong; like thunder his denuncia- 
tions of what his soul conceived was error. A man for emergencies, 
far-sighted and inspirational ; a master spirit and natural leader of 

Well might Joseph, — brave almost to rashness, — whose genius, 
though lofty and general in its scope, was pre-eminently spiritual, 
while Brigham's was pronouncedly practical, wish to have near him 
at such a time, just such a man. In that dark hour, — the darkest 
perhaps that Mormonism has seen, — when its very foundations 
seemed crumbling, when men supposed to be its pillars were weaken- 
ing and falling away, joining hands secretly or openly with ils 
enemies, the man Brigharn never faltered, never failed in his 
allegiance to his leader, never ceased defending him againsl his 
accusers, and as boldly denouncing them betimes for falsehood, 
selfishness and treachery. His life was imperilled by his boldness. 
He heeded not. but steadily held on his way, an example of valor 
and fidelity, a faithful friend, sans pair et sans reproche. 

Among others who stood loyal to the Prophet was John Taylor, 

10-VOL. 1. 


the future Apostle and President, who arrived at Kirtland from his 
home in Canada in the latter part of 1837. It was in Toronto, dur- 
ing August of that year, that Joseph Smith and John Taylor had first 
met. Seven years later they stood side by side in an Illinois 
dungeon, facing an infuriate mob, together receiving the bullets. — 
fatal to Joseph, well-nigh fatal to John, — which reddened with their 
mingled life-blood the floor of Carthage jail. 

Soon after the Prophet's return from Canada, a return rendered 
barely possible by mobs lying in wait to attack him, a conference was 
held at Kirtland and steps taken to purge the disaffected element 
from the various councils of the Priesthood. It was Sunday. 
September 3rd, 1837. On that day the Church voted with uplifted 
hands to sustain in office the following named Elders: Joseph Smith, 
junior, as President of the Church; Sidney Rigdon as his first 
counselor; Oliver Cowdery, Joseph Smith, senior, Hyrum Smith and 
John Smith, as assistant counselors; Thomas B. Marsh, David W. 
Patten, Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, Parley P. 
Pratt, Orson Pratt, William Smith and William E. McLellin as 
members of the council of the Apostles ; John Gaylord, James 
Foster, Salmon Gee, Daniel S. Miles, Joseph Young, Josiah Butter- 
field and Levi Hancock, as Presidents of Seventies, and Newel K. 
Whitney as Bishop of Kirtland, with Reynolds Cahoon and Jared 
Carter as his counselors. 

Frederick G. Williams, one of the First Presidency ; Luke S. and 
Lyman E. Johnson and John F. Boynton, three of the Apostles, and 
John Gould, one of the Presidents of Seventies, were rejected. Five 
members of the High Council were also objected to by the people, 
and new ones appointed in their stead. 

Affairs of a similar nature, with other business pertaining to the 
settlement of the Saints in their new gathering place, now sum- 
moned the Prophet to Missouri. In company with Elder Rigdon and 
others he left Kirtland on September 27th. and reached Far West 
about the 1st of November. On the 7th of that month a conference 
was held there, at which the general and local Church authorities 


were presented, as usual, to the congregation. Frederick G. 
Williams, being rejected as one of the First Presidency, Hyrum 
Smith, the Prophet's brother, was chosen in his stead. The local 
presidency, David Whitmer, John Whitmer and William W. Phelps, 
after some consideration were retained in office, as were also the 
members of the High Council. Bishop Edward Partridge and his 
counselors, Isaac Morley and Titus Billings, were likewise sustained. 
It was decided, during the Prophet's stay, to enlarge the plat of Far 
West to two miles square. About the 10th of November he 
started back to Kirtland, arriving there a month later. 

During his absence Warren Parrish, John F. Boynton, Joseph 
Coe and others had dissented from the Church, and aided and 
abetted by prominent Elders in Missouri, were now conspiring for 
its overthrow. In every way possible they sought to induce others 
to join them. Brigham Young's only reply was to denounce 
them. Wilford Woodruff, likewise approached, remained immovable. 
John Taylor stood staunchly by Joseph. As for Heber C. Kimball. 
Orson Hyde and Willard Richards, they had given their answer in 
June, when they accepted a call to cross the Atlantic and herald on 
Europe's shores the advent of a restored Gospel, and a latter-day 
Prophet in the person of Joseph Smith. The Pratt brothers, Bishop 
Whitney and many more threw in their lot with the Prophet, while 
others equally prominent forsook him. 

Soon after his return from Missouri, the dissenters at Kirtland 
boldly came out. proclaiming themselves the Church of Christ, "the 
old standard." and denouncing Joseph and his followers as heretics. 
Then came the climax. Threatened with assassination, their lives 
in imminent jeopardy, the Church leaders were finally compelled hi 
tlee. Brigham Young, to escape the fury of a mob which had 
sworn to kill him, left Kirtland on the 22nd of December. Ke 
directed his course toward Missouri. Less than three weeks later 
the Prophet and Elder Bigdon fled also. Their flight being discov- 
ered, they were pursued by armed men a distance of two hundred 
miles, narrowly escaping capture. The Prophet and his party, 


including Brig-ham Young and others who had joined him, reached 
Far West about the middle of March, 1838. 

Several weeks before, a general assembly of the Saints had con- 
vened there for the purpose of setting in order the Church in Mis- 
souri. David Whitmer, John Whitmer and William W. Phelps, the 
local presidency, whose conduct for some time had not been satisfac- 
tory to the people, were now suspended from office. Subsecpuently they 
were severed from the Church. William W. Phelps soon returned, 
but the Whitmer brothers were never again connected with the cause. 

The Prophet having arrived, the work of "setting in order" con- 
tinued. Evidently a clean sweep had been determined on. The 
Church, so nearly brought to ruin by apostates in Ohio, insomuch 
that a general exodus of the Saints from that state was now neces- 
sary, could no longer afford to harbor within its fold the disaffected 
element, indifferent to or bent upon its destruction. The tree, in 
order to live, must be pruned of its dead branches. 

Doubtless this end was in view when, at the April conference of 
1838. Thomas B. Marsh, Brigham Young and David W. Patten were 
chosen to preside over the Church in Missouri. Under their admin- 
istration the work of pruning went vigorously on. Neither high nor 
low were spared, except they speedily brought forth "fruits of repent- 
ance.*' The excommunicating axe even lopped some of the loftiest 
limbs. Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer. Martin Harris, Luke S. and 
Lyman E. Johnson, John F. Boynton and William E. McLellin were 
all deprived of membership in the Church during this period. Luke 
Johnson afterwards returned, and became one of the Utah pioneers 
of 1847. Oliver Cowdery and Martin Harris also rejoined the 
Church many years later, but the others were never again identified 
with Mormonism. The vacancies in the council of the Twelve 
caused by the excommunication of Elders Boynton, McLellin and the 
Johnson brothers, were filled by the calling of John Taylor, John E. 
Page, Wilford Woodruff and Willard Richards to the Apostleship. 

The departure of the Church leaders from Kirtland had been 
the sunal foi a general migration of the Mormons from Ohio to 


Missouri. Far West was now their gathering place, — not their Zion, 
but only a stake of Zion, as Kirtland had been before. All during 
the spring and summer of 1838 the exodus continued, until the 
Saints remaining at Kirtland were very few. Apostles Kimball and 
Hyde, arriving there from Europe in May, tarried only long enough 
to arrange their affairs and make suitable preparations for their jour- 
ney to Missouri. About the 1st of July the two Apostles, accompan- 
ied by Erastus Snow, Winslow Farr and others, with their families, 
set out for Far West. Among those remaining at Kirtland were 
Bishop N. K. Whitney and Oliver Granger, who had charge of the 
Church property in Ohio. 

At Far West, on the 8th of July, the law of tithing was insti- 
tuted as a standing law of the Church. Hitherto it had been prac- 
ticed only by individuals. Its observance was now obligatory upon 
all, officers as well as members. 

This event signalized the discontinuance of the United Order, 
which had practically been dissolved some time before. According to 
that system, which, as has been shown, the Saints yet hope to estab- 
lish, the members of the community consecrated their all, and each, 
being given a stewardship, with his or her support, labored unitedly 
for the common weal. The law of tithing, which bears about the 
same relation to the Order of Enoch as the Mosaic law to the gospel 
of Christ, required of them as individual possessors, (1) all their su^ 
plus property, to be placed in the hands of the Bishop and by* 
him cared and accounted for; (2) one tenth of all their interest 

The fund thus created was for the support of the Priesthood. — 
such as devoted their whole time to the service of the Church. — the 
building of temples and for public purposes in general. From the 
first, however, much of the tithing fund, together with special offer- 
ings for that purpose, was expended to support the helpless poor. 
Such was and is the law of tithing, instituted in July, 1838. and 
observed by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to this 




The mormons in Missouri — far west, diahman and dewitt — a slumbering volcano — 

celebrating the nation's birthday the state election attempt to prevent 

mormons from voting — the gallatin riot the volcano awakes daviess county in 

arms joseph smith and lyman wight arrested the mob army threatens 

diahman the mormons arm in self-defense generals atchison. parks and doni- 
phan the saints exonerated siege and bombardment of dewitt governor boggs 

appealed to he declines to interfere dewitt evacuated and diahman again 

threatened gilliam's guerillas the mormon militia make war upon the mob 

the danites battle of crooked river death of david w. patten governor 

boggs espouses the cause of the mobocrats the mormons to be " exterminated 



•L HE Mormons in Missouri in the summer of 1838 numbered in 

Nr the neighborhood of twelve thousand souls. All were not 


located in Caldwell County. Lands had been purchased or 

pre-empted by them in other places as well. In two of the counties 

contiguous to Caldwell, namely : Daviess on the north, and Carroll 

on the east, in parts previously unoccupied or but thinly peopled, 

they had founded flourishing settlements. In Daviess County, as in 

Caldwell, a stake of Zion was organized. 

Their chief settlement in Daviess County was Adam-ondi-Ahman,* 

— abbreviated to Diahman ; the one in Carroll County, Dewitt. Good 

order, sobriety and industry prevailed, and peace and prosperity were 

everywhere manifest. "Heaven smiles upon the Saints in Caldwell," 

wrote the Prophet at the time, and even in parts where they were 

* So named, said Hie Prophet, because Adam, who dwell there after being drivei 
from Eden, would there sit, as Ancient of Days, fulfilling the vision of Daniel. Th 
Garden of Eden, Joseph Smith declared, was in Jackson County, 


not, as there, politically dominant, they were thriving and dwelling 
in amity with their neighbors. 

But all this must soon change. The old fires were but smoul- 
dering. The volcano only slept. Beneath the fair frail crust of out- 
side seeming lurked the burning lava streams, — the pitiless torrent of 
human hate, — about to be belched forth in whelming ruin upon the 
hapless Saints. Missouri, in spite of every promise and fair pros- 
pect, — whatever the far future might develop, — was not yet to be 
their permanent abiding place. Inexorable fate with iron finger 
pointed elsewhere. Destiny, for these sons and daughters of the 
Pilgrims, had other fortunes in store. History. — the history of 
religion in quest of liberty, wading in its search through rivers of 
blood and tears, — for the hundredth time was preparing to repeat 

July 4th, that day of days, in the year 1838 was celebrated at 
Far West with great rejoicings. Thousands of the Saints assembled 
from the surrounding districts to witness and participate in the pro- 
ceedings in honor of the nation's birthday. Yes. these "disloyal" 
Mormons, — for disloyal even then they were deemed, — many of 
whom might trace their life-stream back to its parent lake in the 
bosom of patriots of the Revolution, came together, erected a liberty- 
pole, unfurled the stars and stripes, sacred emblem of the success 
and sufferings of their heroic ancestors, and worshiped gratefully 
beneath its glorious folds the God of truth and freedom. 

True, it was but their custom so to do, as it has continued their 
custom ever since. But such had been their past experience, 
deprived as many of them had been of that liberty for which their 
forefathers contended, and such was their present situation, as to 
render the occasion one of peculiar interest. Robbed of their rights, 
despoiled and trampled on, for daring to believe as conscience 
dictated, and exercise as American freemen the privileges guaran- 
teed by a Constitution which they believed to be God-inspired, 
instituted for their especial protection, small wonder that some of the 
sentiments uttered that day. a day on which patriotism is prone to 


take unusual and oft-times extravagant flights, did not smack entirely 
of saintly meekness. 

"We take God to witness," cried Sidney Rigdon, in a burst of 
heated eloquence, "and the holy angels to witness this day, that we 
warn all men in the name of Jesus Christ to come on us no more for- 
ever. The man or the set of men who attempt it do it at the expense 
of their lives ; and the mob that comes on us to disturb us, there 
shall be between us and them a war of extermination, for we will 
follow them till the last drop of their blood is spilled, or else they 
will have to exterminate us." 

Censure such sentiments, Christian reader, if you will. Fault- 
finding is easy, and human nature, the world over, weak and cen- 
surable. But the provocation, in such ;cases, should in all fairness 
be considered. 

The foundations of a temple at Far West were likewise laid that 
day; the Saints thus emphasizing their determination to establish in 
that place a permanent stake of Zion. Why that temple was not 
built, nor another temple, projected at Diahman, we have yet in 
detail to explain. 

Among the numerous charges preferred against the Mormon 
people, by those who seek to justify or extenuate the harsh treatment 
to which they have at various times been subjected, is that of "med- 
dling in politics." Parallel with this runs the charge of "voting 
solidly" for the candidates of their choice. 

If by meddling in politics is meant — as we assume it must mean 
— practicing or participating in politics, the science of government, 
there is little doubt that the defendant community, if arraigned on 
such a charge, would promptly plead guilty. Moreover, they would 
very likely inquire if the right of any class of American citizens, no 
matter to what creed or church attached, to wield the ballot and 
peacefully strive to put in office the persons of their choice, could 
legally or morally be called in question? As to "voting solidly," they 
would probably plead guilty again, but they might ask who was 
responsible for it in their case, — for the unity and compactness of an 


oppressed people at the polls ? Outside pressure, they would main- 
tain, — the principle that even in an urchin's hands forms from a few 
loose feathery flakes the snow-ball and moulds it into a lump of 
ice, — was so responsible. A common peril, they would argue, will 
unite and ought to unite any people, any nation, savage or civilized. 

To this extent the Mormons would admit having "meddled in 
politics." They would doubtless freely concede that they had gener- 
ally "voted solid" to insure the election of their friends and the 
defeat of their enemies. 

But, some will say, it is not the right of the Mormon people, as 
American citizens, to engage in politics that is questioned. It is the 
right of their leaders to control their political actions that is disputed. 
It is believed that their Apostles and Bishops wield undue influence 
over them in such matters; that there is a union of Church and State 
among them, and that the people are not left free to vote as they 

These allegations the Mormons emphatically deny. They main- 
tain that their leaders have never sought to wield more influence over 
them in political affairs than prominent men in every community 
exercise over the masses who naturally look to them for guidance 
and instruction. They deny that a union of Church and State has 
ever existed among them, but they affirm that it has practically 
existed among those who find fault with them on that score. — the 
priests and politicians who have repeatedly joined hands, on the 
stump, and even in the halls of Congress, to create anti-Mormon 

They admit that their Apostles and Bishops have sometimes 
given political advice, though not as Apostles and Bishops, but as 
American citizens, with a free opinion and the right to voice that 
opinion. They admit, too. that in Mormon communities Church 
officials have often been elected to civil offices; yet not because they 
were Church officials, but simply the best men that could be found in 
whom the people had confidence; men who knew how to be just and 
fair, and would separate their civil from their ecclesiastical functions. 


In the Mormon Church, it should he remembered, nearly every man 
is an Elder, and it would be next to impossible to nominate from 
among them a man who did not hold some order of priesthood. 

They claim that while in communities strictly Mormon. Mor- 
mons have necessarily held all the offices, that in mixed communi- 
ties where they predominated they have allowed the minority a fair 
representation. They admit that in places where they themselves 
were in the minority they have asked the same privilege, demanding 
it as a right, and when necessary have banded together to secure 
that right. They admit having used the balance of power, which at 
times they have found themselves possessed of, to put in office, 
regardless of party affiliations, men of capacity and integrity, their 
friends in lieu of their enemies. 

If this be "meddling in politics"' the Mormons, like all other 
American citizens, have undoubtedly so meddled ; and they do not 
deny it. 

It was just such an event as this, — their voting or trying to vote 
for their friends and against their foes, — that formed the prologue 
to the appalling tragedy, which, beginning with outrage, robbery and 
rapine, ended in murder, massacre, and the eventual expulsion — a 
mid-winter exodus — of the entire Mormon community from Missouri. 

It was the 6th of August, 1838. and the state election was in 
progress. To Gallatin, the principal town of Daviess County, went 
twelve Mormon citizens for the purpose of casting their ballots. Colo- 
nel William P. Peniston was a candidate in that district for represen- 
tative to the Legislature. Having been prominent in the anti-Mormon 
agitation, preceding the moderate action of the mediators, in Clay 
County, he had good reason to believe that the people whom he 
would have driven from their homes did not design aiding him with 
their suffrages. He had therefore organized a mob, and now haran- 
gued them at the polls, to prevent the Mormons from voting. 
Mounting a barrel, he poured out upon them a torrent of abuse, 
styling them " horse-thieves and robbers" and proclaiming his oppo- 
sition to their settling in that region or being allowed to vote. He 


admitted having headed a mob to drive them from Clay County, and 
declared that he would not now interfere to prevent a similar fate 
befalling them. He also attacked their religion, denouncing as "a 

d d lie"' their profession of healing the sick by the laying on of 


What all this had to do with the right of the Mormons to vote, 
and to vote if they wished against William P. Peniston, is not very 
apparent at this time, nor was it, we opine, even then. But the 
tirade had its desired and designed effect. The Mormons, pronounc- 
ing his charges false, insisted upon their right to vote. Immediately 
Peniston*s party, crazed with drink and furious with rage, set upon 
them. The twelve Mormons, attacked by over a hundred men. 
stoutly defended themselves. Clubs, stones and fists were freely 
used, and even knives were unsheathed by some of the assailants. 
In the melee, though no lives were lost, some on both sides were 
wounded, and several mobocratic heads were broken. The Mormons 
withdrew from the scene, and the election proceeded. 

This event, supplemented by incendiary speeches and articles in 
the local press, caused a general anti-Mormon uprising. All 
Daviess County was aroused, and even in parts adjacent, as ran the 
exaggerated rumor of the riot at Gallatin, the Missourians began 
arming and organizing. For what? They scarcely knew, — ignorant 
dupes as most of them were, tools of designing demagogues, of men 
without principle, who saw, as such characters quickly see, in a pop- 
ular movement against an unpopular people, opportunities for plun- 
der and promotion. 

Social and religious as well as political lines were sharply drawn. 
Old charges, oft-denied, were reiterated, and new ones brought forth 
and made to do yeoman service in the cause of the coming crusade. 
The priest, the politician and the apostate again joined hands, like 
the three weird sisters in Macbeth, each putting in his quota of terri- 
ble tales to make the cauldron of the people's hatred "boil and 

As the excitement grew and hostilities began, hordes of red- 


handed desperadoes, refugees from justice, — a class commonly found 
on the frontier, — scenting the conflict from afar, came pouring into 
Daviess and Caldwell counties, like vultures flocking to the shambles. 
Some of these painted and disguised themselves as Indians, — the 
better, no doubt, to escape detection for past and future crimes. The 
leader of these pseudo savages was Cornelius Gilliam, formerly 
sheriff of Clay County, who styled himself "the Delaware chief." 

Efforts were early made to avert the bloody crisis that was felt 
to be approaching. Good and wise men on both sides met and 
signed a covenant of peace, agreeing to maintain the right and use 
their influence to allay the unwarrantable agitation. Among these 
were Lyman Wight, John Smith, Vinson Knight and Reynolds 
Cahoon, who signed for the Mormons of Daviess County ; and Joseph 
Morin, senator-elect, John Williams, representative-elect, James P. 
Turner, clerk of the circuit court, and others representing the older 

But all in vain. The Missourians. misled and thoroughly preju- 
diced, were for war, not peace. The excitement continued to increase, 
until finally nothing but bloodshed or the banishment of the hated 
Mormons would suffice. 

Adam Black, an illiterate politician, though a justice of the 
peace for Daviess County, was visited on the 8th of August, two 
days after the election, by Joseph Smith and Lyman Wight, and 
requested, as other prominent men had been, to sign an agreement 
of peace. He acceded to their request, writing and signing a docu- 
ment amicable in tone, if well-nigh illegible in character, and imme- 
diately afterwards circulated the report that his signature had been 
secured by threats of violence. 

On the complaint of Colonel Peniston, the mob leader at Galla- 
tin. Joseph Smith and Lyman Wight were arrested, charged not only 
with intimidating Judge Black, but with collecting a large body of 
armed men in Daviess County, to drive out the older settlers and 
despoil them of their lands. Tried before Judge Austin A. King, at 
Gallatin, early in September, nothing was proven against the 


two defendants. Judge King, they claimed, admitted as much to 
them in private, but deemed it politic to bind them over in the sum 
of $500. 

That the Mormons in Daviess County had been arming them- 
selves, was doubtless true. True also that they had been receiving 
reinforcements from other places. The Missourians, their neighbors, 
had been doing precisely the same things, and threatening them daily 
with attack. Already had they driven some Mormons from their 
homes and compelled them to seek safety with their friends at Diah- 
man. Remembering their experience in Jackson County, when, 
being unarmed, they were trampled on without mercy by the mob, 
the Saints, as Sidney Rigdon had declared, did not propose to tamely 
submit to a repetition of such outrages. They were determined to 
maintain their rights, and defend to the death, if need be, their hard 
earned homes and the peace and safety of their families. 

But this was their only purpose — self-defense ; a fact subse- 
cpiently affirmed by the chief officers of the State militia, sent to sup- 
press the insurrection. To say that the Mormons contemplated 
wholesale robbery and expulsion — the infliction upon their fellow 
settlers of wrongs similar to what they themselves had suffered in 
Jackson County, and for which they were still hoping redress, and 
that too, at a time when confronted by foes eager for an excuse to 
attack and annihilate them, is to accuse them, not of criminal intent, 
but of madness, sheer idiocy. 

Lilburn W. Boggs was now governor of Missouri. He was 
Lieutenant-Governor, the reader will remember, during the troubles 
of 1833, at which time he espoused the cause of the mob which drove 
the Saints from Jackson County. He was a rank Mormon-hater, as 
were nearly all the residents of that county, and probably owed to 
that, in part, his elevation to the executive chair. Learning of the 
situation in Daviess County, the Governor directed Major-General 
Atchison and other officers of militia to muster and equip men 
to put down the insurrection. 

While this order was being executed, the mob army was making 


ready to attack Diahman. For this purpose reinforcements and sup- 
plies were being forwarded to them from other points. On the 9th 
of September a wagon load of guns and ammunition, on its way from 
Richmond, Ray County, to the mobocratic camp, was captured with 
those in charge of it by Captain William Allred and his men. — Mor- 
mons belonging to the State militia. 

Notifying Judge King of his capture, and asking what disposi- 
tion should be made of the prisoners. Captain Allred was ordered by 
that official to treat them kindly and set them at liberty. Whether or 
not they were promptly released does not appear. The probability 
is that Captain Allred, surprised at receiving such an order, still held 
them. At any rate Judge King, on the same day, wrote to General 
Atchison to send two hundred or more men to force the Mormons to 

The militia of Ray and Clay Counties, commanded by Brigadier- 
Generals Parks and Doniphan, now came upon the scene. Parks 
proceeded to Gallatin, the county seat of Daviess, to survey the sit- 
uation, while Doniphan went via Far West to Millport and Diahman. 
At Far West, which place he visited with a single aide, leaving his 
troops on Crooked River, General Doniphan was the guest of the 
Prophet, who was favorably impressed with his frank and friendly 
manner. This was the same General Doniphan who subsequently 
played a notable part in the Mexican War. He and his superior, 
General Atchison, were Joseph Smith's attorneys in the legal troubles 
following the military episode of the autumn of 1838. Under them 
also the Prophet and Elder Rigdon studied law. 

Marching to the camp of the inobocrats near Millport. Doniphan 
ordered them to disperse. They protested that they were merely act- 
ing in self-defense. He then went to Diahman and conferred with 
Colonel Wight, commanding the Mormon force, '-Host of Israel." 
He found them willing to disband, provided the enemy threatening 
them would disperse, and willing also to surrender any of their num- 
ber accused of offenses against the laws to be dealt with by legal 
authority. The prisoners and weapons taken by Hie Mormons were 


delivered up at the demand of General Doniphan, who, on the loth 
of September joined Generals Atchison and Parks at Gallatin. 

The report of these officers to the Governor was substantially as 
follows : that affairs in Daviess County were not so bad as rumor 
had represented, and that his Excellency had been deceived by 
designing or half-crazy men ; that the Mormons, so far as could be 
learned, had been acting on the defensive, showing no hostile intent, 
and evincing no disposition to resist the laws ; that the officers, on 
their arrival there, had found a large body of men from other 
counties, armed and in the field, to assist the people of Daviess 
against the Mormons, without being called out by the proper authori- 
ties ; and that the Daviess County men were still threatening, in the 
event of the failure of a certain committee on compromise to agree, 
to drive the Mormons with powder and lead. 

Colonel Wight and a score of others, accused of various offenses, 
had previously given themselves up and been pledged to appear for 
trial on the 29th of September. It is noticeable that no Missourians 
were arrested, though many of them were guilty of riot and moboc- 
racy, and that even those captured by the Mormons had been set at 
liberty. During the excitement of the past several weeks overt acts 
had doubtless been committed on both sides. The wonder is not 
that such was the case, but that the Mormons were the only ones 
called to account. 

Most of the troops were now disbanded, it being supposed that 
the trouble was over. Only a few companies remained under arms 
to quell, if necessary, any further demonstrations of disorder. 

The scene now changes to Dewitt, in Carroll County. Enraged 
at being thwarted in their designs upon Diahman, the mob army, a 
portion of which had previously threatened Dewitt. appeared in 
force before that place, and in the beginning of October began In 
bombard the town. A party from Jackson County, with a six- 
pounder, assisted in the assault. The besieged, compared with the 
besiegers, woe a mere handful. Colonel George M. Hinkle was their 
commander. The leaders of the attacking force — which was parity 


composed of militia men lately disbanded — were a Doctor Austin, 
Major Ashley, a member of the Legislature, and Sashiel Woods, a 
Presbyterian clergyman. Later came Captains Bogart and Houston, 
the former a Methodist preacher, with two companies of militia. 
These, instead of operating against the mob, united with them 
against the Mormons. General Parks came also, but did nothing to 
restore order remaining a silent and apparently a helpless spectator 
of the scene. His troops were evidently in sympathy with the mob. 

The first gun was fired upon Dewitt on the 2nd of October. 
Colonel Hinkle waited forty-eight hours, and then ordered the fire 
returned. The bombardment continued at intervals for nine days. 
During its progress the Prophet made his way through much diffi- 
culty and clanger from Far West to the beleaguered settlement. He 
found his people there hemmed in by their foes', their provisions 
exhausted, their cattle and horses stolen, their houses burned, and 
themselves threatened with death if they attempted to leave the 

Through the agency of non-Mormon friends in that vicinity an 
appeal was made to Governor Boggs, in behalf of the beleaguered 
Saints. He replied that the quarrel was between the Mormons 
and the mob, and that they might " fight it out." 

Finally the Mormons were permitted to evacuate Dewitt, which 
they did on the 11th of October. Under the treacherous fire of 
their foes the homeless and plundered refugees fled to Far West. 

Eight hundred strong the mob army now marched upon Diah- 
man. General Doniphan informed the Prophet of this movement, 
and stated that no protection could be hoped for from the militia. 

Said he : " They are d d rotten hearted." They were certainly in 

sympathy if not in league with the lawless element that now concen- 
trated from every direction against Diahman. It was under these 
circumstances that General Doniphan advised the Mormon militia at 
Far West to organize and march to the relief of their friends in 
Daviess County. His advice was taken, the command of the Cald- 
well regiment being given to Colonel George M. Hinkle. 


About this time was brought to Diahman the news of house- 
burnings, drivings and other depredations committed by Gilliam's 
guerillas upon some scattered families of Saints beyond Grand River. 
Women, children and even the sick were dragged from their beds 
and thrust out into the night, some wandering for days through a 
pitiless storm that prevailed in that region about the middle of 
October. One of these refugees was Agnes, wife of Don Carlos 
Smith, the Prophet's brother, who was then absent in Tennessee. 
Her house being burned she had fled with two babes in her arms 
and waded Grand River to get beyond the reach of her ruffian 

The Mormon blood was now thoroughly up. The Prophet 
no longer counseled peace and submission. He bade his followers 
arm and defend themselves ; to die, if need be, protecting their 
homes, the virtue of their wives and daughters, and the lives of 
their little ones. General Parks, arriving at Diahman, against 
which the mob was fast gathering, permitted Colonel Wight, who 
held a commission under him in the 59th regiment of the militia, to 
organize his command and proceed against the robbers and house- 

Here apparently was the beginning of retaliative measures on 
the part of the Mormons in Missouri. Smarting under their wrongs 
they made vigorous war upon the marauding bands that now fled 
precipitately before them, and ceased not their efforts until Daviess 
County was well clear of them. If they went further, as alleged by 
the Missourians, and burned the towns — or hamlets — of Millport 
and Gallatin, it was not to be wondered at after the provocation 

The Mormons, however, do not admit having burned the 
property of the Missourians ; but allege that the mob set fire 
to the houses of their own friends, and then fled, scattering 
the false report that the Mormons were the incendiaries. Be 
this as it may, there is at least one Missourian now living who. 
while claiming that the Mormons did the burning, concedes thai 


they were justified in what they did, as the Missourians had set the 

It was asserted by those who spread these reports that the 
design of the Mormons was next to sack and burn the town of Rich- 
mond. This rumor, being generally believed, or feared, — all the more 
readily since the Mormons had suffered just such outrages, and the 
law of retaliation is a recognized rule of human nature, — served to 
augment the reigning agitation and swell the discord of the hour. 

About this time the rumor become current at Far West of a 
secret organization called Danites, or Destroying Angels, whose 
alleged purpose was to prey upon the Gentiles and avenge the Saints 
of their enemies.f The origin of the movement was accredited to 
the chiefs of the Church, especially Sidney Rigdon, who, it was said, 
had authorized the organization. It transpired, however, that the 
originator of the movement, which was indeed attempted, was Dr. 
Sampson Avard, a characterless fanatic then numbered among the 
Saints, whose scheme for blood and plunder, becoming known to the 
First Presidency, was repudiated and its author severed from the 
Church. In revenge for the exposure of his villainy, Avard declared 
that the Church leaders had authorized him to organize the death- 
dealing society called Danites. 

The story of these preyers and avengers, which, barring the 
above, is a pure myth, — Joaquin Miller and other less reputable 
romancers to the contrary notwithstanding, — is still perpetuated by 
anti-Mormon writers and speakers, and has probably done the 
Saints more harm than any other of the numerous tales uttered 

* Messrs. Andrew Jensen and Edward Stevenson, of Salt Lake City, state that dur- 
ing a visit to Daviess County, Missouri, in September, 1888, they conversed witli one 
Major McGee, an old resident of Gallatin, who spoke to that effect. He said that he 
thought some of the Mormons were to blame for teasing the other inhabitants with the 
doctrine that they — the Saints — were the heirs to the whole country, hut that he knew of 
no lawlessness committed by the Mormons prior to the troubles in 1838. He also stated 
that he was taken prisoner by the Mormons during those troubles and treated kindly. 
According to Major McGee, Gallatin at that lime consisted of abotil four houses. 

f Genesis xlix — 17. 


against them. The Danite Society, according to all but anti-Mor- 
mon authors, whose assertions against the Saints should be taken 
cum gram salis, was nipped in the bud, and had no after existence. 

The battle of Crooked River was fought on the 25th of October. 
Captain David W. Patten, of the Far West militia, had been directed 
by Colonel Hinkle to proceed with a company of men to the ford of 
the river and disperse a band of marauders under Captain Bogart, 
who were committing depredations in that vicinity. They had 
captured three Mormons, — Nathan Pinkham, William Seely and 
Addison Green, — and had boasted of their intention to put them to 
death the next night. It was to rescue these men, as well as to put a 
stop to Bogart's operations that Captain Patten went forth. Leaving 
Far West about midnight, he and his company, seventy-five in 
number, came upon Bogart's band in ambush just at day-break. As 
the Mormons crossed the bluff above his camp, which was among 
the brush and willows in the river bottom, the mob leader ordered 
his men to fire. They obeyed, when young Patrick O'Banion. a 
Mormon, fell mortally wounded. Captain Patten then ordered his 
men to charge. Forward they dashed, returning the enemy's fire. 
After delivering a second volley Bogart's band broke and fled, 
crossing the river at the ford and abandoning their camp to the 
victorious Mormons. The three prisoners held by the mob were 
liberated, though one of them had been shot and wounded by his 
captors during the engagement. 

But the victory had been dearly won. Captain Patten, like 
O'Banion, was mortally wounded, and Gideon Carter killed. Other 
Mormons were wounded, but not seriously. Bogart, whose force 
outnumbered the attacking party, lost one man. 

David W. Patten died that night. He was a man much esteemed 
by his people, and his loss was deeply mourned. The Church 
regarded him as a martyr. 

The excitement among the Missourians. already at fever heat 
over the troubles in Daviess County, now became intense. The 
Crooked River battle was heralded abroad as another "Mormon 


atrocity," and the public mind was more and more inflamed against 
the Saints. 

The Mormon-hating Governor of Missouri now saw his oppor- 
tunity. So long as it was only the Saints who were being worsted, 
he could afford to sit by, like Xerxes on his mountain throne at 
Salamis, and see the two sides "fight it out." Bujt when the tables 
were turned, and the mob began to suffer some reverses, he came to 
the conclusion that it was high time for him to interfere for their 
protection. Besides the opportunity to wreak personal spite upon the 
Mormons, there was a chance to make political capital out of the 

On the 27th of October Governor Boggs issued an order to 
Major-General John B. Clark, giving him command of an over- 
whelming force of militia, with instructions to proceed at once against 
the Mormons. "Their outrages are beyond all description" said the 
Governor, "they must be exterminated or driven from the State." 
Other generals were ordered to take part, under Clark, in the military 

General Atchison, upon whom the command rightfully devolved, 
had been ignored or relieved by the Governor, — apparently for the 
same reason that caused the wife of the newly fledged Thane of 
Cawdor to "fear the nature" of her lord. In General Clark, who was 
not so "full o* the milk of human kindness," but proved himself a 
pitiless tyrant. Boggs found a fitting instrument to execute his fell 
design. Another account states that Atchison, while raising troops 
to quell the disturbance, on learning of the Governor's exterminating 
purpose, exclaimed: "I will have nothing to do with so infamous a 
proceeding," and resigned. 

Over two thousand troops, massed at Richmond under Major- 
General Samuel D. Lucas and Brigadier General Moses Wilson, both 
of Jackson County, during the closing days of October set out for Far 
West. General Clark, their commander, was elsewhere mustering 
another army for the same purpose. Lucas, on his march, captured 
two Mormons named Tanner and Carey. Tanner, an old man. was 


struck with a gun by one of the soldiers, and his skull laid bare. A 
similar blow dashed out Carey's brains. He was laid in a wagon, no 
aid being rendered him, and died within twenty-four hours. Thus 
the militia moved on toward the fated town of Far West. 

Among the first fruits of the sanguinary edict of Missouri's 
executive was the Haun's Mill massacre. It occurred on the 30th of 
October. Haun's Mill was situated on Shoal Creek, about twenty 
miles south of Far West. Here dwelt, in the neighborhood of 
other lately arrived immigrants, all awaiting a lull in the warlike 
storm before proceeding farther, a few families of Latter-day Saints. 
Among them were Joseph Young and his family, lately from Kirtland. 

About four o'clock in the afternoon a company of two hundred 
and forty men, commanded by one Nehemiah Comstock, fell upon 
the little settlement and butchered in cold blood, without warning or 
provocation, nearly a score of the unoffending Mormons. Men, 
women and children were shot down indiscriminately, their bodies 
stripped and mutilated, their camp plundered and their horses and 
wagons driven off by the murdering marauders. The dead bodies 
were thrown into an old well. 

Among the victims was an aged man named Thomas McBride, a 
soldier of the Revolution who had served under General AVashington. 
A Missourian named Rogers, after shooting the old man with his 
own gun, hacked him to pieces with a corn-cutter. Another victim 
was George Spencer Richards, aged fifteen, son of Phinehas Richards, 
and brother to Franklin D., the present Apostle. Franklin at that 
very time was making his way across the Alleghanies from his native 
town of Richmond, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, to join his 
people at Far West. 

Among those who survived the awful butchery, though almost 
riddled with bullets from the assassins' rifles, was the late Isaac 
Laney, father of Judge H. S. Laney, of Salt Lake City; also the late 
Alma L. Smith, of Coalville, Summit County, brother of Hon. Willard 
G. Smith, of Morgan County. His father. Warren, and his brother 
Sardius were among the slain. 


On the day of the massacre, the troops from Richmond, rein- 
forced to nearly three thousand men, advanced upon and beleaguered 
Far West. General Clark was still at a distance, mustering his 
forces. The whole surrounding region was now being over-run by 
marauding bands, shooting, burning and pillaging wherever Mormons 
were to be found. As the survivors of these savage raids came flee- 
ing into Far West for safety, their red-handed pursuers augmented 
the army of investment. Among those who thus joined the militia 
against the Mormons were Gilliam's painted guerillas and the perpe- 
trators of the Haun's Mill massacre. 

The inhabitants of the doomed city, their mails having been 
stopped, had not yet heard of the Governor's exterminating order, 
but supposed the army of General Lucas to be an overwhelming 
military mob. Though greatly outnumbered by the besieging 
force, they prepared to make a vigorous defense and sell their lives 
as dearly as possible. Hastily throwing up some rude fortifications. 
they awaited the onslaught of the foe. 

A messenger was now sent from Lucas to announce that to three 
persons in the town — Adam Lightner, John Cleminson and wife — two 
of them non-Mormons, amnesty would be given, but that the design 
was to lay Far West in ashes and exterminate the rest. "Then we 
will die with them !" heroically answered the three, and rejected the 
proffered pardon. 

Charles C. Rich went out from the city with a flag of truce, to 
confer with General Doniphan, who was with Lucas. As he 
approached the camp of the militia Captain Bogart fired upon him. 

It was at this critical juncture that Colonel George M. Hinkle. 
commanding the defenders of Far West, entered into negotiations 
with General Lucas, and without consulting his associates agreed 
upon a compromise, the terms of which were as follows : 

(1) The Mormon leaders were to be delivered up to be tried 
and punished. 

(2) The Far West militia were to surrender their arms. 

(3) An appropriation was to be made of the property of all 


Mormons who had taken up arms, to indemnify for damages said to 
have been inflicted by them. This was afterwards construed to 
cover all the expenses of the militia in making war upon the Saints. 

(4) The Mormons, as a body, excepting such as should be held 
as prisoners, were to forthwith leave the State. The prisoners were 
to include all Mormon participants in the Crooked River battle, who 
were to be tried for murder. 

The observance of these conditions, it was promised, would 
avert bloodshed. The alternative was an immediate assault upon 
the city. 

Under pretense of arranging a conference between the Mormon 
leaders and the besieging generals, and without notifying the former 
of the compact he had entered into, Colonel Hinkle, on the 31st of 
October, delivered up to General Lucas the following named persons, 
who had been demanded : Joseph Smith, junior, Sidney Rigdon, 
Parley P. Pratt, Lyman Wight and George W. Robinson. Later were 
added to the list, Hyrum Smith and Amasa M. Lyman. They were 
placed under a strong guard and treated as prisoners of war. 

Some writers have palliated Colonel Hinkle's conduct in this 
affair, on the score of obedience to his superior officer, General Lucas, 
who demanded the prisoners ; also because their delivery is supposed 
to have saved the lives of the other citizens. The Mormons, how- 
ever, will always regard George M. Hinkle as a traitor, who to save 
himself betrayed his friends, in the most cowardly and contemptible 
manner possible. 

Next day, the army having advanced nearer the city, the Mor- 
mon militia laid down their arms, and were then compelled at the 
point of the bayonet and the cannon's mouth to sign away their 
property to pay the expenses of the war waged upon them. They 
had made no agreement to do so, but Hinkle, forsooth, had made it 
for them. All the men, save those who had escaped, were held in 
temporary durance, and the town then given up to pillage. Nameless 
crimes were committed by the ruthless soldiery, and their yet more 
ruthless allies, the banditti. Women were abused, some of them till 


they died, within sight of their agonized husbands and fathers, 
powerless to protect them. Let imagination paint the horror from 
which the historian's pen recoils. 

William E. McLellin and other apostate Mormons were in Far 
West at this time, taking part against their former brethren. 

On the evening of November 1st, General Lucas convened a 
court-martial, consisting of the principal officers of his army, and no 
less than seventeen Christian preachers. By a majority of this 
religio-military tribunal, Joseph Smith and his fellow prisoners, none 
of whom were permitted to be present during their trial, were sen- 
tenced to be shot at eight o'clock next morning, in the public square 
at Far West, in the presence of their wives and children. Generals 
Doniphan and Graham refused their assent to this decision, the 
former denouncing it as " cold-blooded murder," and threatening to 
withdraw his brigade from the scene of the proposed massacre. 
This caused Lucas and his murderous colleagues to hesitate, and 
finally to reconsider their action. On the morning set for the execu- 
tion they decided, in lieu of killing the prisoners, to parade them in 
triumph through the neighboring counties. 

Prior to setting out from Far West, General Lucas allowed the 
prisoners to see for a few moments, in the presence of their guards, 
their weeping wives and children. Most of them were not permitted 
to speak, but merely look farewell to them, before being hurried away. 

Mary Fielding Smith, wife of Hyrum Smith, a few days after this 
painful parting from her husband became a mother. The child thus 
born amid these warlike scenes, drinking in with his mother's milk a 
wholesome hatred of tyrants and mobs, and the courage to fearlessly 
denounce them, is known to-day as Joseph Fielding Smith, second 
counselor in the existing First Presidency. 

Leaving a large portion of his troops at Far West, to await the 
arrival of General Clark, and having sent Gilliam and his banditti 
against the Mormons at Diahman, Lucas, with his confrere Wilson 
and a strong guard set out with the prisoners southward. As they 
neared the Missouri River orders were received from General Clark, 


demanding the return of the captives. Lucas, however, ignored the 
order, and pressed on with the prisoners to Jackson County. 

They were now treated with some degree of consideration. 
Wilson assured them that their lives should be spared, and that they 
should be protected : " We only want to take you over the river and 

let our people see what a d d fine looking set of fellows you are,*' 

said this typical son of Jackson County. He also told them that one 
of the reasons for bringing them along was to keep them out of the 

hands of General Clark, "a G d d d old bigot," said he, "so 

stuffed with lies and prejudice that he would shoot you down in a 

The Prophet, on the day of their arrival at Independence — Sun- 
day, November 4th — was permitted to preach to the multitude that 
thronged to gaze at him and his brethren. The feeling against them 
diminished daily, until it was almost in their favor. After four days' 
imprisonment at Independence, during which they were visited by 
curious thousands, the prisoners, in response to repeated demands 
from General Clark, were sent to Richmond for trial. 

Clark, at the head of two thousand troops, had arrived at Far 
West on the 4th of November. He approved of all that Lucas had 
done, except the taking away of the Mormon leaders, whose persons 
he evidently desired as trophies of his own triumph. He solaced 
himself, however, by putting Bishop Partridge and fifty-five other 
prominent Mormons in chains and carrying them captive to Rich- 

Prior to departing, he sent a brigade of troops in the wake of 
Gilliam and his guerillas, to demand the surrender of Diahman, on 
the same terms as those enforced at Far West. He also delivered, 
before leaving, an address to the citizens of that place, of which the 
following was the substance : 

*Wilson admitted, according to Parley P. Pratt, that in the reigning troubles, as well 
as those in Jackson County, the Mormons bad not been tin- aggressors, lull had been pur- 
posely goaded to resistance by the Missourians in order to furnish an excuse for their 



Gentlemen : 

You whose names are not attached to this list of names, will now have the 
privilege of going to your fields, and of providing corn, wood, etc., for your families. 
Those who are now taken will go from this to prison, to be tried and receive the due 
demerit of their crimes ; but you (except such as charges may hereafter be preferred 
against), are at liberty as soon as the troops are removed that now guard the place, which 
I shall cause to be done immediately. 

It now devolves upon you to fulfill a treaty that you have entered into, the leading- 
items of which I shall now lay before you. The first requires that your leading men be 
given up to be tried according to law ; this you already have complied with. The second 
is, that you deliver up your arms ; this has been attended to. The third stipulation is that 
you sign over your properties to defray the expenses of the war. This you have also 
done. Another article yet remains for you to comply with, — and that is, that you leave 
the state forthwith. And whatever may be your feelings concerning this, or whatever 
your innocence, it is nothing to me. General Lucas (whose military rank is equal with 
mine), has made this treaty with you ; I approve of it, I should have done the same 
had I been here. I am therefore determined to see it executed. 

The character of this state has suffered almost beyond redemption, from the 
character, conduct and influence that you have exerted ; and we deem it an act of justice 
to restore her character to its former standing among the states by every proper means. 
The orders of the Governor to me were, that you should be exterminated, and not 
allowed to remain in the state. And had not your leaders been given up, and the terms 
of the treaty complied with, before this time you and your families would have been des- 
troyed, and your houses in ashes. 

There is a discretionary power vested in my hands, which, considering your circum- 
stances, 1 shall exercise for a season. You are indebted to me for this clemency. I do 
not say that you shall go now, but you must not think of staying here another season or of 
putting in crops ; for the moment you do this the citizens will be upon you ; and if I am 
called here again in case of a non-compliance of a treaty made, do not think that I shall 
do as I have done now. You need not expect any mercy, but extermination, for I am 
determined the Governor's order shall be executed. 

As for your leaders, do not think, do not imagine for a moment, do not let it enter 
into your minds, that they will be delivered and restored to you again, for their fate is 
fixed, their die is cast, their doom is sealed. 

I am sorry, gentlemen, to see so many apparently intelligent men found in the situa- 
tion that they are; and oh! if I could invoke that Great Spirit, the Unknown God 
to rest upon and deliver you from that awful chain of superstition, and liberate you from 
those fetters of fanaticism with which you are bound — that you no longer do homage to a man. 

I would advise you to scatter abroad and never again organize yourselves with 
Bishops, Presidents, etc., lest you excite the jealousies of the people and subject your- 
selves In the same calamities that have now come upon you. You have always been the 
aggressors- you have brought upon yourselves these difficulties by being disaffected, and 
not being subject to rule. And my advice is, that you become as other citizens, lest by a 
recurrence of these events you bring upon yourselves irretrievable ruin. 


General Clark then proceeded with his captives to Richmond, 
where the Prophet and his fellow prisoners soon arrived. A pro- 
tracted examination before Judge Austin A. King. — who. with the 
public prosecutor. Thomas Burch, had sat in the court-martial at Far 
West and sentenced these same men to be shot, — failed to fasten 
guilt upon any of them. Finally, all save Joseph Smith, Sidney Rig- 
don, Hyrum Smith, Lyman Wight, Parley P. Pratt, Caleb Baldwin, 
Alexander McBae, Morris Phelps, Luman Gibbs, Darwin Chase and 
Norman Shearer, were discharged. These were held for murder, 
arson, treason, — in fact nearly all the crimes in the calendar. 

One evidence of their treason, as cited in open court, was their 
avowed belief in the prophecy of Daniel — Chapters II. and VII. — 
relative to the setting up of the latter-day kingdom of God. Their 
taking up arms in the late troubles was also construed as treason. 
Their murders were the battles and skirmishes they had had with 
the mob. The depredations and deeds of blood committed by the 
Missourians against the Mormons apparently cut no figure in the 
case. The Haun's Mill massacre was as completely ignored as if it 
had never occurred. Said General Doniphan to the defendants, 
whose attorney he was : " Offer no defense; for if a cohort of angels 
should declare your innocence it would be all the same. The judge 
is determined to throw you into prison." 

Colonel Sterling Price had charge of the captives at this time. 
The yet to be noted Confederate general seems to have done all in 
his power to render their situation as miserable as possible. One 
method employed by their guards to entertain them was the recital 
in their hearing of the murders and rapes that they — the soldiers — 
boasted of having committed at and in the vicinity of Far West. 
Finally the Prophet, arising in his chains, in a voice of thunder 
rebuked the crime-stained wretches and commanded them to be still. 
So overpowering was his indignation, his metaphysical force, that the 
armed guards quailed before him and begged bis pardon.* 

* Says Parley P. Pratt of the Prophet on that occasion : " He ceased to speak. He 
stood erect ill terrible majesty, chained and without a weapon. * * * * 


Joseph and Hyrum Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Lyman Wight, Alex- 
ander MePtae and Caleb Baldwin were now removed to Clay County, 
and immured in Liberty jail. The remainder of the prisoners were 
still held at Richmond. The Clay County captives were treated with 
great barbarity. Several times their food was poisoned, nearly caus- 
ing their death, and they even declared that cooked human flesh, 
called by their guards " Mormon beef," was repeatedly served up to 

Months passed. Various efforts were made by legal process to 
free the prisoners. Among those actively engaged in their behalf 
were Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball, who, being comparatively 
unknown by the Missourians, had escaped arrest and incarceration. 
Stephen Markham was another faithful friend. Generals Atchison 
and Doniphan lent their aid, and Judge Hughes, of the Supreme 
Court of Missouri, also favored the release of the captives. It was 
conceded by many that they were illegally held, but owing to the 
prevailing prejudice, their friends were powerless to do much for 
them. Again and again they were put upon trial and nothing was 
proven against them, even after their own witnesses had all been 
driven from the State. Finally by proceedings in habeas corpus Sid- 
ney Rigdon was let out on bail. Threatened by the mob after his 
liberation he was compelled to flee for his life. His companions were 
remanded to prison, where they passed the winter of 1838-9. 

Meantime such of the leading Mormons as had retained or 
regained their liberty addressed a memorial to the Missouri Legisla- 
ture, reciting the wrongs and sufferings of the Saints in that State 
and praying for redress of grievances. The total loss of property 
sustained by the Mormons in Missouri was estimated at about two 
million dollars. The Legislature, after much delay, appropriated 

I have seen the ministers of justice, clothed in magisterial robes and criminals arraigned 
before them, while life was suspended on a breath in the courts of England; I have wit- 
nessed a congress in solemn session to give laws to nations ; * * * but 
dignity and majesty have I seen but once, as it stood in chains at midnight, in a dungeon. 
in an obscure village of Missouri." 


some thousands of dollars to be distributed among the people of 
Daviess and Caldwell counties, " the Mormons not excepted." Some 
say that only two thousand dollars were thus appropriated ; others 
that two hundred thousand was the amount. The latter seems the 
more reasonable, and the Missourians should be given the benefit of 
the doubt.* 

In the absence of the First Presidency — in prison — the authority 
to direct the Church devolved upon the Twelve Apostles. Their 
some time president, Thomas B. Marsh, had apostatized during the 
Far West troubles^ which event, with the death of David W. Pat- 
ten, left Brigham Young the senior Apostle and consequently the 
President of the Twelve. Being sustained as such by his brethren 
Brigham now took charge of the Church and planned and directed 
the exodus of the Saints to Illinois. 

Late in January and early in February, meetings were held at 
Far West, and the following committee appointed to arrange for the 
exodus: John Taylor, Alanson Ripley, Brigham Young, Theodore 
Turley, Heber C. Kimball, John Smith, Don C. Smith, Elias Smith, 
Erastus Bingham, Stephen Markham and James Newberry. A sub- 
committee was also appointed. They were William Huntington, 
Charles Bird, Alanson Ripley, Theodore Turley, Daniel Shearer, 
Shadrach Pioundy and Jonathan H. Hale. "On motion of President 
Brigham Young," says the record, "it was resolved that we this day 
enter into a covenant to stand by and assist each other to the utmost 
of our abilities in removing from this State, and that we will never 
desert the poor, who are worthy, till they shall be out of the reach of 
the exterminating order of General Clark, acting for and in the name 

* Heber G. Kimball thus describes the manner in which was distributed to the 
Mormons their share of the appropriation: "Judge Cameron." — who with one MeHenry 
had charge of the distribution, — '-drove in the hogs belonging to the brethren (many of 
which were identified) shot them down in the streets, and without further bleeding they 
were half dressed, cut up and distributed by MeHenry to the poor, charging four or live 
cents per pound, which, together with a few pieces of refuse calicoes, at double and treble 
price, soon consumed the appropriation." 


of the State." This covenant, signed hy several hundred persons, 
was faithfully kept. 

That winter from ten to twelve thousand Latter-day Saints, men, 
women and children, still hounded and pursued by their merciless 
oppressors, fled from Missouri, leaving in places their bloody foot- 
prints on the suow of their -frozen path-way. Crossing the icy 
Mississippi they cast themselves, homeless, plundered and penniless, 
upon the hospitable shores of Illinois. There their pitiable condition 
and the tragic story of their wrongs awoke wide-spread sympathy 
and compassion, with corresponding sentiments of indignation and 
abhorrence toward their persecutors. 

The main body of the Mormons were now beyond the reach of 
the Missourians. But spme of the Committee on Exodus and a few 
scattered families yet remained. These were now the objects of mobo- 
cratic malice. About the middle of April a lawless band, encouraged 
by Judge — once Captain — Bogart. assaulted and drove away the 
committee, threatened the lives of the remaining Mormons, and 
plundered and destroyed thousands of dollars* worth of property 
with which the committee were assisting the poor to remove. * 

At Quincy, Adams County, Illinois, where most of the exiled 
Saints found refuge and a kindly welcome, they were joined late in 
April or early in May by the Prophet and his brother Hyruni. who 
had recently escaped with others of their captive companions from 
their imprisonment in Missouri. 

* Says Heber G. Kimball : " One mobber rode up, and finding no convenient place to 
fasten his horse, shot a cow that was standing near while a girl was milking her, and as 
the poor animal was struggling in death he cut a strip of her hide from the nose to the 
tail to which he fastened his halter." 
















1S\ AUVOO, the Beautiful. Such was the name of the fair city 
* b- founded by Joseph Smith and his followers on the eastern 
shore of the Mississippi, after their flight and expulsion from 
Missouri. It was in Hancock County, Illinois, fifty miles above the 
town of Quincy. 

Situated in a graceful bend of the majestic Father of Waters, on 
an eminence commanding a noble view of the broad and rolling 
river, here sweeping round it in a semi-circle, Nauvoo, even as the 
site of the lovely city it soon became, well merited the surname of 
Beautiful. The site of the city, prior to May. 1839, when the 
Mormons made their first purchase of lands in that locality, was the 
little town or village of Commerce, which title it continued to bear 
until about a year later, when it was rechristened by the Saints 

Among the landed proprietors from whom they made extensive 
purchases in and around Commerce was Daniel H. Wells, famous in 


Utah history as General and as "Squire" Wells. He was a native of 
Trenton, Oneida County, New York, and was descended from Thomas 
Wells, the fourth Governor of Connecticut. He was now in his 
twenty-fifth year, and had resided in Illinois since he was eighteen. 
At first he had engaged in clearing land and farming, but before 
coming of age had entered upon his official career, being first elected 
constable and then justice of the peace. He also held an office in 
the first military organization of Hancock County. He was noted for 
courage and wisdom, and was a man of strict integrity and of broad 
and generous soul. He was not then connected with any religious 
society. In politics he was a staunch Whig, but was much esteemed 
by men of all creeds and parties. 

A foe to oppression in all its forms, and a fearless champion of 
universal freedom, Squire Wells at once befriended the outcast 
Mormons upon their arrival in his neighborhood, and extended to 
them a cordial welcome. He might have speculated out of their 
necessities at that time, but would not. Platting his land into city 
lots he let them have it almost on their own terms — low rates and 
long-time payments. Though not a Mormon until after the 
Prophet's death, Daniel H. Wells was always his staunch and faithful 

Another land-owner from whom the Saints purchased largely in 
that locality was Dr. Isaac Galland, who also joined the Church. 
With him the Prophet had corresponded upon the subject while in 
Liberty jail. 

Lands were likewise secured on the Iowa side of the river; 
about one hundred families settling in Lee County, opposite Nauvoo, 
in 1839. Brigham Young dwelt there, at a place called Montrose. 
The Iowa purchase included the town of Nashville, with twenty 
thousand acres of land adjoining, upon which was projected and 
partly built the Mormon town of Zarahemla. 

Nauvoo was not altogether "a city set upon a hill." Some of it 
lay in the low lands, where the surface sloped down to the river. 
Here the soil was naturally moist and miry, superinducing malaria; 


in consequence of which the locality was at first very unhealthy. 
Within a short time, however, under the energetic labors of the 
thrifty and industrious Saints, — whose mission seems to have been 
from the beginning to make the wilderness blossom, — the climate 
underwent a salutary change, regarded by the devout people as 
miraculous, and thenceforth it became a wholesome as well as a 
charming place of abode. But this was not until after some painful 
and protracted sieges of sickness, which at one time prostrated nearly 
all the inhabitants of Commerce, and many people in the neighboring 

It was during the reign of such an epidemic, in the latter part of 
1839, that the Twelve Apostles of the Church — or a majority of them 
— started upon their first mission to foreign lands. They had been 
appointed to this mission in July, 1838, while the Saints were in 
Missouri. It had then been declared by the Prophet that they should 
meet upon the Temple grounds at Far West on the 26th of the 
ensuing April, and take formal leave of the city, prior to crossing the 
"great waters." What special significance was attached to this event 
we know not, but the Apostles and the Prophet seemed to regard it 
ns very important and were determined to see the prophecy fulfilled. 

The Missourians, however, who had been informed by their 
apostate allies of the prediction concerning the 26th of April, were 
just as firmly resolved to thwart it. Probably this was one reason 
why Bogart and his mob. as related, expelled the few remaining 
Mormons from Far West about the middle of April. It was their 
boast that if all others of "Joe Smith's prophecies" should be fulfilled, 
this one, now that he was in prison and his people driven from the 
Shite, should fail. 

Before day-break, however, on the morning of April 26th, L839, 
Apostles Brigham Young. Heber C. Kimball, Orson Pratt. John 
Taylor. John E. Page and others rode into Far West. Holding a 
meeting on the temple grounds, they ordained Wilford Woodruff and 
George A. Smith to the Apostleship. and having severed thirty-one 
persons from the Church, hade adieu hi the halt-deserted, half-ruined 

12-VOL. 1. 


city and departed, ere their enemies had arisen to renew their oath 
that the words of the Mormon Prophet relating to this event should 
never be realized. Subsequently, the founding of Nauvoo and the 
labor of settling their people in that vicinity, with the terrible 
epidemic that swept over them that summer, unavoidably delayed the 
departure of the Apostles from America. 

During August and September, however, seven of the Twelve, 
namely : Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Parley P. Pratt, * Orson 
Pratt, John Taylor. Wilford Woodruff and George A. Smith, with 
Elders Theodore Turley, Reuben Hedlock and Hiram Clark, left Com- 
merce for Europe. Most of them were weak and ailing, and some 
even arose from sick beds, burning with fever or shaking with ague 
to begin the journey. Their families, whom they were forced to leave 
behind, were also sick and well-nigh helpless. Penniless, as usual, 
and with swelling hearts, these devoted men went forth to perform 
their duty, trusting in Him who feedeth the sparrows and heareth the 
young ravens when they cry, to minister to their own needs, and to 
care for and'comfort their wives and little ones. 

Of such undaunted mettle and quenchless zeal Avere the men 
whom the Mormon Prophet had gathered round him as his Apostles, 
in whose destiny it was written that they should not only war with 
'•principalities and powers," contending for their faith with the 
learned polemists of Christendom, but battle in the same strength 
and sturdiness of purpose with Nature's sterile elements, and 
conquering redeem a desert. 

Reference has been made to the widespread sympathy and com- 
passion for the Saints, coupled with abhorrence and detestation for 
their oppressors, felt by the generous people of Illinois when the 
homeless refugees first came among them. Indignation was rife that 
in a free land and in an enlightened age a community should thus be 
persecuted for their opinions; that a sovereign state of the American 
Union, instead of shielding its citizens from mobocracy, should 

1 'alley had but recently escaped from Richmond jaJ 


actually join hands with the lawless element and assist in the work 
of wholesale plunder and expatriation. Upon Governor Boggs and 
his coadjutors censure was heaped unsparingly. Upon the hapless 
victilns of their tyranny favors were abundantly bestowed. Said the 
Quincy Argus of March 16th, 1839 : 

We have no language sufficiently strong for the expression of our indignation and 
shame at the recent transaction in a sister State, and that State Missouri, a State of which 
we had long been proud, alike for her men and history, but now so fallen that we could 
wisli her star stricken out from the bright constellation of the Union. We say we know 
of no language sufficiently strong for the expression of our shame and abhorrence of her 
recent conduct. She has written her own character in letters of blood, and stained it by 
acts of merciless cruelty and brutality that the waters of ages cannot efface. It will be 
observed that an organized mob, aided by many of the civil and military officers of 
Missouri, with Governor Boggs at their head, have been the prominent actors in this 
business, incited, too, it appears, against the Mormons by political hatred, and by the 
additional motives of plunder and revenge. They have but too well put in execution their 
threats of extermination and expulsion, and fully wreaked their vengeance on a body of 
industrious and enterprising men who had never wronged nor wished to wrong them, 
but on the contrary had ever comported themselves as good and honest citizens, living 
under the same laws, and having the same right with themselves to the sacred immunities 
of life, liberty, and property.* 

Professor Turner, of Illinois College, wrote : 

Who began the quarrel? Was it the Mormons'? Is it not notorious, on the con- 
trary, that they were hunted like wild beasts, from county to county, before they made any 
desperate resistance '? Did they ever, as a body, refuse obedience to the laws, when called 
upon to do so. until driven to desperation by repeated threats and assaults from the mob? 
Did the State ever make one decent effort to defend them as fellow-citizens in their rights, 
or to redress their wrongs? Let the conduct of its governors, attorneys, and the fate of 
their final petitions answer. Have any who plundered and openly massacred the 
Mormons ever been brought to the punishment due to their crimes? Let the boasting 
murderers of begging and helpless infancy answer. Has the State ever remunerated even 
those known to be innocent, for the loss of either their property or their arms? Did 
either the pulpit or the press through the State raise a note of remonstrance or alarm ? 
Let the clergymen who abetted anil the editors who encouraged the mob answer. 

To be sure, not all the people of Illinois shared these sentiments. 
The Mormons had enemies there as well as friends. These, it is 

Some of the Missouri papers of thai period contained similar articles, denouncing 
treatment of the Mormons and censuring the Legislature for avoiding an investiga- 

the crimes committed against them. 


almost needless to say, were largely of the religious element, who 
could neither forget nor forgive that Joseph Smith, whatever his 
innocence of crime, had been guilty of founding a new Church, 
which opposed theirs, and in spite of all that had been said and done 
against it, was fast becoming a power in the land. 

Of course there were exceptions even here; but this was the 
general feeling among earnest Christians concerning Mormonism. 
They sincerely and heartily hated the system, and their hatred 
extended in most instances to all connected with it. It was this 
class, in conjunction with two others, its traditional allies — politi- 
cians and apostates— that finally encompassed the murder of the 
Mormon Prophet, and the driving of his people into the western 

As yet, however, there were no signs of such an issue. Illinois 
had opened her arms to the exiles. Her governor, Thomas Carlin, 
and other State officials, with editors, professors and prominent 
citizens in general had taken the lead in extending aid and sympathy 
to the outcast community. Thousands of dollars in money, clothing 
and provisions had been contributed for their relief by the citizens 
of Quincy and other places, and every effort made of which a 
humane and benevolent people seemed capable, to cause the Saints to 
forget their former sufferings in the assurance of present protection 
and promised peace. 

Nor were the people of Iowa at all behind in friendly feeling for 
the Mormons. Robert Lucas, Governor of that Territory — a former 
governor of Ohio — treated them kindly, pledged to them the protec- 
tion of the Constitution and the laws, and testified to their general 
repute as •'industrious, inoffensive and worthy citizens." 

One of the first steps taken by the Prophet, after planting the 
feet of his people in these places of refuge, was to lay their grievances 
before the general government. A committee, consisting of himself. 
Sidney Rigdon and Elias Higbee, was appointed at a conference held 
at Commerce, October 5th, 1839, to proceed to Washington for that 
purpose. They started on the 29th of October. Elder Rigdon. 


owing to ill health, did not go any farther than Columbus, Ohio. 
His companions reached the capital late in November. 

On the way thither the Prophet met with an exciting adventure, 
in which the part he played doubtless saved the limbs if not the lives 
of several persons. The coach upon which they were traveling was 
descending a mountain pass of the Alleghanies. The driver having 
laid down his lines and got off at a wayside tavern, the horses, 
becoming frightened, ran away. Climbing from the inside of the 
vehicle to the driver's seat, while the horses were in furious motion, 
the Prophet secured the reins and skillfully guided the foaming 
steeds until they were brought to a stand-still. On the coach were 
several ladies and some members of Congress. The daring feat of 
their fellow-traveler, whose identity they were unaware of, was 
greatly admired and gratefully mentioned by all. Later they 
learned with much surprise that the one to whom they were so 
deeply indebted was no other than Joseph Smith, the Mormon 

He remained several months at the capital, forming- many 
acquaintances among leading statesmen and politicians of the period, 
and pleading earnestly the cause of his plundered and exiled 
people. But beyond the personal interest that he excited his mission 
was apparently fruitless. The authority of the general government 
to interfere in the affairs of a State, — even when that State had 
acted as Missouri had done, — where not denied, was seriously 
doubted, especially by Democrats, and it was a Democratic adminis- 
tration that held the reins of power. Others, though holding- 
different views, were unwilling, for political reasons, to champion the 
cause of the unpopular Mormons. Policy, the Prophet discovered, 
rather than principle, swayed the hearts and minds of the majority 
of his country's statesmen. The Committee on Judiciary, to whom 
the memorial of the Saints was referred, with claims against Missouri 
for about one-and-a-half million dollars, finally reported adversely 
upon the petition. This, however, was after the Prophet left 


While there he had interviews with the President, Martin Van 
Buren, who said, after listening to his story: "Your cause is just, 
but I can do nothing for you." This frank democratic statement 
the Mormon leader might have excused, — though himself a Whig, 
and differing from the President on the " State Rights" question 
involved. But Van Buren unwisely added: '■ If I take up for you I 
shall lose the votes of Missouri," — referring to the approaching 
presidential election. Personal ambition, quite as much as loyalty to 
his political principles, was thus shown to be his ruling motive. For 
such an admission Joseph Smith's fearless, uncalculating spirit 
was hardly prepared. Heartsick and disgusted at what he deemed a 
display of pusillanimity in high places, he now left Washington 
for home. 

Passing through Chester County, Pennsylvania, he formed the 
acquaintance of Edward Hunter, a prosperous farmer and an 
influential man in that vicinity, who was already favorably impressed 
with Mormonism. He soon afterwards embraced the faith and 
removed to Illinois. Edward Hunter became Bishop of the Fifth 
Ward of Nauvoo, and in Utah the Presiding Bishop of the Church. 

From Chester County the Prophet proceeded to Philadelphia, 
where a flourishing branch of the Church existed, and then returned 
to Illinois, arriving at Commerce on the 4th of March, 1840. 

Hyrum Smith, in the absence of his associates, had had presi- 
dential charge of the Churh. Stakes of Zion had been organized at 
Commerce and in Iowa. William Marks became President of the 
Commerce Stake, with Charles C. Rich and Austin Cowles as his 
counselors. The members of the High Council were G. W. Harris, 
Samuel Bent. Henry G. Sherwood. David Fullmer, Alpheus Cutler. 
William Huntington, Thomas Grover. Newel Knight, Charles C. Bich, 
David Dort, Seymour Brunson and Lewis D. Wilson. On the Iowa 
side John Smith was President of the Stake, and Reynolds Cahoon 
and Lyman Wight were his counselors. Members of the High Coun- 
cil: Asahel Smith, John M. Burk, A. 0. Smoot, Richard Howard, 
Willard Snow, Erastus Snow. David Pettigrew, Elijah Fordham. 


Edward Fisher, Elias Smith, John Patten and Stephen Chase. Alan- 
son Ripley was Bishop in Iowa. Other stakes were in early contem- 

At Commerce in November, 1839, Don Carlos Smith and 
Ebenezer Robinson had established a semi-monthly paper called 
the Times and Seasons. This was the organ of the Church. In its 
columns Hyrum Smith had published an account of the Missouri 
persecutions. The Prophet became the editor of this paper. The 
Nauvoo Wasp, edited by William Smith, and afterwards renamed the 
Nauvoo Neighbor, was a later publication. 

On April 6th, 1840 — the tenth anniversary of the Church — the 
Saints convened, according to custom, in general conference. Dur- 
ing its session Apostles Orson Hyde and John E. Page were appointed 
to take a mission to Palestine. Orson Hyde accepted the call, and 
subsequently departed for the Holy Land. Elder Page failed to fulfill 
his mission. It was the beginning of his defection from Mormonism. 
President Joseph Smith detailed to the conference his recent visit to 
Washington, including his interview with Van Buren, of whom he 
expressed his opinion in plain terms. Resolutions were passed 
thanking the people of Illinois, their representatives in Congress, 
their governor, Thomas Carlin, and Governor Lucas, of Iowa, for aid, 
sympathy and protection. 

Commerce now changed its name to Nauvoo. During their first 
year of occupancy, hundreds of houses had been erected by the Saints, 
Avho were fast flocking to their new gathering place, and the insignifi- 
cant hamlet of a few months before was rapidly assuming the 
dimensions of a city. The bend in the Mississippi at this point gave 
the place three river fronts, with some of the streets terminating at 
the water's edge. The thoroughfares were wide, crossing each other 
at right angles; a model of healthfulness and beauty many times 
copied by the city-building Saints in laying out their settlements in 
the Rocky Mountains. The houses, embowered i«^groves and gar- 
dens, tastefully and securely fenced, ranged all the way from the 
neatly white-washed log-cabin, through buildings of brick and frame 


to the stately mansion of stone. When the Temple came to crown 
the noble hill upon which the city had already climbed, and the busy 
hum of industry from forge, mill and factory arose as incense from a 
hundred altars, Nauvoo, the home of twice ten thousand people, was 
not only the City Beautiful of the Saints, but bid fair to become, in 
the not far distant future, the pride and glory of Illinois." 

At the time of which we write, May, 1840, the town had from 
two to three thousand inhabitants, and was divided ecclesiastically 
into three wards — Upper, Middle and Lower — presided over severally 
by Bishops Edward Partridge,! Newel K. Whitney and Vinson 
Knight. As the place grew, these three wards became four, then ten, 
while in the farming districts, outside the city, three additional wards 
were created. 

Thus were affairs at Nauvoo prospering. Thus, with that won- 
derful recuperative power which has ever characterized them as a 
people, were these whilom exiles of Missouri already recovering 
from the effects of the persecution which had robbed them of well- 
nigh their earthly all. 

The Mormons now began to take part in Illinois politics. Per- 
haps it would have been well for them in a worldly sense, though 
not so well in a sense far wider and higher, had they refrained from 
exercising this right. Though not immediately apparent, it was the 
beginning for them of untold sorrow. Next to the rancor of religious 
hatred is the bitterness of political animosity. The Mormons ere 
this had experienced both. They were fated ere long to again exper- 
ience them. 

A great presidential election was approaching. The celebrated 
"log-cabin and hard cider'* campaign was in progress, and Whigs and 
Democrats throughout the entire land were working arduously in the 
interests of their respective parties. William Henry Harrison was 
the Whig candidate for the Presidency, while Martin Van Buren had 

■■- Nauvoo in 1844-5 was said to lie the mosl 
t Bishop Partridge died on May l>7Hi of thai 


again been put forward by the Democrats. In Hancock County, 
Illinois, the two great parties were almost equally divided. A hand- 
ful of votes, thrown either way, would suffice to turn a local election. 
This balance of power was held by the Mormons. To secure and 
retain their favor, therefore, became an object with politicians of 
both sides. 

Most of the Mormons were traditionally Democrats. In Ohio, 
in February, 1835, they had started a paper called the Northern 
Times, supporting democracy. But now, it seems, they mostly voted 
with the Whigs, casting their ballots for the Harrison electors. The 
reason probably Avas, not that Joseph Smith was a Whig, but that 
Martin Van Buren was a Democrat. At subsequent elections in 
Illinois the majority of the Mormons generally voted the democratic 

They were quite naturally averse, however, to supporting their 
enemies on any ticket, or men whom they believed incompetent, 
corrupt and immoral. They insisted, not only upon representation 
for themselves, but that men of character and ability be put forward, 
if their vote was wanted to elect them. The politicians, not always 
able to furnish what was required, no doubt deemed this fastidi- 
ous. Many thought it dictatorial. Misunderstandings occurred, and 
much ill-feeling was at times created. Men whom the Mormons thus 
rejected as nominees, — for at times they carried their point in 
caucus, — as well as those whom they defeated at elections, generally 
became their enemies. 

Among their friends in political circles were Hon. Sidney H. 
Little and Hon. Stephen A. Douglas, the former a Whig and the latter 
a Democrat. Mr. Little, who was a State senator, died before the 
Mormon troubles in Illinois had fairly begun. Judge Douglas, who 
was Secretary of the State, though he eventually proclaimed against 
the Saints, was their friend for several years after the Prophet's death. 
Stephen A. Douglas and Joseph Smith each regarded the other as a 
masterspirit. It was by means of the Mormon vote, during the 
Prophet's lifetime, that "the little giant" finally attained t«> the 


United States Senate. His opponents styled him "the Mormon-made 

In 1840, as said, the Saints supported the Whig party in the 
contest which resulted in the defeat of Martin Van Buren, and the 
election of General Harrison as President of the United States. The 
anxiety of the rival parties to attach the Mormons to their interests, 
was doubtless an important element in the peace and prosperity 
enjoyed by the Saints during this period. 

But now a cloud, "a cloud no bigger than a man's hand," but 
that hand an inveterate foe to the Prophet and his people, appeal's 
upon their horizon. It is the forerunner of a storm, a storm which, 
though not bursting forth instanter, shall know no lull when once its 
fury breaks, till the blood of that Prophet has been shed, and another 
and a crowning exodus of that people — from the confines of civiliza- 
tion to the wilds of the savage west — shall have startled by its 
strangeness and awakened by its unparalleled achievement, a world's 

On the 15th of September, 1840, the Governor of Missouri, 
Lilburn W. Boggs, made a demand upon Thomas Carlin, Governor of 
Illinois, for Joseph Smith, junior, Sidney Rigdon, Lyman Wight, 
Parley P. Pratt, Caleb Baldwin and Alanson Brown, as fugitives from 
justice. The demand, it seems, was retaliative in its character. On the 
7th of July, preceding, a party of Missourians had kidnapped four 
Mormons, namely : James Allred, Noah Bogers, Alanson Brown and 
Benjamin Boyce, whom they carried over the river to Tully, Lewis 
County, Missouri, tied them to trees and whipped them unmercifully. 

Their excuse for their lawlessness and barbarity was that the 
Mormons had stolen from them. The valley of the Mississippi, at 
that time, was infested with thieves and rogues of every description ; 
preying upon all classes, the Saints included. Some of these thieves 
were probably Mormons, weak and wicked enough to thus retaliate 
upon those who had robbed them of their all. But the Mormon 
people were not given to thievery, nor was there any proof that the 
four men abducted and abused by the Missourians were guilty. They 


were in the river-bottom hunting horses, it is said, when the men of 
Tully, after recovering some stolen goods near Warsaw, twenty miles 
below Nauvoo, came upon and captured them. 

The affair created considerable excitement at Nauvoo and 
throughout Hancock County; the general feeling of all classes, Mor- 
mon and non-Mormon, being against the Missourians. Governor 
Carlin, in response to popular demand, called upon Missouri to 
deliver up the kidnappers. It was then that Governor Boggs issued 
his requisition for Joseph Smith and his brethren, most of whom 
had escaped from captivity in that State nearly eighteen months 

Possibly there was more than retaliation in this act of Governor 
Boggs. The conduct of Missouri in the bloody crusade inaugurated 
by her Executive against her Mormon citizens, had been widely con- 
demned, and the charges alleged against the Saints in justification of 
that conduct were generally disbelieved. The fact that many 
months had passed since the escape of the Mormon leaders, during 
which no effort had been made to retake them, was being cited in 
proof of the falsity of those charges. Governor Boggs, therefore, 
after a Rip Van Winkle sleep of seventeen months, suddenly wakes 
up and returns to the assault, hoping perhaps to vindicate, or at 
least render consistent his former course, and rescue by a cowp 
d'etat what remains of his besmirched and shattered reputation. 

Besides, the state election is approaching, and it may be that 
he hopes for another term of office. What more brilliant a bribe, 
what more tempting a bait for ballots, in Mormon-hating Missouri, 
than Joseph Smith the Mormon leader in chains? 

Many non-Mormon citizens of Illinois stoutly opposed the 
delivery of the persons named, even if guilty, to be dealt with by 
officials who had sanctioned and even assisted in the butchery, 
wholesale robbery and expulsion of their innocent co-religionists. 
But many did not believe them guilty. Said the Quincy Whig, a 
prominent journal of that period: "We repeat, Smith and Bigdon 
should not be given up. * * The law is made to secure the 


punishment of the guilty, and not to sacrifice the innocent. * * 
Compliance on the part of Governor Carlin would be to deliver them, 
not to be tried for crime, but to be punished without crime." 

Other papers justified the Governor in observing the forms of 
law usual in such cases, and issuing his requisition for the arrest 
and delivery of the Mormon leaders to the officers of Missouri. 

Carlin's writ was returned to him unserved; the sheriff of Han- 
cock County, entrusted with its service, not being able to find the 
persons wanted. Having no faith in Missouri justice, like the wise' 
man in the proverb they had probably "foreseen the evil" and "hid 

Despite this unpleasant episode, fortune continued to rain favors 
upon the Mormons in Illinois. During the winter of 1840-41 the 
Legislature granted the Charter of the City of Nauvoo, one of the 
most liberal charters ever bestowed upon a municipality. It was 
planned by the Prophet and devised, as he said, "on principles so 
broad that any honest man might dwell secure under its protective 
influence without distinction of sect or party." 

A few sections of the Charter are here inserted: 

Sec. 4. There shall be a City Council tit consist of Mayor, four Aldermen and nine 
Councilors, who shall have the qualifications of electors of said city, and shall be chosen 
by the qualified voters thereof, and shall hold their offices for two years, and until their 
successors shall be elected and qualified. The City Council shall judge of the qualifications, 
elections and returns of their own members, and a majority of them shall form a quorum 
to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and compel the 
attendance of absent members, under such penalties as may be prescribed by ordinance. 

Sec. 5. The Mayor, Aldermen and Councilors, before entering upon the duties of 
their offices, shall take and subscribe an oath or affirmation, that they will supporl the 
Constitution of the United States and of this State, and that they will well and truly per- 
form tin' duties of their offices to the best of their skill and abilities. 

Sec. 11. The City Council shall have power and authority to make, ordain, estab- 
lish and execute all such ordinances, not repugnant to the Constitution of the United Slates 
in' of this State, as they may deem necessary tor the benefit, peace, good order, regulation, 
convenience ami cleanliness of said city; for the protection of property therein from 
destruction by fire or otherwise, and I'm- the health and happiness thereof; they shall have 
power lii lill all vacancies that may happen by death, resignation or removal, ill any of the 
offices herein made elective; to fix and establish all the lees of the officers of said corpor- 


each offense, as they may deem just, for refusing to accept any office in or under the cor- 
poration, or for misconduct therein; to divide the city into wards; to add to the number of 
Aldermen and Councilors, and apportion them among the several wants as may be must 
just and conducive to the interests of the city. 

Sec. 13. The City Council shall have exclusive power within the city, by ordinance 
to license, regulate and restrain the keeping of ferries; to regulate the police ot the city; 
to impose lines, forfeitures and penalties for the breach of any ordinance, and provide for 
the recovery of such lines and forfeitures, and the enforcement of such penalties, and to 
pass such ordinances as may he necessary and proper for carrying into execution the 
powers specified in this act: Provided, Such ordinances are not repugnant In the Constitu- 
tion of the I'niled Stales or of this State; and in fine, to exercise such other legislative 
powers as are conferred on the City Council of the city of Springfield, by an act entitled 
'■An act to incorporate the city of Springfield," approved February third, one thousand 
eight hundred and forty. 

Sec. Hi. The Mayor and Aldermen shall be conservators of the peace within the 
limits of said city, and shall have all the powers of Justices of the Peace therein, both in 
civil and criminal cases, arising under the laws of the State; they shall, as Justices of the 
Peace within the limits nf said city, perform the same duties, be governed by the same 
laws, give the same bonds and security as other Justices of the Peace, ami he commis- 
sioned as Justices of the Peace in and for said city by the Governor. 

Sec. 17. The Mayer shall have exclusive jurisdiction in all cases arising under the 
ordinances of the corporation, and shall issue such process as may be necessary to carry 
said ordinances into execution and effect; appeals may be had from any decision or judg- 
ment nf said Mayor or Aldermen, arising under the city ordinances, to the Municipal 
Court, under such regulations as may be presented by ordinance, which Court shall lie 
composed of the Mayor, or Chief Justice, and the Aldermen as Associate Justices, and 
from the final judgment nf the Municipal Court to the Circuit Court of Hancock County, 
in the same manner as appeals are taken from Ihe judgments of Justices of the Peace : 
Provided. That the parties litigant shall have a right to a trial by a jury of twelve men in 
all cases before the Municipal Court. The Municipal Court shall have power to 
grant writs of habeas rorpti.-i in all cases arising under the ordinances nf Ihe City 

Sec. lit. All processes issued by the Mayor, Aldermen or Municipal Court shall he 
directed In the Marshal, and in the execution thereof he shall he governed by Ihe same 
laws ;i> are or nia\ he prescribed for ihe direction anil compensation of constables in simi- 
lar cases. The Marshal shall also perform such other duties as may he required of him 
ler the ordinances of said city, and shall he the principal ministerial officer. 

Sec. 24. The City Council may establish and organize an institution <A' learning 

within ihe limits of the city for the leaching nf ihe arts, sciences ami tear I professions, 

I., he called the "University nf the City nf Nauvoo;" which institution shall he under the 
control ami managemenl nf a Board nf Trustees, consisting nf ;i Chancellor, Registrar, 
and twenty-three Regents, which Board shall thereafter he a body corporate and politic, 

will, perpetual succession, by the nan f the "Chancellor and Regents nf the University 

nf ihe City of Nauvoo," and shall have full power In pass, ordain, establish ami execute 


all such laws and ordinances as they may consider for the welfare and prosperity of said 
University, its officers and students ; Provided, That the said laws and ordinances shall 
not be repugnant to the Constitution of the United States or of this State ; and, Provided, 
also, That the Trustees shall at all times be appointed by the City Council, and shall 
have all the powers and privileges for the advancement of the cause of education which 
appertain to the trustees of any other college or university of this State. 

Sec. 25. The City Council may organize the inhabitants of said city subject to mili- 
tary duty into a body of independent military men, to be called the " Nauvoo Legion." the 
court-martial of which shall be composed of the commissioned officers of said Legion, and 
constitute the law-making department, with full powers and authority to make, ordain, 
establish and execute, all such laws and ordinances, as may be considered necessary for 
the benefit, government and regulation of said Legion ; Provided, Said court-martial shall 
pass no law or act repugnant to or inconsistent with the Constitution of the United States 
or of this State ; and Provided, also, That the officers of the Legion shall be commissioned 
by the Governor of the State. The said Legion shall perform the same amount of mili- 
tary duty as is now or may be hereafter required of the regular militia of the State, and 
shall be at the disposal of the Mayor in executing the laws and ordinances of the City 
Corporation, and the laws of the State, and at the disposal of the Governor for the public 
defense and the execution of the laws of the State, or of the United States, and shall be 
entitled to their proportion of the public arms ; and, Provided, also, That said Legion 
shall be exempt from all other military duty. 

Having passed both houses of the Legislative Assembly, the 
Charter of Nauvoo was signed by Governor Carlin and certified by 
Secretary Douglas on the 16th of December. It went into effect 
February 1st, 1841. 

On that day occurred the first city election of Nauvoo, resulting 
in the choice of the following named officers : Mayor, John C. Ben- 
nett : Aldermen, William Marks, Samuel H. Smith, Daniel H. Wells 
and Newel K. Whitney ; Councilors, Joseph Smith, Hyrum Smith, 
Sidney Rigdon, Charles C. Rich, John T. Barnett, Wilson Law, Don 
Carlos Smith, John P. Greene and Vinson Knight. 

Among the first bills for ordinances presented to the city coun- 
cil, was one to prohibit the sale of liquor at retail within the corpor- 
ate limits, and others providing for the freedom of all religious sects 
and of all peaceable public meetings within the city. These bills 
were presented by the Prophet, and ordinances passed accordingly. 
It was the purpose of the Saints, who greatly predominated at 
Nauvoo. to make of it a strictly moral and free city, as free from vice 


as from tyranny, a delight at once to its inhabitants and to the 
stranger within its gates. 

The municipal election was followed by the organization of the 
University and of the Nauvoo Legion, as provided for in the Charter. 
At the military election, held on the 4th of February, Joseph Smith 
was chosen Lieutenant-General, John C. Bennett, Major-General, and 
Wilson Law and Don Carlos Smith, Brigadier-Generals of the Legion. 
It was modeled after the Roman legion, and consisted originally of 
six companies, divided into two brigades or cohorts. Subsequently 
other citizens of Hancock County joined the Legion, and it finally 
aggregated several thousand troops. 

The Nauvoo University, for which a suitable edifice was to be 
erected, was officered as follows : Chancellor, John C. Bennett; Reg- 
istrar/William Law; Regents, Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Hyrum 
Smith, William Marks, Samuel H. Smith, Daniel H. Wells, Newel K. 
Whitney, Charles C. Rich, John T. Barnett, Wilson Law, John P. 
Greene, Vinson Knight, Isaac Galland, Elias Higbee, Robert D. Foster, 
James Adams, Samuel Bennett, Ebenezer Robinson, John Snider, 
George Miller, Lenos M. Knight, John Taylor and Heber C. Kimball. 
Its faculty included the names of Sidney Rigdon, Orson Pratt, Orson 
Spencer and James Kelly ; the latter two college graduates. Four 
common school wards, with three wardens to each, were connected 
with the University. 

On January 24th of that year, a change had taken place in the 
personnel of the Church Presidency. Hyrum Smith, second coun- 
selor to the Prophet, having been called to succeed his deceased sire 
as Patriarch of the Church, William Law was chosen to fill the 
vacancy thus created in the Presidency. A few days later, Joseph 
Smith was chosen Trustee-in-Trust for the Church, to hold the legal 
title to its property agreeable to the laws of Illinois. The succession 
to this office was vested in the First Presidency. It was perpetuated 
for many years after the Mormons removed to Utah. 

April 6th, 1841. A general conference convened this day at the 
chief city of the Saints. During the morning hours the corner stones 


of the Nauvoo Temple were laid and dedicated. On the third day of the 
conference, Lyman Wight was ordained an Apostle to fill a vacancy 
which had for some time existed in the council of the Twelve. 

Apropos of the Apostles, let us now briefly advert to them and 
their mission abroad. After leaving Illinois, in the fall of 1839, the 
majority of the Twelve made their way to Kirtland, where a few 
families of Saints yet resided. Thence they journeyed to New York, 
preaching by the way and laboring for some time in that city and its 
vicinity. In the latter part of December, John Taylor, Wilford Wood- 
ruff, Hiram Clark and Theodore Turley sailed for Liverpool on board 
the Oxford. Three months later, Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, 
Parley P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, George A. Smith and Reuben Hedlock 
followed in their wake on the Patrick Henry. 

Landing at Liverpool on the 6th of April, 1840, President Young 
and his party there found Apostle Taylor, with about thirty converts. 
He and his party had arrived at that port on the 11th of January. 
They were there welcomed by Mr. George Cannon, Apostle Taylor's 
brother-in-law, who resided at Liverpool. He was the father of 
George Q. Cannon, then a mere lad, and not yet connected with the 
cause in which he was destined to play, in after years, so prominent 
a part. Visiting Preston, Apostle Taylor had returned with Joseph 
Fielding to Liverpool, while Elders Woodruff and Turley had gone 
into Staffordshire, and Hiram Clark to Manchester. In that great 
town a branch of the Church had previously been built up by Elder 
William Clayton. 

Immediately upon the arrival of President Young, a conference 
of the British Saints was called to convene at Preston on the 14th of 
April. That clay Willard Richards was ordained to the Apostleship. 
It was decided to send for a score or more of the Seventies, to assist 
the Apostles in their ministry: to publish a hymn book for the use of 
the Saints, and to establish at Manchester a monthly periodical to be 
called The Latter-day Saints Millennial Starr 1 ' 

*The first number of the Star, edited by Parley P. Pratt, appeared in Ma 
is now a weekly issue and is published at Liverpool. 


The Apostles and Elders then separated and went preaching into 
various parts of Great Britain. Their experience was a repetition of 
the success of Heber C. Kimball and his confreres in that land a few 
years before. The fruits of Apostle Woodruff's labors in Stafford- 
shire and Herefordshire were especially abundant. He baptized hun- 
dreds, including over forty preachers of the sect known as United 
Brethren. Wales, Scotland, Ireland, the Isle of Man, and parts of 
England yet unvisited by the Elders, were all penetrated and many 
converts made of each nationality. The foundations for future mis- 
sionary success, in the organization of conferences, the establish- 
ment of a publishing house and a shipping agency were now laid 
broad and permanently. 

On June 6th, 1840, a company of forty-one Latter-day Saints — 
the first to emigrate from a foreign land, sailed from Liverpool on the 
ship Britannia, bound for Nauvoo, via New York. John Moon had 
charge of this company. About three months later two hundred 
more, in charge of Theodore Turley and William Clayton, were carried 
over in the North America. Several other companies sailed in 1841, the 
last one for that year going to Nauvoo by way of New Orleans, which 
then became the regular route. Each succeeding year added its 
quota ; the work of proselyting more than keeping pace with the con- 
tinuous drain of emigration. It is estimated that prior to the settle- 
ment of Utah nearly five thousand British converts to Mormonism 
had landed in America. 

Thus was set in motion that great tide of immigration which, 
swelling the numbers of the Saints in the Mississippi Valley, peopled 
in later years with the skilled mechanics and hardy yeomanry of 
Britain, Scandinavia and other European countries, the mountain 
valleys of Utah ; mingling their brave blood — brave to forsake native 
land, sunder all earthly ties and endure the scorn and odium heaped 
ever upon the adherents of an unpopular faith — with the life-stream 
of a race equally heroic, cradled in the lap of liberty. The result, 
the bone and sinew, character and intelligence of Utah to-day. — the 
promise of the present to the future. 


When the Apostles landed at Liverpool, in April, 1840, the 
Church in Great Britain numbered less than two thousand souls. 
Twelve months later, when most of them returned to America, that 
figure had been more than trebled. Said Brigham Young : " It truly 
seems a miracle to look upon the contrast between our landing and 
departing at Liverpool. We landed in the spring of 1840. as 
strangers in a strange land, and penniless ; but through the mercy of 
God we have gained many friends, established churches in almost 
every noted town and city of Great Britain ; baptized between seven 
and eight thousand souls, printed five thousand Books of Mormon, 
three thousand hymn books, twenty-five hundred volumes of the 
Millennial Star and fifty thousand tracts ; emigrated to Zion one thou- 
sand souls, established a permanent shipping agency, which will be a 
great blessing to the Saints, and have left sown in the hearts of 
thousands the seed of eternal life. And yet we have lacked nothing 
to eat, drink or wear." 

Parley P. Pratt was left by his brethren to preside over the 
British Mission. Orson Hyde was in Palestine. The remainder of 
the Apostles who had gone abroad now returned home, some of them 
reaching Nauvoo early in July, 1841. 

Anticipating their arrival by several weeks, our story now 
returns to the latter part of May. As already shown, it was a part of 
the plan of the Mormon leader, besides building up a central Stake of 
Zion at Nauvoo, to establish other stakes in that vicinity. Among 
these, which had now been organized for several months, were those 
of Ramus and Lima in Hancock County, Quincy and Mount Hope in 
Adams County, Geneva in Morgan County, and -Zarahemla in Lee 
County, Iowa. One of the stake presidency at Quincy was Ezra T. 
Benson, afterwards an Apostle and a prominent Utah pioneer. 

The stake at Kirtland, Ohio, had lately been reorganized, with 
Almon W. Babbitt, Lester Brooks and Zebedee Coltrin as its presi- 
dency. All or most of the stakes were being built up rapidly by the 
gathering of the Saints from various parts, including those from 


On the 24th of May, 1841, President Smith announced through 
the Times and Seasons the discontinuance of all the stakes outside of 
Hancock County, Illinois, and Lee County, Iowa, and called upon the 
Saints residing in other parts " to make preparations to come in with- 
out delay." Said he: "This is important, and should he attended to 
by all who feel an interest in the prosperity of this, the corner stone 
of Zion. Here the temple must be raised, the university be built, 
and other edifices erected which are necessary for the great work of 
the last days; and which can only be done by a concentration of 
energy and enterprise." To this call the Saints responded with 
alacrity, and came pouring in from all parts outside the two counties 
mentioned, to engage in the work of building up and beautifying 
" the corner stone of Zion." 

To the followers of the Prophet, as well as to the Prophet him- 
self, this was all that the call really meant. Temple-building, with 
the Saints, we need scarcely inform the reader, amounts to what 
might be termed a divine passion ; a work done by Time for Eternity. 
The sacred edifices they rear, with their solemn ceremonies and 
ordinances, represent to them so many links literally binding earth 
to heaven. No work in their estimation is so important, — not even 
their proselyting labors among the nations. Next to their religious 
mission of preaching, proselyting, and administering in their temples 
for the salvation of the living and the dead, is their penchant for 
founding institutions of learning. This fact Mormon history 
abundantly verifies, in spite of all that has been said and thought to 
the contrary. This explains in part that ready obedience, — wrong- 
fully supposed to be a mere servile yielding to the dictum of a 
despot, — manifested by the Saints to the word and will of their 
leader. He was simply inviting them to engage in the work most 
congenial to their souls; and this, as we have said, was all that the 
call really meant. 

But to the politicians it meant more, — or rather, meant some- 
thing entirely different. It was construed by them as a shrewd 
political maneuver, foreshadowing the ultimate domination of Han- 


cock County by the Mormons, and the relegation to the rear, as a 
hopeless minority, of the combined forces of Whigs, Democrats and 
whatever else, in spite of all that could be done to hinder. It was 
believed, in short, to be a "colonizing" scheme, a trick to increase 
and render supreme the local Mormon vote. Already jealous of the 
power wielded by the Saints at the polls, and professing to " view 
with alarm" the prospective increase of that power by means of the 
proposed concentration, some of the politicians now set about 
organizing in Hancock County a new party, the avowed object of 
which was to oppose and counteract the political influence of the 
Mormons in county and in state. 

Public meetings to discuss the question were held at various 
points, and resolutions expressive of the anti-Mormon feeling passed 
by those assembled. The result was the rise of the Anti-Mormon 
Party, and the origin of the term "anti-Mormon," thenceforth in 
vogue in Illinois politics. Much bitterness was engendered by this 
party, not only against the Mormons, whom they finally compelled to 
leave the State, but against all who affiliated with or in any way 
befriended them. Such were denominated Jack-Mormons. The 
hatred of the Anti-Mormons for the Mormons, despite their 
resolutions and protestations to the contrary, expressed itself not 
only in politics, but in everything else, social, commercial and 

Of course there were exceptions to this rule ; Joseph Smith him- 
self styled some of the Anti-Mormons " good fellows." But they 
were mixed in politics, — which like adversity " makes strange bed- 
fellows,** — with many characters that were positively disreputable. 
The party as a whole probably answered, far better than did 
Bacon, Pope's caustic description of England's great Lord Chan- 
cellor. — " the wisest, brightest, meanest of mankind." 

The Anti-Mormon Party of Illinois was made up of all parties. 
Anyone with a grievance against the Saints, — from the apostate, 
expelled from the Church for adultery, to the common thief and 
counterfeiter, convicted and punished at Nauvoo for breaking the city 


ordinances, — forthwith became an anti-Mormon. Whigs and Demo- 
crats then, as Republicans and Democrats since, united to oppose 
and destroy the political power of the Mormons. 

Whether or not the anti-Mormons conspired about this time 
with the Executive of Illinois, to effect a speedier solution of the 
problem than seemed possible by means of ordinary methods, — even 
to remove the Mormon leader from the midst of his people, thus 
paralyzing the gathering movement in progress, — may never be 
known. But the arrest of the Prophet, a few weeks after his procla- 
mation had gone forth, on the identical writ first issued by Governor 
Boggs in September, 1840, with the part played by Governor Carlin 
in bringing about that arrest, almost warrants the suspicion. It 
occurred as follows: About the 4th of June, 1841, Joseph Smith, 
having accompanied as far as Quincy his brother Hyrum and William 
Law, who were starting east upon a mission, called upon Governor 
Carlin at his residence in that place. He was received with marked 
kindness and respect. In the extended interview which followed 
between the Governor and his visitor, nothing whatever was said 
of the writ formerly issued by Missouri, concerning which all 
excitement had long since abated. Taking leave of his Excellency, 
the Prophet set out for Nauvoo. He had not gone far when he was 
overtaken and arrested by Sheriff King of Adams County, and a 
posse, whom he believed the Governor had sent after him. Among 
them was an officer from Missouri, the bearer of the writ, who 
gloated exultingly over the prisoner and the prospect of carrying him 
back to his former captivity. 

But Joseph Smith had studied law as well as theology, and knew 
how to defend his rights under the circumstances. Obtaining a writ 
of haheas corpus from C. A. Warren, Esq., master in chancery at 
Quincy, he had the hearing in the case set for the 8th of June, at 
Monmouth, Warren County, before Judge Stephen A. Douglas. 
Judge Douglas had arrived at Quincy on the night of the arrest. 
Next morning the Prophet, accompanied by Sheriff King and the 
Missouri officer, started for Nauvoo. On the way the Sheriff, who was 


in poor health, was taken seriously ill. The Prophet conveyed him 
to his own home and nursed him with the kindliest care. 

The hearing at Monmouth came off in clue order on the day 
appointed. Considerable excitement reigned, and an effort was made 
by the rabble to mob the Mormon leader as he entered the town. 
Sheriff King, however, faithfully stood by his prisoner and protected 
him from assault. A formidable array of attorneys assisted in the 
prosecution. The Prophet's counsel were C. A. Warren, Sidney H. 
Little, 0. H. Browning, James H. Ralston, Cyrus Walker and Archi- 
bald Williams. Mr. Browning, in the course of an earnest and elo- 
quent plea, pictured so vividly the sufferings of the Prophet and his 
people in Missouri, and the hopeless case of the prisoner if delivered 
over to his former persecutors, that nearly all present, including 
Judge Douglas himself, shed tears.* 

The defense rested upon two propositions : (1) that the Missouri 
writ, having once been returned to the Executive unserved, was void; 
(2) that the entire proceeding on the part of Missouri was illegal. 
Judge Douglas, without going into the merits of the second proposi- 
tion, decided that the writ was void and that the prisoner must be 
liberated. - Amid the rejoicings of his friends, and to the chagrin of 
his enemies, the Prophet returned to Nauvoo. 

But press and pulpit now took up the controversy, the tone of 
the former, once so favorable to the Saints, being now much modi- 
fied. Some papers were openly hostile. Beneath the burning rays 
of political jealousy and religious hatred the flowers of friendship 
were fast fading. Even Judge Douglas was censured for his decision 

* Said Browning: "Great God! have I not seen it ? Yes, mine eyes have beheld 
the blood-stained traces of innocent women and children, in the drear winter, who had 
traveled hundreds of miles bare-foot through frost and snow, to seek a refuge from their 
savage pursuers. It was a scene of horror, sufficient to enlist sympathy from an adaman- 
tine heart. And shall this unfortunate man. whom their fury has seen proper to select 
for sacrifice, be driven into such a savage land, and none dare to enlist in the cause of 
justice? If there was no other voice under heaven ever to be heard in this cause, gladly 
would I stand alone, and proudly spend my latest breath in defence of an oppressed 
American citizen." 


which had set the Mormon leader free. The Prophet's personal foes, 
the more radical anti-Mormons, sought in every way to prejudice the 
public mind against him. That they succeeded the tragic issue 
amply showed. 

One charge preferred against the Mormons in Illinois was that of 
"spoiling the Philistines." — in other words stealing from the Gentiles; 
a practice which it was said their leaders sanctioned. This accusa- 
tion, being noised abroad and believed by many, was an effective 
weapon for the anti-Mormons. It was particularly gratifying to the 
thieving bands that continued plying their nefarious trade up and 
down the Mississippi. Screening them from suspicion, by placing the 
onus of their misdeeds upon others, it enabled them to pursue their 
dangerous vocation with greater security. 

That some Mormons practiced thievery was doubtless true, — as 
true as that some anti-Mormons did, — but the allegation that the 
Mormon leaders sanctioned such a practice was totally false. On the 
contrary they denounced it, in public and in private, publishing, in 
December, 1841, their emphatic denial of the charge of teaching their 
followers that it was right and proper for them to prey upon "the 
Philistines." They made examples, too, of such of their community 
as were convicted of stealing. Two subordinate officers of the Nauvoo 
Legion, being found guilty of theft, were promptly cashiered and their 
names stricken from the rank roll. 

With the return of the Apostles from Europe, the work of build- 
ing up Nauvoo and the surrounding stakes was much accelerated. 
The Nauvoo Temple and the Nauvoo House— the latter designed for 
the entertainment of strangers — were now progressing favorably : 
also other edifices and public improvements. What gave the Temple 
a special impetus about this time was the enunciation by the Prophet 
of the tenet of baptism for the dead. A Masonic Temple was like- 
wise projected at Nauvoo, and Joseph and Hyrum Smith, Brigham 
Young and many other leading Mormons became Free Masons. 

Joseph Smith's fame was now the property of two hemispheres. 
He was styled, from his rank as Lieutenant General of the Nauvoo 


Legion, "a military prophet," and referred to both in Europe and 
America as "the Western Mohamet." All sorts of rumors as to 
his alleged intended conquests, with the sword in one hand and his 
Koran — the Book of Mormon — in the other, began to fill the air. 

Early in 1842 the great journals of the land, which had hith- 
erto ignored or treated lightly the subject of Mormonism, began to 
send representatives to Nauvoo to write up the question, or solicit 
from the Prophet contributions to their columns touching that topic, 
which had become one of the most interesting of the hour. The 
first of these journals to give the Mormons a fair and full presenta- 
tion to the public was the New York Herald, in which a series of 
letters appeared over the signature of James Arlington Bennett, of 
Long Island, who visited Nauvoo to see for himself, and as the repre- 
sentative of James Gordon Bennett, this Mecca and its Mohamet of 
the West. So pleased were the authorities at Nauvoo with the fair 
and impartial letters published in the Herald that the City Council 
passed resolutions thanking the editor for his courtesy and liberality, 
while upon the author of the articles was gratefully conferred the 
honoraiw title of Inspector-General of the Nauvoo Legion. 

John Wentworth, Esq., proprietor of the Chicago Democrat — an 
influential journal — solicited from the Prophet's pen a concise sketch 
of his personal history with that of the Church from its inception to 
the year 1842. The sketch was furnished and published. It con- 
tained what are known as the Articles of Faith of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. It stated, among other things, 
that the Prophet's followers at Nauvoo, were from six to eight 
thousand souls, with "vast numbers in the county around and in 
almost every county of the State." Other pens and tongues, of 
tourists and visitors, praised the hospitality, enterprise, industry, 
good order and morality of the City Beautiful and its inhabitants. 

We have stated that Stephen A. Douglas regarded Joseph Smith 
as a master spirit. He was not alone in that opinion of the founder 
of Mormonism. James Arlington Bennett styled him " one of the 
greatest characters of the age." Josiah Quincy, who. in company 


with Charles Francis Adams, senior, was at Nauvoo shortly before 
the Prophet's death, said of him : 

It is by no means improbable tbat some future textbook, for the use of generations 
yet unborn, will contain a question something like this : What historical American of the 
nineteenth century has exerted the most powerful influence upon the destinies of his 
countrymen ? And it is by no means impossible that the answer to that interrogatory may 
be thus written : Joseph Smith, the Mormon Prophet. And the reply, absurd as it 
doubtless seems to most men now living, may be an obvious common-place to then- 
descendants. History deals in surprises and paradoxes quite as startling as this. The 
man who established a religion in this age of free debate, who was and is today accepted 
by hundreds of thousands as a direct emissary from the Most High. — such a rare human 
being is not to be disposed of by pelting his memory with unsavory epithets. Fanatic, 
imposter, charlatan, he may have been ; but these hard names furnish no solution to the 
problem he presents to us. Fanatics and impostors are living and dying every day, and 
their memory is buried with them; but the wonderful influence which this founder of a 
religion exerted and still exerts throws him into relief before us, not as a rogue to be 
criminated, but as a phenomenon to be explained. * * * * * 

" A fine looking man," continues Mr. Quincy, " is what the 
passer-by would instinctively have murmured. But Smith was more 
than this, and one could not resist the impression that capacity and 
resource were natural in his stalwart person." 

In May, 1842, the treachery and rascality of a man whom the 
Mormon leader had befriended and loaded with honors, became 
known to his benefactor. That man was Dr. John C. Bennett, 
Mayor of Nauvoo, Chancellor of its University, and Major-General of 
its Legion. He had become associated with the Saints soon after 
their exodus from Missouri. Though a great egotist, he was a man 
of education, address and ability. That he had little or no principle 
was not immediately apparent. Considerable of a diplomat and 
possessing some influence in political circles, he rendered valuable 
aid in securing the passage by the Illinois Legislature of the act 
incorporating the city of Nauvoo. * Hence the honors bestowed upon 

* It was to such men as Senator Little and Judge Douglas thai the Mormons were 
most indebted for the passage of the act. Abraham Lincoln, the future martyr President, 

then a member of the Illinois Legislature, voted, it is said, for the Nauvoo Charter and 
congratulated the Mormons on its passage. Lincoln was never an enemy to the Saints, 
and they much esteemed him. 


him by the Mormon people. Prior to that, and subsequently, he was 
Quartermaster-General of Illinois. Bennett professed great sympathy 
for the Saints. He joined the Church and apparently was a sincere 
convert to the faith. 

Governor Thomas Ford, in his history of Illinois, styles Bennett 
" probably the greatest scamp in the western country.'" But this 
was not until long after the Mormons, thrice victimized, had become 
aware of his villainy. 

On the 7th of May the Nauvoo Legion, now consisting of 
twenty-six companies, aggregating two thousand troops, assembled 
for a grand parade and sham battle, which was witnessed by 
thousands of spectators. Among the visitors present, as guests of 
General Joseph Smith, were Judge Stephen A. Douglas and other 
legal lights, who had adjourned the circuit court at Carthage in order 
to attend the Mormon military review. Wilson Law and Charles C. 
Bich. — the latter successor to Don Carlos Smith, deceased, — were the 
Brigadier-Generals of the Legion. As such, it devolved upon them 
to lead the two cohorts in the battle. For some reason, however, 
Major-General Bennett tried hard to induce the Prophet to take part 
in the fight and lead one of the cohorts. Suspecting Bennett's 
motive, General Smith declined, and subsequently recorded his 
impression that the purpose was to have him treacherously slain, in 
such a way that none but the guilty might know who did the deed. 

Bennett's after course gave color to the Prophet's suspicion. 
The same month he was convicted of seduction, — a crime which 
seems to have been common with him, — and expelled from the 
Mormon Church. He was also deprived of the various offices given 
him by the people of Nauvoo. Joseph Smith succeeded him as 
Mayor, Orson Spencer as Chancellor of the University, and Wilson 
Law as Major-General of the Legion. 

Bennett, to subserve his licentious practices, had secretly taught 
that the Prophet sanctioned illicit relations between the sexes. Pro- 
fessing deep contrition after his exposure, he voluntarily went before 
Alderman Daniel H. Wells and made oath to the effect that Joseph 


Smith had never taught him anything contrary to virtue and 
morality, and that so far as he knew the Prophet's private life was 
above reproach. These statements he repeated in public meetings. 
Finding, however, that he had become morally bankrupt in the eyes 
of the community, and could not, even if forgiven, regain their con- 
fidence, he withdrew from Nauvoo and joined the anti-Mormons. 

He now repeated his former tale of Joseph Smith's licentious 
teachings and practices, claiming that his denial of the charge had 
been forced from him by threats of violence. He revived the 
story of the Danites, originated by Dr. Avard at Far West. Bennett 
declared that these "Avenging Angels," were following him to take his 
life, as they had previously taken other lives at the Prophet's com- 
mand. He also wrote and published a book against Mormonism, and 
devoted himself assiduously to the task of bringing trouble upon his 
former friends. The more intelligent and reputable anti-Mormons 
despised Bennett and distrusted his story, but others believed and 
made use of it, and prejudice against the Saints increased correspond- 
ingly* During August the Prophet sent out the Apostles and a large 
number of Elders to preach in the country round and refute the vile 
slanders of this vengeful apostate. 

Coming events now cast their solemn shadows before. The 
Prophet foresaw the inevitable. He more than once had hinted at his 
own death, and, as seen, had singled out intuitively his successor. 
To him a mighty destiny was opening for his people, but the far 
West, and not the East, nor even the intermediary region was the 
fated arena of Mormonism's immediate future. On Saturday, August 
6th, 18-A2, at Montrose, Lee County, Iowa, he uttered in the presence 
of several friends a prediction, recorded in his own words as follows: 

"I prophesied that the Saints would continue to suffer much 
affliction, and would be driven to the Bocky Mountains. Many would 

* Governor Carlin being informed by Joseph Smith of Bennett's conduct a< Nauvoo, 
replied, '-Bennett's meanness is in accordance with representations of his character made 
to me more than two years since, and which 1 fell constrained to believe were true, since 
which time I have desired to have as little intercourse with him as possible." 


apostatize ; others would be put to death by our persecutors, or lose 
their lives in consequence of exposure or disease; and some would 
live to go and assist in making settlements and building cities, and 
see the Saints become a mighty people in the midst of the Rocky 




Again in the toils — Joseph smith and porter Rockwell arrested, charged with 

attempted murder ex-governor boggs of missouri the alleged victim how the 

deed was done the prisoners released by habeas corpus they evade re-arrest 

rockwell kidnapped and carried to missouri governor ford succeeds governor 

carlin the prophet submits to a judicial investigation judge pope the mormon 

leader again liberated another requisition joseph smith kidnapped his rescue 

and release anti-mormon depredations around nauvoo. 

/L'WO days after the delivery of the foregoing prediction the 
>K Prophet was again arrested. He was charged this time with 
being an accessory to an attempt to murder. The alleged vic- 
tim was no other than Lilburn W. Boggs, ex-Governor of Missouri, 
who, on the night of May 6th, 1842, at his home in Independence, 
Jackson County, in that State, had indeed been shot and dangerously 
wounded by some person or persons unknown. 

Lying near an open window in a pool of blood, with a ghastly 
wound in his head, the ex-Governor had been found by his little son, 
soon after the shooting. Footprints and a smoking pistol on the 
ground outside afforded the only clue to the perpetrator of the deed. 
Suspicion, however, at once rested upon the Mormons, whom Boggs 
had so persistently persecuted w v hile in power, and without further 
ado the crime was laid at their door. It was said that Joseph Smith 
had predicted a violent death for Governor Boggs, and lo ! here was 
an attempt at fulfillment. Could anything be plainer? The proof 
was positive — positive enough to suit the Missourians, eager for any 
excuse to get the Mormon leader back into their power — that he was 
in some way connected with the commission of the crime. 

It was not contended that he had committed the assault in person. 


The Missourians soon learned that Joseph Smith, if so accused, could 
prove an alibi. The date of the assault was just one day prior to the 
grand parade and sham battle at Nauvoo, already mentioned, and the 
distance between that place and Independence was at least two hun- 
dred miles ; in those days a full week's journey. Besides it was 
pretty generally known that the Prophet had not been in Missouri 
since his escape from captivity in that State in the spring of 1839. 
But then he might have sent a " Danite" — say Porter Rockwell, or 
some " avenging angel," — to do the deed of blood, after which the 
assassin had made good his escape. So reasoned among themselves 
the Missourians. 

It was useless after that for Joseph Smith to deny — as he did — 
having ever made such a prediction about ex-Governor Boggs. Use- 
less, also, that he denied sending Porter Rockwell, or anyone else 
into Missouri for such a purpose ; or that Rockwell had been in that 
State during the year 1842. Such denials availed nothing. Sus- 
picion had already decided his guilt. Neither would evidence the 
most conclusive now clear him. Were not the Mormons all falsifiers? 
Had they not slandered Missouri and rendered her name odious by 
declaring that she had persecuted them for their religious opinions? 
Here was a rare chance for revenge. The hated Prophet had lain 
himself liable, or had been laid liable to fall back into their power. 
Let them once but "get him on the hip,'' and they would "feed fat 
the ancient grudge " they bore him. 

Boggs himself shared, or professed to share, in the general opin- 
ion regarding the Mormon leader's complicity in the crime. As soon, 
therefore, as he had recovered from his well-nigh fatal wound, and 
he and his friends had had time to mature their plans, he went 
before a justice of the peace — Samuel Weston — and swore out a com- 
plaint charging "Joseph Smith, commonly called the Mormon 
Prophet," with being "an accessory before the fact of the intended 
murder." The affidavit stated that "the said Joseph Smith" was "a 
citizen or resident of the State of Illinois." 

Upon this complaint, application was made to the Governor of 


Missouri, Thomas Reynolds, for the issuance of a writ demanding 
Joseph Smith of the authorities of Illinois. Governor Reynolds 
promptly responded, issuing the desired requisition. The writ, how- 
ever, instead of following the language of the affidavit, described 
Joseph Smith, not as "a citizen or resident of the State of Illinois," 
but as a "fugitive from justice" who had "fled to the State of 
Illinois." It also went beyond the affidavit in stating that the assault 
was " made by one 0. P. Rockwell," whose name, it appears, had been 
left out of the original complaint. 

Governor Carlin, on receiving the requisition from Missouri, 
issued a warrant for Joseph Smith's arrest, stating therein — if Gov- 
ernor Ford's duplicate warrant upon which the case finally came up 
for trial was an exact copy of the original — that it had been "made 
known" to him " by the Executive authority of the State of Mis- 
souri, that one Joseph Smith stands charged by the affidavit of one 
Lilburn W. Boggs * * with being accessory before the fact 
to an assault with intent to kill, made by one 0. P. Rockwell," etc., 
"and that the said Joseph Smith had fled from the justice of said 
State and taken refuge in the State of Illinois." Thus Carlin not 
only repeated the mis-statements of Governor Reynolds, but added 
one of his own, in saying that the Executive of Missouri had 
informed him that "Joseph Smith had tied from the justice of said 
State." It was these discrepancies between the Boggs affidavit and 
the writs of the two governors ostensibly based thereon, together 
with the insufficiency of the affidavit, that proved the mouse to gnaw 
the net and set the lion free. 

The glaring illegality of the whole proceeding is further shown 
in the fact that an attempt was here made to transport to Missouri 
for trial a citizen of the State of Illinois, for an offense committed — if 
committed at all— in Illinois. Joseph Smith was not charged with 
assaulting ex-Governor Boggs. but with sending 0. P. Rockwell from 
Illinois to Missouri for that purpose. Rockwell, on a proper show- 
ing, might indeed have been lawfully tried in Missouri : but not 
Joseph Smith, whose alleged offense was against the laws of Illinois. 


Whether the two governors erred blindly or wilfully in the parts 
played by them in this legal burlesque, we know not. The proba- 
bility is that Reynolds, perceiving the weakness of the affidavit, pur- 
posely overstated its contents in order to insure the success of the 
undertaking. Carlin, on his part, was either a co-conspirator with 
Reynolds, or, to give him the benefit of the doubt, ignorant or careless 
as to the outcome. 

Anyway, Joseph Smith and Orrin Porter Rockwell were both 
arrested by the deputy sheriff of Adams County, at Nauvoo, on the 
8th of August. Immediately after their arrest they obtained a writ 
of habeas corpus, and were discharged after a hearing before the 
Municipal Court of Nauvoo. The deputy sheriff and his assistants 
denied the jurisdiction of the Nauvoo Court, but leaving the prisoners, 
they returned to Governor Carlin for further instructions. Two days 
later they reappeared, having been instructed to "re-arrest at all 
hazards." But the persons wanted were nowhere to be found. 

The authority under which the Municipal Court acted in dis- 
charging the prisoners was the following ordinance passed by the 
City Council on the day of the arrest : 

An Ordinance regulating the mode of proceeding in cases of habeas corpus before the 
Municipal Court: 

Sec. 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of the City of Nauvoo, That in all 
cases where any person or persons shall at any time hereafter be arrested or under arrest, 
in this city, under any writ or process, and shall be brought before the Municipal Court of 
this city, by virtue of a writ of habeas corpus, the Court shall in every case have power 
and authority, and are hereby required to examine into the origin, validity and legality of 
the writ or process, under which such arrest was made ; and if it shall appear to the 
Court upon sufficient testimony, that said writ or process was illegal, or not legally issued, 
or did not proceed from the proper authority, then the Court shall discharge the prisoner 
from under said arrest ; but if it shall appear to the Court that said writ or process had 
issued from proper authority, and was a legal process, the Court shall then proceed and 
fully hear the merits of the case upon which said arrest was made, upon such evidence as 
may be produced and sworn before said Court ; and shall have power to adjourn the hear- 
ing, and also issue process from time to time, in their discretion, in order to procure the 
attendance of witnesses, so that a fair and impartial trial and derision may be obtained in 
every case. 

Sec. 2. And be it further ordained. That if upon investigation it shall be proven before 
the Municipal Court that the writ or process has been issued either through private pique, 


malicious intent, religious or other persecution, falsehood or misrepresentation, contrary to 
the Constitution of the United States or of this State, the said writ or process shall be 
quashed, and considered of no force or effect, and the prisoner or prisoners shall be 
released and discharged therefrom. 

Sec. 3. And be it also further ordained, That in the absence, sickness, debility or 
other circumstances disqualifying or preventing the Mayor from officiating in his office, as 
Chief Justice of the Municipal Court, the Aldermen present shall appoint one from amongst 
them to act as Chief Justice or President pro tempore. 

Sec. 4. This ordinance to take effect and be in force from and after its passage. 

Hyrum Smith, 
Vice-Mayor and President pro tempore. 
Passed August 8, 1842. 

James Sloan, Recorder. 

The Prophet, who was determined not to be taken back to Mis- 
souri, now retired for several weeks, concealing himself in the homes 
of trusted friends at and near Nauvoo. Rockwell, equally averse to 
being taken, absented himself for some months, during which he 
traveled to the eastern states. Returning thence and visiting St. 
Louis, he was captured and carried in chains to Jackson County. 
Nothing being proven against him, he was eventually set free and 
made his way back to Illinois. 

The most strenuous efforts were put forth for the capture of the 
Prophet, but without avail. Besides the regular officers, John C. Ben- 
nett and others were in the field, seeking to kidnap and carry him to 
Missouri. Such an event, however, was not destined to be. The 
fates had not decreed his return to his former captivity. 

From his secret retreat he sent forth epistles from time to time 
relative to the administration of the affairs of his various offices. In 
one of these, addressed to the Major-General of the Nauvoo Legion, 
he expressed his desires for peace and the supremacy of the law, but 
declared his determination to submit no more to mob violence and 
tyranny. Appeals were successively made to Governor Carlin by 
the Prophet, his wife Emma, and the ladies of the Nauvoo Relief 
Society, a benevolent institution that Joseph Smith had founded* 
But all to no purpose. The Governor apparently was hand -a i id - 

* The forerunner <>f the ureal lielief Sorirlv syslein now flourishing:' in I' 


glove with the anti-Mormons, who were doing all in their power to 
foment trouble and bring affairs to a bloody crisis. Carlin insisted 
that Joseph give himself up to the officers. This the Prophet 
refused to do, as his friends feared his assassination or kidnapping. 

Joseph Smith, as repeatedly averred, was no coward ; but neither 
did he court death, nor a repetition of his experience in a Missouri 
dungeon. It would have been eminently characteristic of him, — for 
his was truly a martial spirit, — to have taken the field with his 
legion and fought like a lion to the death rather than tamely submit 
to what he had endured, or was now enduring. But other considera- 
tions restrained him. Because he declined to surrender himself, he 
was represented as being with his people in an attitude of defiance 
to the laws. Public feeling ran high against him, and men were 
daily offering their services to Governor Carlin to arm and march 
upon Nauvoo. 

Meantime, the State election had come round. Joseph Duncan, 
an ex-Governor of Illinois, was put forward by the Whigs for re-elec- 
tion. The Democrats nominated Adam W. Snyder for Governor, but 
he dying, Judge Thomas Ford became a candidate in his stead. 
Duncan was regarded as a brave and able man, and under ordinary 
conditions might have been elected. But he was an anti-Mormon, 
and took the stump against the Saints, expecting, it is said, to be 
elected on that issue. This solidified the Mormon vote against him, 
and in favor of his opponent. The result was the election of 
Thomas Ford as Governor of Illinois. At the same time William 
Smith, the Prophet's brother, was chosen a representative from Han- 
cock County to the Legislature. Jacob C. Davis — of whom more 
anon — was elected a state senator. 

The Whigs were very angry at the outcome, and the papers of 
that party now teemed with accounts of the alleged iniquities of the 
Mormons at Nauvoo, and severely took to task the Democrats for 
deigning to accept support from the Prophet and his followers. 

About the 1st of October Governor Carlin made public procla- 
mation offering a reward of four hundred dollars for the persons of 


Joseph Smith and Orrin Porter Rockwell. At the same time Gov- 
ernor Reynolds of Missouri increased his standing offer of a much 
larger sum for their capture. 

In December, 1842, Carlin's term of office expired, and he was 
succeeded by Governor Ford. The new executive was reputed as a 
well-meaning man, though not a strong official ; possessing some 
ability, but liable to be swayed from his convictions by the opinions 
of others. In his inaugural address to the Legislature, Ford recom- 
mended that the Charter of Nauvoo, as it was objectionable to other 
citizens of the State, be modified and restricted. This caused the 
Whigs to exult over the Mormons and ask them ironically what they 
thought of their democratic Governor. 

Immediately after Governor Ford's installation, the Mormon 
leader, still in exile, appealed to him to recall the writs and proclama- 
tion of his predecessor. The case was fully presented to Ford by 
Justin Butterfield, Esq., the United States District Attorney. He, in 
common with several of the Judges of the Supreme Court, held that 
Carlin's writs were illegal. Ford, though sharing the same opinion, 
deemed it impolitic to interfere with the acts of his predecessor. He 
therefore advised the Prophet to submit his case to a judicial investi- 

This the latter finally concluded to do. Accordingly, on the 
26th of December, he allowed himself to be arrested by General 
Wilson Law, and on the day following, in company with Hyrum 
Smith, John Taylor, Willard Richards and others, he set out for 
Springfield, the State capital. There, on the 4th of January, 1843, 
occurred his celebrated trial before Judge Pope, which resulted in his 
again being set at liberty. 

The original warrant issued by Governor Carlin not being 
at hand, it was duplicated for the purpose of this trial by his 
successor. Judge Pope granted a writ of habeas corpus, and the case 
was argued by Josiah Lamborn, Attorney-General of Illinois, for the 
prosecution, and by Justin Butterfield, Esq., for the defense. The 
Judge gave as the grounds for his decision in the prisoner's favor the 


insufficiency of the Boggs affidavit and the mis-recitals and overstate- 
ments in the documents of the two Governors. This decision 
rendered void the proclamation as well as the writs issued against 
the Prophet, and he was once more a free man. 

He now enjoyed a brief season of peace. On the 6th of 
February, 1843, recurred the city election of Nauvoo. The officers 
chosen for the ensuing two years were: Joseph Smith, Mayor; 
Orson Spencer, Daniel H. Wells, George A. Smith and Stephen Mark- 
ham, Aldermen; Hyrum Smith, John Taylor, Orson Hyde, Orson 
Pratt, Sylvester Emmons, Heber C. Kimball, Benjamin Warrington, 
Daniel Spencer and Brigham Young, Councilors. Liberality without 
extravagance in public officials, the establishment of markets, and the 
regulation of prices to protect the poor against avarice and monopoly, 
were among the measures proposed by Mayor Smith to the new 

On the 25th of March the Mayor issued the following proclama- 
tion : 

Whereas it is reported that there now exists a band of desperadoes, hound by oaths 
of secrecy, under severe penalties in case any number of the combination divulges their 
plans of stealing and conveying properties from station to station up and down the 
Mississippi and other routes : And 

Whereas it is reported that the fear of the execution of the pains and penalties of 
their secret oaths on their persons prevents some members of said secret association (who 
have, through falsehood and deceit, been drawn into their snares,) from divulging the 
same to the legally-constituted authorities of the land : 

Know ye, therefore, that I, Joseph Smith, Mayor of the city of Nauvoo, will grant 
and insure protection against all personal mob violence to each and every citizen of this 
city who will come before me and truly make known the names of all such abominable 
characters as are engaged in said secret combination for stealing, or are accessory thereto 
in any manner. And 1 respectfully solicit the co-operation of all ministers of justice 
in this and the neighboring states to ferret out a band of thievish outlaws from our 

Immigration continued pouring in at Nauvoo. On the 12th of 
April two large companies, led by Parley P. Pratt, Lorenzo Snow and 
Levi Richards, landed there. Among these arrivals were the Cannon 
family from Liverpool. They had crossed the sea in the fall of 1842, 
but were ice-bound at St Louis, and had there spent the winter. 


Mrs. Cannon, the mother, had died and been buried at sea. The 
father, George Cannon, with his sons, George Q., Angus M., David 
H. and three daughters, reached their destination in safety. 

Another attempt, the final one, was now made to drag the Mor- 
mon leader back to Missouri. The charge this time was treason — 
treason against that State — a reiteration of the old charge upon 
which the Prophet had once suffered imprisonment. John C. Ben- 
nett was at the bottom of this new attempt upon the liberty and life 
of his former friend, and Samuel C. Owens and others in Jackson 
County assisted in the scheme. Governor Reynolds issued his writ, 
Governor Ford his warrant, and the ball was thus set rolling. 
Sheriff J. H. Reynolds of Jackson County was Missouri's officer to 
receive the prisoner, and Harmon T. Wilson of Carthage, Hancock 
County, the person authorized to make the arrest. 

Late in June, 1843, they set out upon their errand. Learning 
that the Prophet was visiting with his wife at a Mrs. Wasson's — 
Emma Smith's sister — near Dixon, Lee County, Illinois, the two 
officers proceeded thither, passing themselves off as Mormon Elders. 
Arriving at Mrs. Wasson's, they inquired for "Brother Joseph." On 
his appearing, they covered him with cocked pistols, threatened him 
with death if he resisted, hurried him into a vehicle and were about 
to drive away. Stephen Markham. who was present, protested 
against this lawlessness, — Reynolds and Wilson having shown no 
warrant for their act, — but they threatened his life also and drove 
away with their prisoner toward Dixon. They compelled him to sit 
between them, and all along continued to threaten him, punching 
his sides with their pistols. The pain from these assaults was so 
excruciating that the Prophet finally begged them to cease torturing 
and kill him outright, whereupon they modified their abusive 

Meanwhile Stephen Markham, mounting a horse, preceded the 
party to Dixon, where he secured legal counsel for his friend. Rey- 
nolds and Wilson, on their arrival, at first refused to allow the 
prisoner to confer with his attorneys, but finding the citizens of 


Dixon opposed to them, demanding that their brutality cease, they 
finally consented.* 

A writ of habeas corpus was obtained for the Prophet, returnable 
before Judge Caton, at Ottawa, but he being absent another writ was 
secured, returnable before the nearest tribunal in the fifth judicial 
district authorized to hear and determine writs of habeas corpus. 
This district included Quincy and Nauvoo. Reynolds and Wilson, 
who were now themselves under arrest for abuse, threatening and 
false imprisonment, obtained a writ of habeas corpus, made returnable 
before Judge Young at Quincy. Toward that place the whole party 
now proceeded, in charge of Sheriff Campbell, of Lee County. 

Meeting a party of his friends from Nauvoo, — for the city had 
been alarmed and the whole surrounding region was being scoured 
by the Mormons in quest of their leader, — the Prophet asked per- 
mission of the sheriff to go to Nauvoo, instead of to Quincy, where he 
feared treachery. The attorneys present, one of whom was Cyrus 
Walker, Esq., giving it as their opinion that the hearing might legally 
be held there, the sheriff consented and to Nauvoo they went accord- 
ingly. Reynolds and Wilson fiercely protested against this change 
in the program, probably fearing violence at the hands of the Mor- 
mon citizens. The Prophet, however, took them to his own home 
and seated them at the head of his own table, thus heaping upon 
them, in a scriptural sense, "coals of fire." They were not in the 
least molested, but treated kindly by all. 

A hearing before the Municipal Court followed, — the Prophet's 
case coming up on its merits, — and the defendant was again dis- 
charged. Reynolds and Wilson, denying the court's jurisdiction, 
applied to Governor Ford for the use of the militia to re-take their 
prisoner, but His Excellency, being fully informed of the matter, 
refused the request, and Sheriff Reynolds returned, crest-fallen to 

* It is said that the Prophet, on being taken to the Dixon hotel, found a Masonic 
friend in the landlord, who rendered him timely succor. 


Why he and his confrere Wilson, — against whom the prosecu- 
tion for false imprisonment, etc., seems to have deen dropped, — 
failed to show their warrant at the time of the Prophet's arrest, and 
acted, instead of as officers, in the role of kidnappers, has never been 
satisfactorily explained. Possibly kidnapping was their purpose, and 
not anticipating the intervention of officers and courts, they deemed 
the warrant superfluous and unnecessary. 

Another election occurred. Cyrus Walker was the Whig candidate, 
and Joseph P. Hoge the Democratic candidate for Congress, frpm the 
district of which Hancock County was a part. The Whigs, it seems, 
had been counting upon, and fully expected to receive the Mormon 
vote ; notwithstanding their former criticism of the Democrats for 
condescending to accept it. What gave the Whigs hope of securing 
it at this election was the fact that Mr. Walker, their candidate, had 
defended the Mormon leader in his latest legal difficulty and rescued 
him from the clutches of the would-be kidnappers, Reynolds and 
Wilson. Judge Pope, whose decision in January had liberated the 
Prophet, was also a Whig, as was Mr. Browning, the eloquent 
champion of the prisoner's cause on that occasion. These con- 
siderations, it was thought, would be of sufficient weight to turn the 
majority of the Saints in favor of Mr. Walker. 

The Mormons, however, or the majority of them, stood by their 
democratic principles, and cast their ballots for Mr. Hoge ; while a 
minority, including the Prophet, being Whigs, voted for Mr. Walker.* 
Hoge was elected by a majority in the district of 455 votes. 

The Whigs were now angry again ; not only at the Mormons, for 
failing to solidify in favor of Mr. Walker, but also at the Democrats, 
for again accepting Mormon assistance. 

It is not at all clear, however, that the Mormons were respon- 
sible for the defeat of Mr. Walker at this election. Many of the 
Whigs, being sincere anti-Mormons, were "highly indignant" at 

* The Mormons in Adams County, being Whigs, voted at this election for Mr. 0. H. 
Browning, the party candidate in that district. 


their candidate for defending the Prophet in the Reynolds and 
Wilson affair.* It is not improbable, therefore, that the dissatisfied 
ones repudiated him at the polls. Still it cannot be doubted that this 
exhibition of anti-Mormon animus on the part of the Whigs was 
not likely to attract Mormon votes, and it may have accounted in 
part for the large majority rolled up at Nauvoo for the democratic 

Naturally the Whigs were angry, but they ought not to have 
been surprised. After denouncing the Democrats for receiving on a 
former occasion Mormon support, and filling their journals with 
accounts of alleged Mormon atrocities at Nauvoo, they should have 
been prepared for what awaited them. A little queer, too, that the 
fox, having once pronounced the grapes sour, should make another 
desperate attempt to taste them, and be angry because they were still 
out of reach. It beats the original fable. But such is politics. 

Jealousy of the political power of the Mormons was now much 
enhanced. In August, several of them, chosen for county offices at 
the late election, proceeded to Carthage, the county seat of Hancock, 
to qualify. They were there threatened by an armed mob, led by 
Constable Harmon T. Wilson, who swore that they should not be 
installed. The Mormons, however, filed their bonds and took the 
required oaths of office, while their opponents were deliberating 
upon how best to prevent them. 

The anti-Mormon party, which for some time had been discon- 
tinued, was now reorganized, with " war to the knife " — figuratively 
speaking — as its motto. Not altogether figurative, either, was that 
motto, if what followed may be taken as a criterion. The party 
pledged itself to assist Missouri in any future attempt that she might 
make against the Mormon leader. 

Nor was this all. Mobs began attacking and burning Mormon 
houses outside Nauvoo, and even threatened to come against the city. 
Governor Ford being appealed to for protection, answered much in 

Gregg's History of Hancock County, page 295. 


the same vein as President Van Buren when visited by the Prophet 
on a former occasion. "You must defend yourselves," was the 
inference drawn from Ford's reply. The Nauvoo Legion was there- 
fore held in constant readiness to repel any mobocratic assault that 
might be made upon the city or the surrounding settlements. 




Celestial marriage — -why the mormons practiced polygamy — the prophet and the 

politicians joseph smith a candidate for president of the united states his 

platform of principles planning the western exodus the laws, fosters, and 

higbees excommunicated the " expositor " abatement arrest of the mayor and 

city council of nauvoo a gathering storm nauvoo under martial law 

governor ford demands the surrender of the mormon leaders the prophet and 

his friends start for the rocky mountains the return the surrender 

carthage jail murder of the prophet and patriarch. 

•L"HE question has probably occurred to the reader, was there 
>r really any ground for the charges of immorality and licen- 
tiousness hurled against the Mormon leaders by their 
enemies, personal, political and ecclesiastical. What of John C. 
Bennett's story to the effect that Joseph Smith sanctioned illicit rela- 
tions between the sexes ? Was the tale true or false 1 We propose 
to answer these queries. 

First let us ask if it seems consistent, — except upon the theory 
that the Mormon leaders were double-dyed hypocrites, arrant knaves, 
who were wont to sacrifice on occasion one of their own number in 
order to throw a halo of virtue around the rest, — that such men as 
John C. Bennett, D. P. Hurlburt and others, expelled from the Mormon 
Church for unchastity, would have been so expelled if unchastity had 
been sanctioned by that Church or those leaders ? Again, where was 
their cunning, that shrewdness for which their enemies gave them 
credit, to have thus alienated from their cause for such a purpose — 
their own preservation — men fully cognizant of their crimes ? 

Reader, the Latter-day Saints, with all their faults — for they have 
never pretended to be perfect — are a chaste and virtuous people. We 
speak of course of the generality of them. There are black sheep in 


every fold. No community on earth values virtue more highly. They 
require chastity in man, as well as in woman, and next in enormity 
to murder, in their minds and according to their doctrines, are the 
sins of seduction and adultery. Had they their way the adulterer 
and the seducer, no less than the murderer, should answer for his 
crime with his life. Those who do not know this, do not know the 
Latter-day Saints, and they who state to the contrary simply state 
what is not true. 

Then why so much talk about Mormon immorality ? It springs, 
aside from sheer falsehood, from this fact. The Mormons believed 
in a doctrine called by them Celestial Marriage, but by others named 
polygamy. Whatever may be thought of the propriety of the former 
term, the latter, strictly speaking, is a misnomer. Polygamy means 
"many marriages," and may imply a plurality of husbands as well 
as wives. That a woman should have more than one husband, 
living and undivorced at the same time, the Mormons have never 
believed, but that a man, upright and moral, might under proper 
regulations, and in conformity with religious principle, have more 
than one wife, they have believed and in times past have practiced 
according to that belief. Polygeny, meaning "many wives," and 
not polygamy, which may mean "many husbands," is a more 
correct term to use in this connection. 

With the Mormons this was a religious principle, — a tenet of 
their faith. They ceased its practice after nearly half a century's 
observance, because of a manifesto issued by the President of their 
Church, indicating as the will of the Lord that it should be dis- 
continued. Congress had previously passed laws against plural 
marriage, making it a crime, and the Supreme Court of the United 
States had declared those laws constitutional. Not immediately, 
however, did the Mormons cease the practice of polygamy. They 
thought that Congress was wrong in thus legislating against their 
religion ; that the Supreme Court was wrong, and might yet see its 
error, as it did in the Dred Scott case, and reversing its former ruling 
declare the anti-polygamy laws unconstitutional. But finally, after 


much suffering, resulting from prosecutions, fines, imprisonments 
and some deaths, the manifesto was issued and the practice of Mor- 
mon polygamy was at an end. 

Many, perhaps most of the Latter-day Saints, still believe in the 
plural-wife doctrine, — there being no law against their belief, — and 
consider that the former practice of the principle was eminently 
right and proper. Some, however, disbelieve the doctrine, while 
crediting those who accepted and practiced it with perfect sincerity. 
Only a small percentage of the Mormon people were ever practical 
polygamists, for the observance of the principle was not compulsory. 
But those who engaged in it — most of them at least — were actuated 
by high moral and religious motives. This, however difficult for 
some to believe, is nevertheless true. Their honesty of purpose was 
not questioned by those who knew them best, in or out of the 
Church. They proved their sincerity in many ways, suffering 
much as individuals and as a community rather than relinquish, 
even at the behest of the parent government, this tenet of their 

They were wont to give various reasons for the practice of this 
principle, among them the following: the right and privilege of 
every honorable woman to be a wife and mother, which in monog- 
amy, under existing conditions, preponderance of women over men, 
disinclination of men to marry, etc., was virtually denied : the extir- 
pation of the social evil; the production of a healthier posterity, and 
the physical, mental and moral improvement of the race. These 
were among the temporal or tangible reasons put forth. But they 
also believed, and this was the spiritual phase of the question, that 
those who faithfully obeyed this principle here would be exalted to the 
highest glory hereafter, as the ancient patriarchs, Abraham, Jacob, 
et al, and their plural wives had been. It was to the Latter-day 
Saints the key to the Celestial Kingdom, where, according to their 
faith, family relationships formed on earth according to divine law 
will be perpetuated. Hence the revelation enjoining Celestial Mar- 
riage was entitled : " Revelation on the Eternity of the Marriage 


Covenant including Plurality of Wives." The more pertinent parts 
of it are here given : 

Verily, thus saitb the Lord unto you, my servant Joseph, that inasmuch as you have 
inquired of my hand, to know and understand wherein I, the Lord, justified my servants 
Abraham, Isaac and Jacob ; as also Moses, David and Solomon, my servants, as touching 
the principle and doctrine of their having many wives and concubines: 

Behold ! and lo, 1 am the Lord thy God, and will answer thee as touching this 
matter : 

Therefore, prepare thy heart to receive and obey the instructions which I am about to 
give unto you ; for all those who have this law revealed unto them must obey the same ; 

For behold ! I reveal unto you a new and an everlasting covenant ; and if ye abide 
not that covenant, then are ye damned ; for no one can reject this covenant, and be per- 
mitted to enter into my glory ; 

For all who will have a blessing at my hands, shall abide the law which was appointed 
for that blessing, and the conditions thereof, as were instituted from before the foundation 
of the world : 

And as pertaining to the new and everlasting covenant, it was instituted for the full- 
ness of my glory ; and he that receiveth a fullness thereof, must and shall abide the law, 
or he shall be damned, saitb the Lord God. 

And verily I say unto you, that the conditions of this law are these : — All covenants, 
contracts, bonds, obligations, oaths, vows, performances, connections, associations, or 
expectations, that are not made, and entered into, and sealed, by the Holy Spirit of 
promise, of him who is anointed, both as well for time and for all eternity, and that too 
most holy, by revelation and commandment through the medium of mine anointed, whom 
I have appointed on the earth to hold this power, (and I have appointed unto my servant 
Joseph to hold this power in the last days, and there is never but one on the earth at a 
time, on whom this power and the keys of this Priesthood are conferred), are of no 
efficacy, virtue or force, in and after the resurrection from the dead ; for all contracts that 
are not made unto this end, have an end when men are dead. 

Therefore, if a man marry him a wife in the world, and he marry her not by me, 
nor by my word; and he covenant with her so long as he is in the world, and she with 
him, their covenant and marriage are not of force when they are dead, and when they are 
out of the world ; therefore, they are not bound by any law when they are out of the 
world ; 

Therefore, When they are out of the world, they neither many, nor are given ill 
marriage : but are appointed angels in heaven, which angels are ministering servants, to 
minister fur those who are worthy of a far more, and an exceeding and an eternal weighl 
of glory ; 

For these angels did mil abide my law. therefore they Cannot be enlarged, but remain 
separately and singly, without exaltation, in their saved condition, to all eternity, ami from 
henceforth are not Gods, but are angels of God, lor ever ami ever. 

And again, verily 1 say unto you. if a man marry a wife, and make a covenant With 


her for time and for all eternity, if that covenant is not by me, or by my word, which is my 
law, and is not sealed by the holy spirit of promise, through him whom I have anointed 
and appointed unto this power — then it is not valid, neither of force when they are out of 
the world, because they are not joined by me, saith the Lord, neither by my word : when 
they are out of the world, it cannot be received there, because the angels and the Gods 
are appointed there ; by whom they cannot pass ; they cannot, therefore, inherit my glory, 
for my house is a house of order, saith the Lord God. 

And again, verily I say unto you, if a man marry a wife by my word, which is my 
law, and by the new and everlasting covenant, and it is sealed unto them by the Holy 
Spirit of promise, by him who is anointed, unto whom I have appointed this power, and 
the keys of this Priesthood ; and it shall be said unto them, ye shall come forth in the 
first resurrection ; and if it be after the first resurrection, in the next resurrection ; 
and shall inherit thrones, kingdoms, principalities, and powers, dominions, all 
heights and depths — then shall it be written in the Lamb's Book of Life, that he 
shall commit no murder whereby to shed innocent blood, and if ye abide in my covenant, 
and commit no murder whereby to shed innocent blood, it shall be done unto them in all 
things whatsoever my servant hath put upon them, in time, and through all eternity, and 
shall be of full force when they are out of the world ; and they shall pass by the angels, 
and the Gods, which are set there, to their exaltation and glory in all things, as hath been 
sealed upon their heads, which glory shall be a fullness and a continuation of the seeds 
for ever and ever. 

Then shall they be Gods, because they have no end ; therefore shall they be from 
everlasting to everlasting, because they continue ; then shall they be above all, because all 
things are subject unto them. Then shall they be Gods, because they have all power, and 
the angels are subject unto them. 


I am the Lord thy God, and will give unto thee the law of my Holy Priesthood, as 
was ordained by me, and my Father, before the world was. 

Abraham received all things, whatsoever he received, by revelation and command- 
ment, by my word, saith the Lord, and hath entered into his exaltation, and sitteth upon 
his throne. 

Abraham received promises concerning his seed, and of the fruit of his loins — from 
whose loins ye are, namely, my servant Joseph, — -which were to continue so long as they 
were in the world ; and as touching Abraham and his seed, out of the world they should 
continue ; both in the world and out of the world should they continue as innumerable as 
the stars ; or, if ye were to count the sand upon the sea shore, ye could not number them. 

This promise is yours, also, because ye are of Abraham, and the promise was made 
mild Abraham ; and by this law are the continuation of the works of my Father, wherein 
he glorifieth himself. 

Go ye, therefore and do the works of Abraham ; enter ye into my law, and ye shall 
be saved. 

But if ye enter not into my law ye cannot receive the promise of my Father, which he 
made unto Abraham. 

God commanded Abraham, and Sarah gave Hagar to Abraham to wife. Ami why 


did she do it ? Because this was the law, and from Hagar sprang many people. This, 
therefore, was fulfilling, among other things, the promises. 

Was Abraham, therefore, under condemnation ? Verily, I say unto you, Nay ; for I, 
the Lord, commanded it. 

Abraham was commanded to offer his son Isaac ; nevertheless, it was written, thou 
shalt not kill. Abraham, however, did not refuse, and it was accounted unto him for 

Abraham received concubines, and they bear him children, and it was accounted unto 
him for righteousness, because they were given unto him, and he abode in my law, as 
Isaac also, and Jacob did none other things than that which they were commanded ; and 
because they did none other things than that which they were commanded, they have 
entered into their exaltation, according to the promises, and sit upon thrones, and are not 
angels, but are Gods. 

David also received many wives and concubines, as also Solomon and Moses my 
servants ; as also many others of my servants, from the beginning of creation until this 
time ; and in nothing did they sin save in those things which they received not of me. 

David's wives and concubines were given unto him, of me, by the hand of Nathan, 
my servant, and others of the prophets who had the keys of this power ; and in none of 
these things did he sin against me, save in the case of Uriah and his wife ; and, therefore 
he hath fallen from his exaltation, and received his portion ; and he shall not inherit them 
out of the world ; for I gave them unto another, saith the Lord. 

I am the Lord thy God, and I gave unto thee, my servant Joseph, an appointment, and 
restore all things ; ask what ye will, and it shall be given unto you according to my word: 

And as ye have asked concerning adultery — verily, verily I say unto you, if a man 
receiveth a wife in the new and everlasting covenant, and if she be with another man, and 
I have not appointed unto her by the holy anointing, she hath committed adultery, and 
shall be destroyed. 

If she be not in the new and everlasting covenant, and she be with another man, she 
has committed adultery ; 

And if her husband be with another woman, and he was under a vow, he hath 
broken his vow, and hath committed adultery. 

And again, as pertaining to the law of the Priesthood: If any man espouse a virgin, 
and desire to espouse another, and the first give her consent ; and if he espouse the 
second, and they are virgins, and have vowed to no other man. then is he justified ; he 
cannot commit adultery, for they are given unto him ; for he cannot commit adultery with 
that that belongeth unto him and to no one else ; 

And if he have ten virgins given unto him by this law, he cannot commit adultery, for 
they belong to him, and they are given unto him, therefore is he justified. 

But if one or either of the ten virgins, after she is espoused, shall be witli another 
man ; she has committed adultery, and shall be destroyed; for they are given unto him to 
multiply and replenish the earth, according to my commandment, and to fulfill the promise 
which was given by my Father before the foundation of the world; and for their exalta- 
tion in the eternal worlds, that they may bear the souls ot men ; for herein is the work of 
my Father continued, that he may be glorified. 


Prior to the recording of this revelation the Prophet had taught 
the doctrine, privately, and he and other prominent Elders had 
practiced it. But this also was in secret, owing to the great prejudice 
it was foreseen it would evoke. It was not avowed, even to the 
masses of the Saints, until after their removal from Illinois. 

Such a doctrine as plurality of wives — the patriarchal marriage 
system of the ancients — though practiced by an Abraham, a Jacob, 
a Moses, a Gideon, could not well be mooted, much less established 
in this monogamic age, without meeting opposition, even among the 
Saints, prepared in a measure by their peculiar religious training for 
startling innovations on the prescribed boundaries of tradition. 
Hence, as said, the secrecy with which it. was at first carried on. It 
would have proved a terrible weapon in anti-Mormon hands, had it 
been openly proclaimed at Nauvoo in those dangerous days. 

As it was, it became known to some extent on the outside 
through apostasy, and of course was deemed and denounced as 
immoral. John C. Bennett obtained an inkling of it before leaving 
Nauvoo. and it doubtless formed the basis of his vengeful assault 
upon those who had severed him from the Church for adultery, 
which to the Latter-day Saint differs as much from plural marriage 
as darkness differs from light. Other seceders from Mormonism. 
who fell away later, revamped the tales told by Bennett, until they 
became with other things a casus belli against the Prophet and his 
people, and no doubt helped to hasten his tragic end. 

The first record of the revelation on Celestial Marriage was 
made by William Clayton, at the Prophet's dictation. It was on the 
12th of July, 1843. A month later it was read by Hyrum Smith to 
the Stake Presidency and the High Council at Nauvoo. The majority 
of them accepted it. Emma Smith, the Prophet's wife, though at 
first averse to the doctrine, finally received it and gave other wives to 
her husband. Subsequently she is said to have destroyed the 
original document of the revelation. She positively denied, after the 
Prophet's death, that he had ever practiced polygamy. The revela- 
tion, as published, is from an exact copy of the original, taken by 


Joseph G. Kingsbury for Bishop Newel K. Whitney, the day after it 
was recorded by William Clayton, the Prophet's secretary. 

Joseph Smith's mind was largely the mind of a statesman. He 
had meditated much upon the political problems of his period, and 
sincerely sorrowed over the corruptions and degeneracy of the times. 
He thought, moreover, that he saw a way of escape from many of 
the evils then threatening his country. One of these was the 
slavery question, his plan for the solution of which, had it been 
adopted, would have saved the nation a million lives, millions of 
treasure and the terrible hatreds and heart-burnings that have ever 
since divided, far more effectually than Mason and Dixon's line, the 
North from the South. Joseph Smith's plan for the settlement of 
slavery was for the general government to purchase from the South 
their negroes and then liberate them. 

During the winter of 1S43-4, the Prophet corresponded with 
several eminent statesmen, such as Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, 
Lewis Cass, Richard M. Johnson and Martin Van Buren, who were 
all known to be aspirants for the Presidency. Each was asked this 
question: ''What will be your rule of action relative to us as a 
people, should fortune favor your ascension to the Chief Magistracy?" 
Clay and Calhoun were the only ones who replied. Their answers 
being politic and evasive, the Prophet administered to each a stinging 
reproof for what he deemed cowardice and lack of candor. 

He also took to task, about this time, James Arlington Bennett, 
of New York, who in a rather bombastic letter to the " American 
Mohamet," had intimated his desire to become his " right-hand 
man;" at the same time making known his desire to run for high 
office in Illinois, and use the Mormon vote to lift himself into 
power. Said the Prophet to Bennett : " Shall I who have 
witnessed the visions of eternity, * * * who have 
heard the voice of God, and communed with angels, * * * 
shall I worm myself into a political hypocrite ? Shall I who hold 
the keys of the last Kingdom * * * stoop from the 
sublime authority of Almighty God to be handled as a monkey's 


catspaw, and pettify myself into a clown to act the farce of political 
demagoguery ? No, verily no. * * * I combat the 
errors of ages, I meet the violence of mobs, I cope with illegal pro- 
ceedings from executive authority, I cut the Gordian knot of powers ; 
and I solve mathematical problems of universities with truth — 
diamond truth ; and God-is my ' right-hand man.' " 

The next announcement from Nauvoo was to the political world 
somewhat startling. It was the nomination of Joseph Smith, the 
Mormon Prophet, as a candidate for the Presidency of the United 
States. The nomination was made January 29th, 1844, and was 
duly sustained at a State convention held at Nauvoo on the 17th of 
May. This was followed by the public enunciation of Joseph Smith's 
views upon the powers and policy of the Federal Government. 
Therein he announced himself as favoring : 

(1) The abolition of slavery, but upon the basis of a just 
remuneration of all slave-holders by the general government. 

(2) The reduction of the numbers and pay of Congressmen ; 
the money thus saved, together with the proceeds from the sale of 
public lands, to be used in reimbursing slave-holders for the negroes 

(3) The abolition of imprisonment for debt, and of imprison- 
ment for every crime excepting murder; work upon public 
improvements to be made the penalty for larceny, burglary and like 
felonies. "Let the penitentiaries.** said he. "be turned into 
seminaries of learning." 

(4) The abolition of the practice, in army or navy, of court- 
martialing men for desertion. " If a soldier or marine runs away. 
send him his wages, with this instruction, that his country will 
never trust him again. * * * Make honor the standard 
with all men." 

(5) The investment of power in the President to send armies 
to suppress mobs. 

(6) The extension of the Union, with the consent of the red 
man, from sea to sea. 


(7) The annexation of Texas, if she petitioned for it, and of 
Canada and Mexico, whenever they should desire to enter the 

Said the Prophet: "We have had Democratic presidents, Whig 
presidents, a pseudo-Democratic-Whig president, and now it is time 
to have a President of the United States." Such were the principal 
planks of the platform upon which Joseph Smith as a candidate for 
the Chief Magistracy went into the campaign of 1844. Henry Clay 
was the Whig candidate, and James K. Polk the Democratic candi- 
date for President at the same time. 

To promulgate these views through the eastern states and act as 
the Prophet's electioneered in the campaign, went forth from 
Nauvoo, in April and May of that memorable year, Apostles Brigham 
Young, Heber C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, Parley P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, 
Wilford Woodruff, George A. Smith, Lyman Wight and many other 
Elders. Joseph kept with him his brother Hyrum and Apostles 
John Taylor and Willard Richards ; Elder Taylor having succeeded 
the Prophet as editor of the Times and Seasons, and Willard Richards 
being Church historian. Sidney Rigdon. at this time, was living at 
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, having lost faith in Mormonism, or at least 
in Joseph Smith, and retired from the troubles and turmoils of 
Nauvoo. William and Wilson Law with several other Elders had 
lately been severed from the Church and were now at the head of a 
local opposition movement designed for the Prophet's overthrow. 

It may well be doubted that Joseph Smith, on entering the polit- 
ical arena as a presidential candidate, anticipated a successful issue of 
the campaign. Though his views in some places became very popu- 
lar, — which we presume was his main object in running for the 
Presidency, — his thoughts at that time, judging from his acts and 
expressions, were dwelling upon another subject entirely. That sub- 
ject was the exodus of the Saints to the west, — an event he had 
predicted in August, 1842, and a project which various notable 
personages, friendly to him and his people, had since advised him to 
carry into effect. Undoubtedly he would have done so had he lived, 


in which event Joseph Smith, in lieu of Brigham Young, would 
have been the founder of Utah. 

In February, 1844, soon after his nomination for President, the 
Prophet had directed the organization of an exploring expedition to 
seek out a home for the Saints beyond the Rocky Mountains, — in 
California or Oregon. Among the men selected for this enterprise 
were Jonathan Dunham, Phineas H. Young, David D. Yearsley, 
David Fullmer, Alphonso Young, James Emmett, George D. Watt 
and Daniel Spencer. These formed the nucleus of the proposed 
expedition, to which volunteers were subsequently added. Says 
Samuel W. Richards, one of these volunteers : " The outfit for 
each man was to consist of a rifle and ammunition, a saddle-horse, a 
pack-horse, with a few provisions and cooking utensils, and for the 
rest of our support we were to kill game on the way. Each man 
was to have in his pocket five hundred dollars, to purchase lands for 
our people a home whenever we should find a place suitable. Our 
party was thoroughly organized, but never started from Nauvoo." 

In March, Joseph Smith memorialized Congress and the President 
— John Tyler — relative to the passage of an act, drafted by himself, 
providing for the protection of American citizens " wishing to settle 
Oregon and other portions of the territory of the United States; 
also for the protection of the people of Texas against Mexico. He 
asked for the privilege of raising one hundred thousand men for 
these purposes. 

Oregon at that time, it must be remembered, though rightfully 
possessed by the United States, was also claimed by Great Britain, 
and was jointly occupied by American settlers and British fur 
traders, pending final diplomatic settlement between the two 
countries. Oregon then included Washington, Idaho and portions of 
Montana and Wyoming. To the south were the Mexican provinces 
of California and New Mexico; California comprising Utah. Nevada 
and portions of Wyoming and Colorado, while Xew Mexico took in 
Arizona. Texas, formerly a part of Mexico, but now independent, 
was soon to be annexed to the United States, — the Democrats, who 


were about returning to power, having made that the issue of the 
presidential campaign. The annexation was much against Mexico's 
wish, and she threatened to regard it as equivalent .to a declaration 
of war. 

Such was the situation at the time that Joseph Smith sent his 
memorials to Washington : Orson Hyde and Orson Pratt being the 
bearers of the same to the nation's capital. From Apostle Hyde's 
reports to the Prophet in April, we excerpt the following: 

"Judge Douglas has been quite ill, but is just recovered. He 
will help all he can ; Mr. Hardin likewise. But Major Semple says 
he does not believe anything will be done about Texas or Oregon this 
session. * * * Congress * * is afraid of England, 
afraid of Mexico, afraid the Presidential election will be twisted by 
it. * * * The most of the settlers in Oregon and Texas 
are our old enemies, the mobocrats of Missouri. * * * 
Your superior wisdom must determine whether to go to Oregon, to 
Texas, or to remain in these United States." 

Later: "We have this day (April 26th) had a long conversation 
with Judge Douglas. He is ripe for Oregon and California. He said 
he would resign his seat in Congress if he could command the force 
that Mr. Smith could, and would be on the march to that country in 
a month. ' In five years,' said he, 'a noble state might be formed, 
and then if they would not receive us into the Union, we would have 
a government of our own.' " 

Thus we see that while the campaign for the Presidency gave the 
Prophet an excellent opportunity to present his political views to the 
nation, it was the contemplated exodus of his people to the Rocky 
Mountains that mostly occupied his thoughts. Said he, soon after 
the departure of the Apostles on their political mission : " I care but 
little about the presidential chair. I would not give half as much 
for the office of President of the United States, as I would for the 
one I now hold as Lieutenant-General of the Nauvoo Legion." 

That Legion he doubtless designed as the nucleus of his army 
of one hundred thousand. At its head Joseph Smith, had he lived, 


would have moved westward to maintain the rights of his country 
against Great Britain and Mexico, and found another State for the 
Union in the midst of the Rocky Mountains. Fate, however, inter- 
posed at this juncture, not to defeat the design, which was eventually 
executed, but to change, as in the case of Moses and Joshua, the 
personality of the executor. 

We come now to the last act in the drama, preceding the fulfill- 
ment of the Prophet's design. The winter of 1843-4 had witnessed 
the defection from Mormonism of several persons who for some years 
had been more or less prominent in its history. Among these, were 
William and Wilson Law, already mentioned. This twain were 
brothers. They were of Irish descent and natives of Mercer County, 
Pennsylvania. Francis M. and Chauncey L. Higbee, sons of Judge 
Elias Higbee, were numbered with the seceders, as were also 
Robert D. and Charles A. Foster. All or most of these had been 
excommunicated from the Church for dishonesty and immorality. 
They set up a church of their own, with William Law as its 
head, denounced Joseph Smith as " a fallen prophet," and proceeded 
to inaugurate another crusade against him. In secret sympathy with 
these men were Sidney Rigdon, William Marks and Austin A. Cowles. 

Upon the testimony of William Law and others, Joseph Smith 
was indicted at Carthage for polygamy, in the latter part of May. 
He surrendered himself for trial, but the prosecution not being ready 
to proceed, the case was continued for the term. Charles Foster, 
temporarily friendly, disclosed to Joseph a plot of the seceders to 
murder him while at Carthage, which kindly service enabled him to 
baffle the conspirators and return to Nauvoo in safety. 

But the design of the opposition was not merely to assail the 
Prophet. Nauvoo and its citizens generally were to be the objects of 
attack. To this end a paper was established there called the Naitcoo 
Expositor, of which the Laws, Fosters and Higbees with one Charles 
Ivins were the publishers, and Sylvester Emmons the editor. 
Emmons was a non-Mormon member of the City Council. One of 
the purposes of the Expositor, as announced in its prospectus issued 


May 10th, 1844, was to advocate " the unconditional repeal of 
the Nauvoo City charter," efforts to which end had already been 
made in the Illinois Legislature. Its further design, as appeared 
later, was to libel and defame the leading Mormon citizens of 
Nauvoo, — possibly to incite mobocratic assaults upon the city. At 
all events such was the view taken by many citizens as to its purpose 
and policy. 

The first and final number of the Nauvoo Expositor, reeking 
with filthy scandals, was issued on the 7th of June. Public indigna- 
tion was at once aroused. Decency was shocked. Modesty had 
been made to blush. Potent to the people of Nauvoo as were such 
considerations, they were but secondary compared with the deep 
and deadly injury that was sought to be done the city. Mobs, 
incited by anti-Mormon politicians, — more than ever incensed at 
what they deemed the towering presumption of the Mormon leader 
in running for the Presidency, — were already threatening Nauvoo, 
and such scandalous reports, if accepted as true, might precipitate at 
any hour an attack upon the town. Such a fear was far from 
groundless to men and women upon whose minds were indelibly 
stamped the terrible memories of Far West and Haun's Mill. Besides, 
the charter of the city, the bulwark of their rights and liberties, was 
assailed. That swept away, and what evils might not follow, what 
vices flourish unchecked, in the midst of their peaceable, temperate 
and, for all that was said to the contrary, moral and virtuous com- 

Such was the Mormon view of the situation. Yet not the 
Saints alone, but respectable people of all parties felt outraged. 
There were those who longed to take the law into their own hands, 
and raze the Expositor building to the ground. 

The Mormon leaders, however, would not sanction mobocracy. 
They had suffered too much from it themselves to countenance it in 
their followers. Legal measures, in lieu of lawless force, were 
therefore employed against the Expositor. The City Council of 
Nauvoo convened in regular session on Saturday the 8th of June, 


Mayor Joseph Smith presiding, and an adjourned session was held on 
Monday, the 10th. The character, aims and objects of the libelous 
sheet and its publishers were fully ventilated. Among those who 
spoke to the question were the Mayor, Aldermen George W. Harris, 
Samuel Bennett, Elias Smith, Stephen Markham, Orson Spencer, 
and Councilors Hyrum Smith, John Taylor, William W. Phelps, 
Edward Hunter, Levi and Phinehas Richards and Benjamin Warring- 
ton. Willard Richards was clerk of the Council. By an almost 
unanimous vote, — Councilor Warrington, a non-Mormon, alone 
dissenting, — the Nauvoo Expositor was declared a public nuisance, 
and the Mayor instructed to have it abated without delay. Councilor 
Warrington, it should be added, only opposed summary action. He 
considered the paper libelous, and was in favor of heavily fining its 
publishers. On the night of June 10th, by order of the Mayor, City 
Marshal John P. Greene and a force of police destroyed the printing 
press, pied the type, and burned the published sheets of the Expositor 
found upon its premises, in the streets of Nauvoo. The leaders of 
the opposition party immediately left the city. 

On the 12th of June Constable David Bettisworth came from 
Carthage to Nauvoo and arrested on a charge of riot the following 
named persons : Joseph Smith, Samuel Bennett, John Taylor, William 
W. Phelps, Hyrum Smith, John P. Greene, Stephen Perry, Dimick B. 
Huntington, Jonathan Dunham, Stephen Markham, William Edwards, 
Jonathan Harmon, Jesse P. Harmon, John Lytle, Joseph W. Coolidge, 
Harvey D. Bedfield, 0. P. Rockwell and Levi Richards. The com- 
plaint was sworn to by Francis M. Higbee, and referred to the 
abatement of the Nauvoo Expositor. 

The warrant required that the accused be brought before Justice 
Thomas Morrison, at Carthage, "or some other justice of the peace" 
in Hancock County. Taking advantage of this wording of the 
warrant they requested the privilege of going before one of the 
justices of Nauvoo. The constable, however, insisted on taking them 
to Carthage. They thereupon sued out writs of habeas corpus and 
were discharged, after a hearing, by the Municipal Court of Nauvoo. 


Subsequently, at the advice of Judge Jesse B. Thomas, who was 
visiting the city, Mayor Smith and his friends went before Justice 
Daniel H. Wells, who was still a non-Mormon, and were again 
examined and discharged ; it appearing that their course in relation 
to the Expositor, while summary, was strictly legal under the 
charter and ordinances of Nauvoo. 

The same day — June 16th — Mayor Smith issued a proclamation, 
stating why the act of abatement had been deemed necessary and de- 
claring that the city authorities were willing to appear, whenever the 
Governor should require it, before any high .court in the State and 
answer for the correctness of their conduct. He also warned the 
lawless element, now reported to be gathering against Nauvoo, not to 
be precipitate in interfering with the affairs of that city. Governor 
Ford had previously been informed of the situation in detail, but no 
reply had been received from him. 

The excitement caused by the abatement of the Expositor and 
the unwillingness of the Mormon leaders to be tried at Carthage, was 
intense. Armed men were now taking the field in deadly earnest. 
Carthage and Warsaw, the neighboring towns to Nauvoo, wore the 
aspect of military camps. Troops were training daily for the pending 
conflict. Fifteen hundred Missourians were reported to have joined 
the Warsaw forces, and five pieces of cannon and a supply of small 
arms had been forwarded to that point from Quincy and other places. 
The Warsaw Signal, edited by Thomas C. Sharp, was active in stirring 
up the spirit of mobocracy. It even advocated the massacre of the 
whole Mormon community. * The following is a sample of the 
mobocratic resolutions passed at Warsaw, published in the Signal. 
and afterwards adopted at Carthage by acclamation : 

* Says Gregg's History of Hancock County : "There were at this time and even after- 
ward while the Mormons remained, four classes of citizens in the county: 1. The 
Mormons themselves. 2. A class called Jack-Mormons. * * * 3. Old citizens 
who were anti-Mormons at heart, but who refused to countenance any but lawful 
measures for redress of grievances ; and 4. Anti-Mormons who, now that the crisis had 
come, advocated : war and extermination.' " 


Resolved that the time, in our opinion, has arrived, when the adherents of Smith, as 
a body, should be driven from the surrounding settlements into Nauvoo. That the Prophet 
and his miscreant adherents should then be demanded at their hands, and if not surren- 
dered a war of extermination should be waged to their entire destruction, if necessary for 
our protection. 

The situation at Nauvoo was fast becoming serious. It was now 
the 18th of June, and no word had yet come from the Governor. 
Mobocratic threats were daily growing louder. Seeing no alternative, 
unless it were to quietly submit to the threatened assault and 
massacre, the Prophet, in his capacity of Mayor, now called out the 
Legion to defend the city, and proclaimed Nauvoo under martial 

" Will you stand by me,*' said he, as clothed in full uniform of 
Lieutenant-General of the Legion, he addressed his soldiers and 
fellow-citizens for the last time, — " Will you stand by me to the 
death, and sustain at the peril of your lives the laws of our country, 
and the liberties and privileges which our fathers have transmitted to 
us, sealed with their sacred blood ? (" Aye," shouted thousands.) 
It is well. If you had not done it. I would have gone out there 
(pointing to the West) and would have raised up a mightier people. 
* * * (Drawing his sword and presenting it to heaven) " I call 
God and angels to witness that I have unsheathed my sword with a 
firm and unalterable determination that this people shall have their 
legal rights, and be protected from mob violence, or my blood shall be 
spilt upon the ground like water, and my body consigned to the silent 
tomb. While I live I will never tamely submit to the dominion of 
cursed mobocracy. * * * I do not regard my own life. I am 
ready to be offered a sacrifice for this people. * * * God has 

* Governor Ford, in after years, wrote as follows regarding the designs of the mob 
upon Nauvoo : " I gradually learned, to my entire satisfaction, that there was a plan to 
get the troops into Nauvoo and then begin the war, probably by some of our own party, 
or some of the seceding Mormons, taking advantage of the night to fire on our own force 
and then laying it on the Mormons. 1 was satisfied there were those among us fully 
capable of such an act, hoping that in the alarm, bustle and confusion of a militia camp 
the truth could aoi be discovered, and that it might lead to the desired collision." 


tried you. You are a good people ; therefore I love you with all my 
heart. * * * You have stood by me in the hour of trouble, 
and I am willing to sacrifice my life for your preservation.'' 

This was not the first time that the Prophet had predicted his 
own death. He felt that his enemies were thirsting for his blood, 
and that if once he fell into their power his days on earth were 
numbered. Neither, as seen, was it the first time that he had 
indicated the great West as the future home of his people. On the 
20th of June he wrote for the immediate return of the absent 

Next day Governor Ford arrived at Carthage. Placing himself 
at the head of the troops there concentrated, — hitherto an armed 
mob, but now, by his act, transformed into regular militia, the 
Governor demanded that martial law at Nauvoo be abolished, and 
that the Mayor, the City Council and all persons concerned in the 
destruction of the Expositor press come to Carthage to be tried for 

The Governor's orders were obeyed. For a few hours only 
the Prophet hesitated. Life was still dear to him ; if not for himself 
for the sake of his friends and family. On the night of the 22nd he 
crossed the Mississippi, and in company with his brother Hyrum, 
Apostles Richards, Taylor and a few other friends, started for the 
Rocky Mountains. Messages from home intercepted him, inducing 
him to reconsider his design, and he returned to meet his doom. 
"We are going back to be butchered," said he, and resigned himself 
to his fate. 

Having delivered up, at the Governor's demand, the arms of the 
Nauvoo Legion, the Prophet and his friends, seventeen in number, on 
the evening of the 24th set out for Carthage. 

It was about midnight when they arrived there. Though so 
late, the town was alive and stirring, in anticipation of their arrival. 
They were immediately surrounded with troops, who yelled their 
exultation at having them in their power. Some of the soldiers — 
notably the Carthage Greys — were very abusive and threatened to 


shoot the Prophet and his party, who were thus voluntarily surren- 
dering themselves. Governor Ford pacified the would-be murderers 
and the threatened massacre was postponed. 

Next day the Governor paraded the prisoners before the troops 
upon the public square, where the two principals were introduced as 
" Generals Joseph and Hyrum Smith." At this the Carthage Greys 
again became angry and violent, deeming too much honor was being 

done " the d d Mormons" by bestowing upon them such titles. 

Soon afterward the Greys revolted against their commander, General 
Miner R. Deming, who, fearing his own assassination, left Carthage.* 
Again the Governor placated the hostiles by assuring them that they 
should have " full satisfaction," while to the prisoners he pledged his 
honor and the faith of the State of Illinois that they should be pro- 
tected from violence and given a fair trial. 

Before Justice Robert F. Smith, a captain in the Carthage 
Greys, the Prophet and his party were brought that afternoon and 
admitted to bail. Meanwhile Joseph and Hyrum Smith had been 
arrested for treason. This charge was based upon the calling out of 
the Legion and the placing of Nauvoo under martial law, proceedings 
construed into armed resistance to legal process. Nothing was done 
in this case until nightfall, when the accused, without a hearing, 
were thrust into Carthage jail by Justice Smith, now acting arbi- 
trarily in his capacity of Captain of the Greys. Governor Ford sanc- 
tioned this illegal act, claiming afterwards that it was necessary 
for the safety of the prisoners, though the latter at the time 
protested against the incarceration. John Taylor, Willard Richards 
and a few other friends accompanied Joseph and Hyrum to prison. 

It was the beginning of the end. The plot was fast consummat- 
ing. Once more, and only once, did the two brothers emerge from 
that jail alive. Their doom was sealed. "The law cannot reach 
them." said their plotting murderers, "but powder and ball shall." 

* General Deming is said to have suspected the murderous plot against the Mormon 
leaders, and being powerless to prevent its execution, determined to have nothing to do 
with I he blood; deed. 


Governor Ford, next morning, granted an interview to the 
Prophet, coming to the prison for that purpose. Colonel Geddes and 
others accompanied him. During their conversation the Prophet 
charged the Governor with knowing positively that he and his 
brother were innocent of treason, and that their enemies had begun 
the troubles which had culminated in the present situation. * He also 
claimed that Ford had advised him to use the Legion in the way that 
he had, in the event of a threatened mobocratic assault uponNauvoo. 
As to the Expositor affair, the Prophet said that he was willing to be 
tried again, and if found guilty to make suitable reparation. That 
was a matter, he maintained, for courts to decide, and not for mobs 
to settle. Such was the main substance of the interview. The Gov- 
ernor, at parting, renewed his promise that the prisoners should be 
protected, and pledged his word that if he went to Nauvoo — as he 
contemplated doing — he would take Joseph with him. Both promises 
were unkept.f 

In the afternoon the two brothers were arraigned before Justice 
Smith at the Court House on the charge of treason. They asked 
for time to obtain witnesses. The request was reluctantly granted, 
and the court was adjourned until noon next day, to enable the pris- 
oners to send to Nauvoo — eighteen miles distant — for their witnesses. 
Subsequently the military justice, without notifying the prisoners, 
postponed the trial until the 29th of June. 

The last night of the brothers Joseph and Hyrum on earth was 

* Ford in his history thus disposes of this question of the alleged treason of the Mor- 
mon leaders : " Their actual guiltiness of the charge would depend upon circumstances. 
If their opponents had been seeking to put the law in force in good faith, and nothing more, 
then in array of military force in open resistance to the posse comitates and the militia of 
the state, mosl probably would have amounted to treason. But if those opponents merely 
intended to Use the powers of the law. the militia of the state, and the posse comitatus as 
cats"-paws to compass the possession of their persons for the purpose of murdering them 
afterwards, as the sequel demonstrated the fact to he. it might well he doubted whether 
they were guilty of. treason." 

f Governor Ford, who seems to have deferred utterly to his subordinates and tlie anti- 
Mormons at thai time, tailed in lake tin- Prophet in Nauvoo because a council of his offi- 
cers convinced him that il "would lie highly inexpedient and dangerous." 


shared with their friends John Taylor, Willard Richards, John S. 
Fullmer, Stephen Markham and Dan Jones. They occupied an 
up-stair room in the prison. Next day — the fatal 27th — Fullmer, 
Markham and Jones were excluded from the jail, and the four vic- 
tims selected for the sacrifice were left alone. They cheered each 
other with sacred songs and by preaching in turn to their guards. 
Some of these were "pricked in their hearts," being convinced that 
the prisoners were innocent. Their feelings becoming known to 
their superiors, they were promptly relieved and men of sterner stuff 
put in their place. During the day Cyrus H. Wheelock was permitted 
to visit the prisoners. Before he left he managed secretly to slip a 
small pepper-box revolver into Joseph's pocket. This weapon, which 
belonged to John Taylor, and a single-barreled pistol left by John S. 
Fullmer, with two stout canes, were their sole means of defense 
against the horde of armed assassins that soon afterward descended 
upon the jail. 

Governor Ford, that morning, regardless of his pledge, had 
gone to Nauvoo, leaving the Prophet, whom he had promised to take 
with him, in prison. He had done more. Disbanding most of the 
militia, he had taken with him the McDonough County troops. — of 
all the militia the best ordered and least vindictive against the Mor- 
mons, — and left the unruly and turbulent Carthage Greys, who had 
revolted against their own commander, and repeatedly threatened 
the lives of the prisoners, to guard the jail. Colonel Buckmaster, 
one of the officers who accompanied the Governor to Nauvoo, 
informed his Excellency of the threats that had been made against 
the prisoners, and expressed a suspicion that the jail might be 
attacked in their absence. But Ford seemed to have implicit confi- 
dence in the Carthage troops, and refused to believe that they would 
betray their trust. He had previously ignored similar warnings from 
the Prophet's friends at Carthage. " I could not believe," said he, 
"that anyone would attack the jail whilst we were in Nauvoo. and 
thereby expose my life and the lives of my companions to the sudden 
vengeance of the Mormons, upon hearing of the death of their 


leaders."' Captain Robert F. Smith, in the absence of General 
Deming, now commanded the Greys, who were encamped upon the 
public square, while Sergeant Frank A. Worrell, with eight men, had 
immediate charge of the prison. 

Had the Governor connived at murder, or was he but the weak 
and pliant tool of men who undoubtedly had conspired against the 
lives of the prisoners ? Let the Final Judgment answer. Suffice it 
that late in the afternoon of that day — June 27th, 1844 — while the 
Governor was at Nauvoo, haranguing the Mormons on the enormity 
of the crimes committed in destroying the Expositor press and 
placing the city under martial law, a portion of the disbanded 
Warsaw troops, one or two hundred strong, led by Levi Williams, a 
Baptist priest and Colonel of militia, returned to Carthage, stormed 
the jail, and with the connivance of the guards shot to death Joseph 
and Hyrum Smith, and all but fatally wounded John Taylor. Of 
the four captives, Willard Richards alone escaped unhurt. The 
prisoners heroically defended themselves, the Prophet using his 
revolver and wounding several of the assassins, while Willard 
Richards and Jqhn Taylor beat up and down with their walking 
sticks the guns thrust in at the prison door-way, diverting as best 
they could the direction of the deadly missiles. But the unequal 
fight could not long be maintained. Hyrum Smith fell first, John 
Taylor next, and the Prophet last. Attempting to' leap from the 
window, Joseph was fired upon, and fell to the ground outside, dead. 
His murderers, who had blackened their faces to prevent recognition, 
only paused long enough to pour a final volley into the lifeless body 
of their chief victim, and then broke and fled in every direction. 

A horror of fear fell upon all the inhabitants of Carthage after 
the bloody deed was done. Dreading the vengeance of Nauvoo, when 
the news should reach that city, they fled pell-mell, panic-stricken, 
pursued by naught save the phantoms of their own fears. 

The news did reach Nauvoo, that night, — the Governor and his 
escort having previously left the city, — and great beyond description 
was the grief of the betrayed and stricken people. But no retaliation 


was attempted. Vengeance was left to heaven, — to heaven indeed : 
for of that band of murderers who committed the crime, and that 
other band, equally guilty, who set them on, not one was ever 
brought to justice. 

The clay after the tragedy the bodies of the murdered brothers, 
accompanied by Willard Richards and Samuel H. Smith, were taken 
to Nauvoo for burial. John Taylor remained several days at Carthage, 
— too seriously wounded to admit of his immediate removal. 

Of the absent Apostles, Parley P. Pratt was the first to return to 
Nauvoo. George A. Smith came next. Sidney Rigdon arrived a 
little later from Pittsburg. Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, 
Orson Hyde, Orson Pratt, Wilford Woodruff and Lyman Wight, who 
were in the Eastern States when the terrible tidings reached them, 
returned to Nauvoo on the 6th of August, forty days after the 




Srigham Young succeeds Joseph smith — the max for the hour — Sidney rigdon rejected 

and excommunicated factions and f0ll0wings the prophet's murder proves an 

impetus to mormonism the crusade renewed the apostles driven into retire- 
ment the " bogus brigham*' arrest — repeal of the nauvoo charter josiah 

lamborn's opinion of the repeal governor ford advises a mormon exodus 

the prophet's murderers acquitted the anti-mormons change their tactics— 

the torch of the incendiary in lieu of the writ of arrest sheriff backenstos 

the mobocrats worsted and put to flight governor ford interposes to restore 

order general hardin and the commissioners the mormons agree to leave 


iRIGHAM YOUNG succeeded Joseph Smith as leader of the 
Latter-day Saints. Sidney Rigdon claimed the leadership. It 
was to secure it that he came from Pittsburg on learning of the 
Prophet's death. Being his first counselor in the Presidency, — 
though Joseph, distrusting his fidelity, had long since virtually cast 
him off, — Elder Rigdon believed, or affected to believe, that this 
entitled him to the succession. A small faction of the Saints felt 

But the hearts of the people, as a rule, were not with Sidney. 
Though an eloquent orator, he was not a leader. — at least not such a 
leader as the Saints now required; a man to grapple with great emer- 
gencies. He had shown too plainly of late years the white feather, 
to insure him the full confidence of his people at this critical point 
in their history. Besides, Sidney's claim, though plausible, was not 
valid according to Church polity. The First Presidency to which ho 
had belonged was no more. Death had dissolved that council. The 
Prophet in life had taught that "where he was not there was no First 
Presidency over the Twelve.'" Next in order stood the Twelve — the 


Apostles — with Brigham Young as their President. Instinctively the 
people turned to Brigham, for they loved and trusted him, and by 
that "right divine," no less than of seniority and succession in the 
Priesthood, he became their President and spiritual guide. 

Sidney Rigdon, after his rejection by the Saints, returned to 
Pittsburg. Soon afterward he was excommunicated. William 
Marks, William Smith, James J. Strang and others followed, being 
severed from the Church, some for immorality, others for refusing 
like Elder Rigdon to recognize the authority of the Apostles. Each 
prominent seceder had a limited following. There were Rigdonites, 
Smithites, Strangites, and later, Cutlerites, Millerites and Josephites. 
The last-named were followers of the Prophet's son "young Joseph." 
This sect, which still exists, and calls itself the "Reorganized Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints," did not spring into existence 
until many years later, and was then organized out of the remnants 
of the earlier factions. But the main body of the Nauvoo Saints 
adhered to Brigham and the Twelve. 

The chief Apostle was now in his forty-fourth year, — in the full, 
ripe vigor of his mental and physical powers. Though his life, like 
those of most of his brethren, had been one of toil and trial, and 
sickness, resulting from hardship and exposure, had more than once 
preyed upon his matured and well-knit frame, still he was a man of 
iron mould, and of no less iron will, whose practical wisdom and 
temperate habits had perpetuated in him the strength and vitality 
of youth, and carried forward a reserve fund of energy into his 
prime. His mind, a master mind, far-sighted, keen, profound, born 
to direct, to counsel and command, was therefore fittingly enshrined. 
Nature had made him great. Experience had educated that great- 
ness. Trials and afflictions to which weaker men had succumbed, 
had but developed this son of destiny and brought him to his plane 
and place. 

He was unquestionably the man for the hour, — an hour big with 
events, whose birth would yet astonish the world. His colleagues, 
the Apostles, and the Saints in general regarded him as their divinely 


appointed leader, — quite as much so as the martyred Joseph before 
him. The exodus from Missouri, which he personally directed, and 
his subsequent management of the affairs of the British Mission, had 
shown something of his capacity and executive ability, but it 
remained for the exodus of his people to the Rocky Mountains, and 
the colonization of the great interior Basin, to fully demonstrate his 
rare genius as a leader and an organizer. A notable character in 
life's grand tragedy, one bloody scene of which had so lately closed, 
waiting at the wing he had caught his cue, and the stirring stage of 
Time was now ready for his advent. 

The special meeting of the Saints, at which the claim of the 
Apostles to lead the Church had been recognized, and that of Elder 
Rigdon rejected, was held on the 8th of August, 1844. The same 
month witnessed the election of Brigham Young as Lieutenant- 
General of the Nauvoo Legion. Charles C. Rich was chosen Major- 
General. Amasa M. Lyman, previously ordained an Apostle, was 
admitted into the council of the Twelve, and that body then addressed 
an epistle to the Latter-day Saints in all the world, giving such advice 
and instruction as their situation and the times demanded. Wilford 
Woodruff was sent to Great Britain to preside over that important 
mission. With him went Elder Dan Jones, destined to head a very 
successful missionary movement in Wales. Parley P. Pratt was 
given charge of Church affairs in the Eastern States, and other 
Elders, besides many already in the field, were going forth to various 
parts of the Union. Among those now rising to prominence was 
Franklin D. Richards, the present Apostle and Church Historian. 

Mormonism, its opponents discovered, was not dead, though the 
Church had sustained a heavy shock in the death of its Prophet and 
Patriarch. " The blood of the martyrs" is proverbially "the seed of 
the Church." The present case proved no exception. The murder 
of Joseph and Hyrum Smith undoubtedly gave a strong impetus to 
Mormonism. Short-sighted indeed the wisdom (?) which thought it 
would do otherwise. 

Immigration continued arriving at Nauvoo, where the Saints, 


under the direction of the Apostles, now hurried on the completion of 
the Temple. The exodus predicted and in a measure prepared for by 
their Prophet, was foreseen to be imminent, and it was their desire 
to finish this edifice, — another monument of religious zeal and self- 
sacrificing industry, — before taking up the cross of another painful 
pilgrimage and journeying toward the setting sun. 

The anti-Mormons, their ranks now augmented by apostates, 
seemed bent upon compelling an early exodus. To this end they 
continued their former policy of trumping up charges against the 
chiefs of the Church. A murder, a theft, or any other crime, — and 
such things were frequent in that all but frontier region, — committed 
at or in the vicinity of Nauvoo, was at once laid to the Mormon 
leaders as principals or accessories, and forthwith the town would be 
inundated with sheriffs, constables and their posses, armed with writs 
of arrest, searching for the suspects. That some of these crimes 
were committed by citizens of Nauvoo is cmite probable. But that all 
the stealing and killing in that region, or even the greater part of it 
was done by them, cannot be reasonably supposed, in spite of the 
aAvful examples set them. 

Brigham and his brethren, with the memory of the murdered 
Joseph and Hyrum ever before them, — their Prophet and Patriarch, 
butchered in cold blood while in prison under the pledged protection 
of the State of Illinois, — determined not to be similarly ensnared. 
Instead of surrendering to the officers, therefore, they secreted them- 
selves whenever apprised of their approach, only to reappear when 
they had departed and all danger was over. The celebrated "bogus 
Brigham" arrest occurred during this period. The Apostles and 
other Elders were at the Temple, then nearing completion, when 
some officers came to the door with a warrant for the arrest of 
Brigham Young. William Miller, who resembled the President, 
throwing on Heber C. Kimball's cloak — similar in size and color to 
Brigham's — crossed the threshold and mutely surrendered to the 
officers, who, thinking they had secured their man, drove away with 
him to Carthage. The ruse was not discovered until they reached 




their journey's end, where "Bill Miller" was recognized, and it is 
safe to say anathematized. Meantime the real Brigham had got 
well out of the way and was laughing at the chagrin of his outwitted 

The lives of the Mormon leaders, no less than their liberties, 
were in constant jeopardy, and their houses and places of con- 
cealment were carefully guarded to prevent assassination. Foremost 
among their foes were men and women who had once been their 
brethren and sisters in the Church. Emma Smith, the Prophefs 
widow, was one of these. She refused to follow Brigham, whom she 
hated and regarded as a usurper. She taught her children that he, 
and not their father, introduced polygamy into the Church, and that 
the Prophet had never practiced it. Yet there are women still 
living in Utah who solemnly aver that they were Joseph Smith's 
plural wives, and they with others testify that Emma, to their per- 
sonal knowledge, gave those wives to her husband in the sealing 

In January, 1845, the Legislature of Illinois, yielding to long 
continued popular pressure, repealed the Nauvoo charter. Josiah 
Lamborn, Esq., Attorney-General of Illinois writing of this event to 
Brigham Young, said : "I have always considered that your enemies 
have been prompted by political and religious prejudices, and by a 
desire for plunder and blood, more than for the common good. By 
the repeal of your charter, and by refusing all amendments and 
modifications, our legislature has givetf'a khid of sanction to the 
barbarous manner in which you have been treated. * * * 
It is truly a melancholy spectacle to witness the law-makers of a 
sovereign State condescending to pander to the vices, ignorance and 
malevolence of a class of people who are at all times ready for riot, 
murder and rebellion. 

" Your Senator, Jacob C. Davis, has done much to poison the 
minds of the members against anything in your favor. He walks at 
large in defiance of law, an indicted murderer. If a Mormon was in 


his position the Senate would afford no protection, but he would be 
dragged forth to gaol or the gallows, or be shot down by a cowardly 
and brutal mob.'" 

In April following, the Saints in general conference, attended by 
many thousands of people, voted to change the name Nauvoo to the 
City of Joseph, in honor of their martyred Prophet. A small portion 
of the city was afterwards incorporated as the town of Nauvoo. 

Governor Ford, on the 8th of April, wrote to President Young, 
advising him to migrate with his people to California. In this letter 
the following passages occur: 

If you can get off by yourselves you may enjoy peace ; but, surrounded by such 
neighbors, I confess that I do not see the time when you will be permitted to 
enjoy quiet. I was informed by General Joseph Smith last summer that he contemplated 
a removal west ; and from what I learned from him and others at that time, I think, if he 
had lived, he would have begun to move in the matter before this time. I would be will- 
ing to exert all my feeble abilities and influence to further your views in this respect if it 
was the wish of your people. 

I would suggest a matter in confidence. California now offers a field for the prettiest 
enterprise that lias been undertaken in modern times. It is but sparsely inhabited, and 
by none but the Indians or imbecile Mexican Spaniards. I have not enquired enough to 
know how strong it is in men and means. But this we know, that if conquered from 
Mexico, that country is so physically weak and morally distracted that she could never send 
a force there to reconquer it. Why should it not be a pretty operation for your people to 
go out there, take possession of and conquer a portion, of that vacant country, and 
establish an independent Government of your own, subject only to the laws of nations ? 
You would remain there a long time before you would be disturbed by the proximity of 
other settlements. If you conclude to do this, your design ought not to be known, or 
otherwise it would become the duty of the United States to prevent your emigration. If 
once you cross the line of the United States Territories, you would be in no danger of 
being interfered with." 

Brigham Young, however, had already decided upon his course. 
It was in this, as in all else pertaining to the general conduct of 
Mormonism, to follow in the footsteps and build upon the foundation 
of his predecessor. Never, it is believed, during his entire adminis- 
tration did the President knowingly deviate from this fixed rule. It 
was one of the secrets of his great influence with the Saints. Let 
not lack of originality be imputed to him, however, because of this 
deference to the designs of the Prophet. Brigham believed Joseph to 


be inspired. He recognized the worth and wisdom of his plans, and 
his own genius and originality found ample play in their execution. 
As a designer Joseph Smith was without a peer among his fellows ; 
as an executor Brigham Young without a parallel. Each was the 
other's complement, and neither career alone, in the eternal fitness 
of things would have been complete. 

The Rocky Mountains was the place of refuge that Joseph had fore- 
told. California, Texas, Oregon were but after-thoughts, vague and 
undetermined. To the Piocky Mountains, therefore, the Saints would 
go, — possibly pass beyond, — but precisely how far into that terra 
incognita, that unknown wilderness they might penetrate, they knew 
not, not even their leaders knew. [It is a fact, however, that the 
region of the Great Basin, of which they had read in Colonel 
Fremont's reports, was in their thoughts, though not as a definite 
destination, when contemplating a removal from Illinois.* 

It was not their destiny to colonize and people the Pacific coast; 
though undoubtedly they did much to hasten that great achievement. 
If not the first American settlers of California, they were the first to 
establish there a newspaper, among the first to turn up gold with their 
shovels at Sutter's Mill, and set agog the excitement which rolled, a 
mighty billow, over the civilized world, and staid not nor subsided 
till it had revolutionized the commerce of two hemispheres. If not 
the very point, therefore, they certainly were, as we shall see, a very 
important part of the entering wedge of western civilization. 

Nor was it their design, in moving westward, to set up an 
independent government, — at least not in the sense that Governor 
Ford and Senator Douglas had suggested. Not knowing where they 
were going or what awaited them, whether the Union spreading 

* The following is an extract from Heber C. Kimball's journal : " Nauvoo Temple, 
December 31st, 1845. Prest. Young and myself are superintending the operations of the 
day, examining maps with reference to selecting a location for the Saints west of the Rocky 
Mountains, and reading the various works which have been written and published by 
travelers in those regions." 

Vancouver's Island was suggested to the Mormons about this time as a suitable place 
for them to settle. 


westward would overtake them, or Mexican or British rule be their 
portion, how could they have formed any such definite design? It 
was certainly not their purpose to alienate themselves from that 
government which their forefathers had fought and bled to establish, 
whose starry standard they revered, whose glorious Constitution 
they believed to have been God-inspired. No ; they were Mormons, 
hated, despised, defamed, but still Americans, loyal to their country 
and her cause: though that country now, they could not help but feel, 
was acting the part of a cold step-mother rather than of a tender 
parent to them. Some day, perchance, their countrymen would 
know them better, and for past contempt and cruelty would make 
amends. Perhaps they felt, as felt the poet, — "pilgrim of eternity."* 

; ' But I have lived, and have not lived in vain : 
My mind may lose its force, my blood its fire, 

And my frame perish even in conquering pain ; 
But there is that within me which shall tire 
Torture and time, and breathe when I expire ; 

Something unearthly, which they deem not of, 
Like the remembered tone of a mute lyre, 

Shall on their softened spirits sink, and move 

In hearts all rocky now the late remorse of love." 

Till then, as pilgrims too — pilgrims of time and of eternity — 
they would retire into the wilderness, taking with them the starry 
flag, the traditions of Bunker Hill and Yorktown, and seeking some 
isolated spot behind the rocky ramparts of the Everlasting Hills, 
found a new state for the Union, foreseen to be spreading from sea to 
sea, and patiently wait the fulfillment of what had been predicted, — 
that the Saints should become a mighty people in the midst of the 
Rocky Mountains. 

Before expatriating themselves, they resolved to make a last 
appeal to the country which they felt was casting them forth. To 
this end they addressed a memorial to the President of the United 
States — James K. Polk — and sent copies of the same to the Governors 

* The poet Shelley so styled Lord Byron. 


of all the States, excepting Missouri and Illinois. This memorial ran 
as follows : 

Nauvoo, April, 24th, 1845. 
His Excellency James K. Polk, President of the United States. 

Hon. Sir: Suffer us, in behalf of a disfranchised and long afflicted people, to prefer a 
few suggestions for your serious consideration, in hope of a friendly and unequivocal 
response, at as early a period as may suit your convenience, and the extreme urgency of 
the case seems to demand. 

It is not our present design to detail the multiplied and aggravated wrongs that we 
have received in the midst of a nation that gave us birth. Most of us have long been 
loyal citizens of some one of these United States, over which you have the honor to pre- 
side, while a few only claim the privilege of peaceable and lawful emigrants, designing to 
make the Union our permanent residence. 

We say we are a disfranchised people. We are privately told by the highest authori- 
ties of the State that it is neither prudent nor safe for us to vote at the polls ; still we have 
continued to maintain our right to vote, until the blood of our best men has been shed, 
both in Missouri and Illinois, with impunity. 

You are doubtless somewhat familiar with the history of our expulsion from the State 
of Missouri, wherein scores of our brethren were massacred. Hundreds died through 
want and sickness, occasioned by their unparalleled sufferings. Some millions worth of 
our property was destroyed, and some fifteen thousand souls fled for their lives to the then 
hospitable and peaceful shores of Illinois ; and that the State of Illinois granted to us 
a liberal charter, for the term of perpetual succession, under whose provision private 
rights have become invested, and the largest city in the State has grown up, numbering 
about twenty thousand inhabitants. 

But, sir, the startling attitude recently assumed by the State of Illinois, forbids us to 
think that her designs are any less vindictive than those of Missouri. She has already 
used the military of the State, with the executive at their head, to coerce and surrender up 
our best men to unparalleled murder, and that too under the most sacred pledges of pro- 
tection and safety. As a salve for such unearthly perfidy and guilt, she told us, through 
her highest executive officers, that the laws should be magnified and the murderers 
brought to justice ; but the blood of her innocent victims had not been wholly wiped from 
the floor of the awful arena, ere the Senate of that State rescued one of the indicted actors 
in that mournful tragedy from the sheriff of Hancock County, and gave him a seat in her 
hall of legislation ; and all who were indicted by the grand jury of Hancock County for the 
murder of Joseph and Hyrum Smith, are suffered to roam at large, watching for further prey. 

To crown the climax of those bloody deeds, the State has repealed those chartered 
rights, by which we might have lawfully defended ourselves against aggressors. If we 
defend ourselves hereafter against violence, whether it comes under the shadow of law or 
otherwise (for we have reason to expect it in both ways), we shall then be charged with 
treason and suffer the penalty ; and if we continue passive and non-resistant, we must 
certainly expect In perish, for our enemies have sworn it. . 

And here, sir, permit us to state that General Joseph Smith, during his short life, was 
arraigned at the bar of his country about fifty times, charged with criminal offences, bul 


was acquitted every lime by his country ; his enemies, or rather his religious opponents, 
almost invariably being his judges. And we further testify that, as a people, we are law- 
abiding, peaceable and without crime ; and we challenge the world to prove to tbe contrary ; 
and while other less cities in Illinois have had special courts instituted to try their 
criminals, we have been stript of every source of arraigning marauders and murderers who 
are prowling around to destroy us, except the common magistracy. 

With these facts before you, sir, will you write to us without delay as a father and a 
friend, and advise us what to do. We are members of the same great confederacy. Our 
fathers, yea some of us, have- fought and bled for our country, and we love her constitu- 
tion dearly. 

In the name of Israel's God, and by virtue of multiplied ties of country and kindred, 
we ask your friendly interposition in our favor. Will it be too much for us to ask you to 
convene a special session of Congress, and furnish us an asylum, where we can enjoy our 
rights of conscience and religion unmolested? Or will you, in a special message to that 
body, when convened, recommend a remonstrance against such unhallowed acts of oppres- 
sion and expatriation as this people have continued to receive from the States of Missouri 
and Illinois '? Or will you favor us by your personal influence and by your official rank ? 
Or will you express your views concerning what is called the "Great Western Measure" 
of colonizing the Latter-day Saints in Oregon, the north-western Territory, or some loca- 
tion remote from tbe States, where the hand of oppression shall not crush every noble 
principle and extinguish every patriotic feeling ? 

And now, honored sir, having reached out our imploring hands to you, with deep 
solemnity, we would importune you as a father, a friend, a patriot and the head of a mighty 
nation, by the constitution of American liberty, by the blood of our fathers who have fought 
for the independence of this republic, by the blood of the martyrs which has been shed in 
our midst, by the waitings of the widows and orphans, by our murdered fathers and 
mothers, brothers and sisters, wives and children, by the dread of immediate destruction 
from secret combinations, now forming for our overthrow, and by every endearing tie that 
binds man to man and renders life bearable, and that too, for aught we know, for the last 
time, — that you will lend your immediate aid to quell the violence of mobocracy, and exert 
your influence to establish us as a people in our civil and religious rights, where we now 
are, or in some part of the United States, or in some place remote therefrom, where we 
may colonize in peace and safety as soon as circumstances will permit. 

We sincerely hope that your future prompt measures toward us will be dictated by the 
best feelings that dwell in the bosom of humanity, and the blessings of a grateful people, and 
many ready to perish, shall come upon you. 

We are. sir, with great respect, your obedient servants, 

Brigham Young, 

Willard Richards, 

Orson Spencer. 

Orson Pratt, 

W. W. Phelps, 

A. W. Babbitt, 

J. M. Bernhisel, 
In behalf of Hie Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints at Nauvoo, 


P. S. — As many of our communications, post marked at Nauvoo, have failed of their 
destination, and the mails around us have been intercepted by our enemies, we shall send 
this to some distant office by the hand of a special messenger. 

The appeals were unanswered save in a single instance, that of 
the Governor of Arkansas, who replied in a respectful and sympa- 
thetic epistle. 

On the 19th of May, 1845, began the trial, at Carthage, of certain 
men who had been indicted for the murder of Joseph and Hyrum 
Smith. Sixty names had been presented to the Grand Jury of the 
Hancock Circuit Court in October, 1844, as being implicated in the 
assassination. Only nine, however, had been indicted. They were 
Levi Williams, Jacob C. Davis, Mark Aldrich, Thomas C. Sharp, 

William Voras. John Wills, William N. Grover, Gallagher, and 


Of these, Levi Williams, as stated, was a Baptist preacher ; 
Jacob C. Davis a State Senator, and Thomas C. Sharp the editor of 
the Warsaw Signal. Judge Richard M. Young presided at the trial, 
and James H. Ralston and Josiah Lamborn conducted the prosecu- 
tion. The defense was represented by William A. Richardson, 0. H. 
Browning, Calvin A. Warren, Archibald Williams, 0. C. Skinner and 
Thomas Morrison. The panel of the trial jury was as follows : Jesse 
Griffits, Joseph Jones, William Robertson, William Smith, Joseph 
Massey, Silas Grifltts, Jonathan Foy, Solomon J. Hill, James Gittings, 
F. M. Walton, Jabez A. Beebe and Gilmore Callison. 

The trial lasted until May 30th.* During its progress, Calvin 
A. Warren, Esq, of counsel for the defense, in the course of his plea 
is said to have argued that if the prisoners were guilty of murder, 
then he himself was guilty ; that it was the public opinion that the 
Smiths ought to be killed, and public opinion made the laws, conse- 
quently it was not murder to kill them. Evidently this logic had 

* •■ The Judge," snys Governor Ford, -'was compelled to admit the presence oi 
armed bands to browbeat and overawe the administration of justice. * * * 
The Judge himself was in duress, and informed me that he did not consider his life secure 
any part of the time. The consequence was thai tin' cmwd had everything theirown way." 


its weight with the jury, for they promptly returned a verdict of 
not guilty.* 

Emboldened by the outcome of the trial, the tactics of the anti- 
Mormons now underwent a radical range. Trumping up charges 
against the Mormon leaders it was found would not effect the desired 
purpose. Extreme measures only would avail, and these the uncon- 
scionable crusaders were now prepared to execute, regardless of every 
consideration of right. Their own writers admit as much. Thomas 
Gregg, the historian of Hancock County, Illinois, whom none familiar 
with his work- will accuse of partiality to the Mormons, is constrained 
to allow that the acts of their opponents now in question were 
absolutely unjustifiable. "Acts," says he, "which had no warrant 
in law or order, and which cannot be reconciled with any correct 
principles of reasoning, and which we then thought, and still think, 
were condemned by every consideration looking to good government; 
acts which had for their object, and which finally resulted in the 
forcible expulsion of the Mormon people from the county.*' 

At a Mormon settlement called Morley, a few miles from Nauvoo, 
a band of incendiaries, on the night of September 10th, began opera- 
tions. Deliberately setting fire to the house of Edmund Durfee they 
turned the inmates out of doors and threatened them with death if 
they did not at once leave the settlement. Durfee they subsequently 
killed. The mob continued its nefarious work until Morley was in 
ashes, and its people homeless. Green Plains and Bear Creek, 
localities also settled by the Saints, were next visited by the house- 
burners, and in like manner devastated.! Such scenes continued for 

* Colonel John Hay, of the State Department at Washington, in the Atlantic 
Monthly for December, 18(59, in an article reminiscent of the Prophet's murder and the 
trial of his assassins, says; "The case was closed. There was not a man on the jury, in 
the court, in the county, that did not know the defendants had done the murder. But it 
was not proven, and the verdict of Not Guilty was right in law." 

f "At Lima and Green Plains," says Governor Ford, "the anti-Mormons appointed 
persons to fire a few harmless shots at their own meeting-house where services were in 
progress, whereupon the conspirators and their dupes rode all over the country and spread 


a week, during which nearly two hundred houses, shops and sheds 
were destroyed and the people driven away. A hundred and thirty- 
five teams went out from Nauvoo to bring in the homeless refugees, 
with what grain had been saved from the flames. 

Intense excitement now reigned, not only at Nauvoo, and the 
out-lying Mormon settlements that nightly anticipated attack, but 
throughout Hancock County. Non-Mormons not of the radical class 
disapproved of these deeds of vandalism,* and Sheriff Backenstos, 
of Carthage — to his honor be it said — did everything in his power to 
quell the riots and punish the guilty parties. He first issued a 
proclamation, demanding that they desist. This order they ignored. 
He then called upon the posse comitatus — the power of the County — 
to assist him in dispersing the rioters. But there was no response. 
Finally he applied to the Mormons for a posse, which was furnished 
him, and he proceeded at once against the house-burners. 

In the encounters that ensued two mobocrats were killed. One 
of these was Frank A. Worrell, the same who, as sergeant of the 
Carthage Greys, had charge of the Jail when Joseph and Hyrum 
Smith were murdered. Worrell was shot by Porter Rockwell at the 
order of Sheriff Backenstos. Worrell at the time was approaching 
the Sheriff who, fearing for his own life, ordered B.ockwell to fire. 
The two were tried for murder in this case, but were acquitted. The 
other man killed was Samuel McBratney, who was among the house- 
burners on Bear Creek. The Sheriff and his posse, after scattering 
the mob, surrounded Carthage and made several arrests. But most of 

dire alarm. As a result a mob arose and burnt one hundred and seventy-five houses and 
huts belonging to Mormons, who fled for their lives in utter destitution, in the middle of 
the sickly season." 

* The Quincy Whig, edited by a Mr. Bartlett, said: " Seriously, these outrages 

should be put a stop to at once; if the Mormons have been guilty of crime, why punish 
them, but do not visit their sins upon defenseless women and children. This is as bad as 
the savages. * * * It is feared thai this rising against the Mormons is not 
confined to the Morley settlement, but that there is an understanding among the :mti<-s in 
the northern part of this and Hancock counties to make a general sweep, burning and 
destroying the property of the Mormons wherever il can be found." 


the rioters had fled. The Mormon settlements around Nauvoo were 
now evacuated, the people, fearing pillage and massacre, gathering 
into the city for protection. 

At this juncture Governor Ford put forth his hand to restore 
order. General John J. Hardin, with troops, was sent into Hancock 
County for that purpose. Accompanying him were J. A. McDougal, 
Attorney-General of Illinois-; Senator Stephen A. Douglas, and Major 
W. B. Warren. Having issued a proclamation to the people of the 
county, enjoining peace, good order, and obedience to law and 
authority, General Hardin and his associates next held a consultation 
with the Mormon leaders at Nauvoo. The result was an agreement 
by the Latter-day Saints to leave Illinois; the exodus to begin in the 
spring. This demand came from a meeting of representatives of 
nine counties of the State, assembled at Carthage. The following 
correspondence, in relation to the proposed exodus, passed between 
General Hardin and his friends — representing Governor Ford and the 
anti-Mormons — and the Church leaders at Nauvoo : 

Nauvoo, Oct. 1, 1845. 
To the First President and Council of the Church at Nauvoo : 

Having had a free and full conversation with you this day, in reference to your pro- 
posed removal from this county, together with the members of your Church, we have to 
request you to submit the facts and intentions stated to us in said conversation to writing, 
in order that we may lay them before the Governor and people of the State. We hope 
that by so doing it will have a tendency to allay the excitement at present existing in the 
public mind. 

We have the honor to subscribe ourselves, respectfully yours, etc., 

John J. Hardin, 
S. A. Douglas, 
W. B. Warren, 
J. A. McDougal. 

Nauvoo, October 1, 1845. 
To Gen. John J. Hardin, W. B. Warren, S. A. Douglas, and J. A. McDougal : 

Messrs : — In reply to your letter of this date, requesting us to " submit the facts and 
intentions stated by us to writing, in order that you may lay them before the Governor and 
people of the State," we would refer you to our communication of the 24th ultimo, to the 
" Quincy Committee," etc, a copy of which is herewith inclosed. 

In addition to this, we would say, that we had commenced making arrangements to 


remove from this county previous to the recent disturbances ; that we now have four com- 
panies organized, of one hundred families each, and .six more companies now 
organizing of the same number each, preparatory lo removal. That one thou- 
sand families, including the Twelve, the High Council, the Trustees and general 
authorities of the Church, are fully determined to remove in the spring, independent of the 
contingency of selling our property, and that this company will comprise from five to six 
thousand souls. 

That the Church, as a body, desires to remove with us, and will, if sales can he 
effected, so as to raise the necessary means. 

That the organization of the Church we represent is such, that there never can exist 
but one head or presidency at any one time, and all good members wish to be with the 
organization ; and all are determined to remove to some distant point where we shall 
neither infringe nor be infringed upon, so soon as time and means will permit. 

That we have some hundreds of farms and some two thousand or more houses for 
sale in this city and county, and we request all good citizens to assist in the disposal of our 

That we do not expect to find purchasers for our Temple and other public buildings ; 
but we are willing to rent them to a respectable community who may inhabit the city. 

That we wish it distinctly understood, that, although we may not find purchasers for 
our property, we will not sacrifice or give it away, or suffer it illegally to be wrested from 

That we do not intend to sow any wheat this fall, and should we all sell we shall not 
put in any more crops of any description. 

That as soon as practicable we will appoint committees for this city, La Harpe, 
Macedonia, Bear Greek, and all necessary places in the county, to give information to 

That if these testimonies are not sufficient to satisfy any people that we are in 
earnest, we will soon give them a sign that cannot be mistaken — vie will leave them ! 

In behalf of the Council, respectfully yours, etc., 

Brigham Young, President. 





The exodus — brigham young leads his people WESTWARD SUGAR CREEK SAMUEL bran- 






PURSUANT to the terms of the agreement, which satisfied 
General Hardin and his associate commissioners, and appeased 
for a time the anti-Mormons, preparations went forward all 
during the fall and winter for the spring exodus. Houses and lands 
in and around Nauvoo were sold, leased or abandoned. Wagons by 
hundreds were purchased or manufactured, and horses, mules, oxen, 
riding, draft and pack animals in general, procured in large numbers. 
Clothing, bedding, provisions, tents, tools, household goods, family 
relics and camp equipage composed the lading, wherewith animals 
and vehicles were packed and loaded until little or no room 

At length, all being ready for a start, on the 4th of February, 
1846, the exodus of the Mormons from Illinois began. Charles 
Shumway, afterwards one of the original Utah pioneers, was the first 
to cross the Mississippi. Colonel Hosea Stout with a strong force of 
police had charge of the ferries, which were kept busy night and 
day until the river froze over. The companies then crossed on the 
ice. By the middle of February a thousand souls, with their wagons, 
teams and effects had been landed on the Iowa shore. 


Sugar Creek, nine miles westward, was made the rendezvous 
and starting-point of the great overland pilgrimage. Here the 
advance companies pitched their tents, and awaited the coming of 
their leaders. The weather was bitter cold, the ground snow-covered 
and frozen, and the general prospect before the pilgrims so cheerless 
and desolate as to have dismayed souls less trustful in Providence, 
less inured to hardship and suffering than they. It was February 
5th that the first camp formed on Sugar Creek. That night — a bitter 
night — nine wives became mothers ; nine children were born in tents 
and wagons in that wintry camp. How these tender babes, these 
sick and delicate women were cared for under such conditions, is left 
to the imagination of the sensitive reader. How these Mormon 
exiles, outcasts of civilization, carrying their aged, infirm and help- 
less across the desolate plains and prairies, were tracked and trailed 
thereafter by the nameless graves of their dead, is a tale which, 
though often attempted, has never been and never will be fully told.* 

On the 15th of February, Brigham Young, the leading spirit of 
the exodus, arrived at the camps on Sugar Creek. He was accom- 
panied by Willard Richards and George A. Smith, with their families. 
Two days later Heber C. Kimball and Bishop Whitney joined them. 
Parley P. Pratt, who had returned from the east, was already there, 
but encamped at some distance from the main body. Other leading 
men, such as had not preceded these, soon followed. After the final 
departure of the Apostles from Nauvoo, Church affairs at that place 

* " There is no parallel in the world's history to this migration from Nauvoo. The 
exodus from Egypt was from a heathen land, a land of idolaters, to a fertile region desig- 
nated by the Lord for His chosen people, the land of Canaan. The pilgrim fathers in 
fleeing to America came from a bigoted and despotic people — a people making few preten- 
sions to civil or religious liberty. It was from these same people who had lied from old- 
world persecutions that they might enjoy liberty of conscience in the wilds of America, 
from their descendants and associates, that other of their descendants, who claimed the 
right to differ from them in opinion and practice, were now fleeing. * * * 

Before this the Mormons had been driven to the outskirts of civilization, where they had 
built themselves a city ; this they must now abandon, ami throw themselves upon the 
mercy of savages." — Bancroft's History of Utah, page 217. 


were left in charge of a committee consisting of Almon W. Babbitt, 
Joseph L. Heywood and John S. Fullmer. 

Two days after Brigham's arrival on Sugar Creek, — during 
which interim he was busy with his brethren in organizing the 
camps for traveling, — he called together the Apostles who were with 
him and held a council. There were present Brigham Young, Heber 
C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, Orson Pratt, John Taylor, George A. Smith 
and Willard Richards. The subject considered by these leaders was 
as follows: It seems that about the time of the beginning of the 
exodus from Nauvoo, there had sailed from New York on the ship 
Brooklyn a company of Latter-day Saints bound for the Bay of San 
Francisco. They numbered two hundred and thirty-five souls, and 
were in charge of Elder Samuel Brannan. The company were well 
supplied with farming implements, and all tools necessary for the 
formation of a new settlement, which they proposed founding some- 
where on the Californian coast. Elder Brannan believed that that 
would be the ultimate destination of the main body of his people. 
These Mormon colonists, who were probably the first American 
emigrants to land on the coast of California, carried with them a 
printing press, type, paper and other materials, with which was after- 
wards published the California Star, the pioneer newspaper of the 
Golden State. Elder Brannan, in New York, had edited a paper 
called The Prophet, published in the interests of the Latter-day 
Saints. He was a man of considerable energy and ability, but of 
speculative tendencies, and bent more to worldly ends than to 
spiritual aims. 

Prior to sailing for San Francisco — then Yerba Buena — Brannan 
had entered into a peculiar compact with one A. G. Benson, repre- 
senting certain politicians and financial sharpers at Washington, 
who, being aware of the contemplated Mormon exodus, proposed if 
possible to profit by it. This compact, which Brannan had sent to 
Nauvoo for the Church leaders to sign and then return to Mr. 
Benson, required that the Mormons transfer to A. G. Benson and 
Company, and to their heirs and assigns, the odd numbers of all the 



lands and town lots they might acquire in the country where they 
settled. It was represented that ex-Postmaster Amos Kendall was 
one of the parties represented by Benson, and that no less a person- 
age than the President of the United States was a "silent partner" 
in the scheme. If the Mormon leaders refused to sign the agree- 
ment, President Polk, it was stated, would forthwith proclaim that it 
was their intention to take sides with Great Britain or Mexico in 
the international controversies then pending between those countries 
and the United States, and send troops to intercept their flight, 
disarm and disperse them. In case they did sign, they and their 
people were to be protected and allowed to proceed on their journey 
unmolested. Such was the substance of Elder Brannan's letter, 
which, with a copy of this precious agreement, Brigham Young laid 
before his brethren, the Apostles, at their council on Sugar Creek, 
February 17th, 1846. 

The proposition was treated with the contempt that it merited. 
Not only was it promptly rejected, but to Messrs. A. G. Benson and 
Company not even an answer was deigned. "Our trust is in 
God; we look to Him for protection," said Brigham and his brethren, 
too much inured to danger and deeds of violence to be frightened 
or tempted to thus dishonor themselves, even by threats of Federal 

That President Polk had really lent himself to the furtherance 
of such a rascally scheme, the general reader will be much inclined 
to doubt. We would prefer believing that the use of his name in 
this unsavory connection was without his consent and merely a 
shrewd trick of the sharpers, parties to the proposed land-grab, to 
give weight and cogency to their proposition. 

A farewell visit to Nauvoo, where parting services were held in 
the all but completed Temple, and President Young and the Apostles 
again joined the camps on Sugar Creek. The temporary organiza- 
tion of the companies was now perfected. They comprised about four 
hundred wagons, all heavily loaded, with not more than half the 
number of teams necessary for a rapid journey. Most of the fam- 


ilies were supplied with provisions for several months, but some 
were quite destitute, or had only sufficient to last for a few days. 
None, however, were permitted to lack food. The " share and share 
alike" principle and practice of the Mormon community prevented 
this. But the weather continuing very cold, some suffering was 
experienced on that score. 

The "Camp of Israel" being organized, and the Governor of 
Iowa having been petitioned by the Saints for protection while pass- 
ing through that Territory, President Young, on Sunday, March 1st, 
gave the order for a general advance. It was not the design, nor the 
subsequent practice of the Mormons to travel on Sundays. In all 
their migrations, except when necessity compelled, they were careful 
to keep the Sabbath day holy. But to get farther away from Nauvoo, 
which parties from the camps were frequently visiting, thus causing 
the anti-Mormons to suspect, or at least assert, that the exodus was 
not genuine, the President, on the opening day of spring, ordered 
the companies to move forward. Bishop George Miller's wagons had 
already departed. By noon all tents had been struck and the Camp 
began to move. In the van went Colonel Stephen Markham, with a 
hundred pioneers, to prepare the road before the main body. Colonel 
Hosea Stout with a company of riflemen — mounted police — guarded 
the wagons, and Colonel John Scott, with another hundred men, 
accompanied the artillery. William Clayton had been appointed 
clerk of the Camp, and Willard Richards, a graphic and ready writer, 
its historian. 

Traveling five miles in a north-westerly direction, the Camp 
halted for the night, — still on Sugar Creek. Scraping away the 
snow, pitching their tents and corralling their wagons, quite a primi- 
tive little city soon sprang up, as if by magic, from the frozen earth. 
Large fires were built to dispel the gathering darkness, thaw out 
cold-benumbed fingers and features, and cook the evening meal. 
Despite the dreary situation and forbidding surroundings, a spirit of 
remarkable cheerfulness reigned throughout the Camp. Everybody 
seemed happy and determined to "make the best of it." In so 


doing, no people, under such circumstances, ever succeed better than 
the Mormons. Were it not the Sabbath, the merriest of songs would 
be sung, the jolliest of jokes cracked, the funniest of stories told, 
ad infinitum. Captain Pitts' Brass Band would tune their instru- 
ments, and awaken with soul-stirring, heart-cheering strains the 
prairie solitudes. At all events such was their custom during that 
long and dreary journey to the Missouri River and beyond. But at a 
seasonable hour all merriment would be hushed ; heads and hearts 
bowed in reverent prayer, thanks returned to heaven for mercies 
already bestowed, and God's blessing invoked upon Israel, — these 
whose habitation was to be for many months the houseless plain and 
prairie, and the remnant left behind in the doomed city of Nauvoo. 

Thus, from day to day, slowly and wearily traveling, went the 
exiled Saints across the undulating surface of snow-covered Iowa. 
The roads were very bad, the weather cold and stormy, and the 
streams, now frozen, now swollen by spring freshets, almost and at 
times quite impassable. Again and again they were obliged to double 
teams on the heavily loaded wagons, to drag them through deep 
streams and miry marshes on their line of travel. Some days three 
or four miles would be the extent of their journey. Many a halt 
was made, at times for weeks. Their able-bodied men often found 
employment at the nearest settlements, even crossing over the line 
into Missouri to obtain work, exchanging their labor with their old 
enemies for needed provisions and supplies. 

On the 27th of March, on Shoal Creek, in the Chariton Biver 
region, where for three weeks they were delayed by the freshets, the 
Camp was more thoroughly organized. Companies of "hundreds," 
"fifties," and "tens" were formed, and captains appointed over them. 
Each company had its commissary, and there was a Commissary 
General. Henry G. Sherwood was that officer. David D. Yearsley, 
W. H. Edwards, Peter Haws, Samuel Gulley and Joseph Warburton 
were contracting commissaries. There were still others whose duty 
it was to distribute equitably among the various companies, grain, 
provisions and other commodities furnished for their use. The 


Apostles, who had hitherto been acting as captains of companies 
were relieved of those commands and made presidents of divisions. 
The Camp consisted of two grand divisions, presided over by 
Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball; the former as President and 
General-in-chief, directing the whole. 

The laws of the Camp were strict without being oppressive. 
The President had said, while on Sugar Creek : "We will have no 
laws we cannot keep, but we will have order in the camp. If any 
want to live in peace when we have left this place, they must toe 
the mark." Honesty and morality were strictly enjoined; decency 
and decorum likewise. Thieving was not tolerated, either by Mor- 
mons or non-Mormons. In one or two instances where stolen 
property was found in camp, — some wayside trapper or farmer being 
the victim, — the thief was compelled to return it in person, and 
make clue reparation. Profanity and irreverence were forbidden. 
Amusement and recreation, to a proper extent, were encouraged, as 
tending to divert the minds of the people from their past troubles 
and lighten their present toils, but excess of mirth and loud laughter 
were discountenanced. 

At various points between the Mississippi and the Missouri the 
Mormons founded temporary settlements, or, as they called them, 
" traveling stakes of Zion," fencing the land, building log cabins, 
and putting in crops for their own use or for the benefit of their 
people who came after them. Two of these " stakes" were named 
Garden Grove and Mount Pisgah ; the former on the east fork of 
Grand River, one hundred and forty-five miles from Nauvoo, and the 
latter near the middle fork of the Grand, twenty-seven miles farther 
west. Mount Pisgah was on the Pottawatomie Indian lands. 

A thousand west-bound wagons of the Saints were now rolling 
over the prairies of Iowa. Amos Fielding, traveling back to Nauvoo, 
counted over nine hundred of their vehicles in three days. Many 
more were preparing to follow. Winter was past ; the snow had dis- 
appeared, the icy streams had melted, the grass was growing, flowers 
blooming and birds singing. Summer had come, and all nature 


smiled in welcome. The vanguard of the migrating trains, under 
Brigham Young, reached the Missouri River about the middle of 
June. They were cordially welcomed by the Pottawatomie and 
Omaha Indians, upon whose lands the Saints temporarily settled. 

Before reaching the Missouri the Mormon leaders had planned 
to leave the main body of their people there, and at the various 
settlements founded along the way, and while the remnants in the 
rear were gathering to those places, to push on that season, 
with a picked band of pioneers, and explore the Rocky Moun- 
tains. Apostle Woodruff, who was back from Europe, and had 
arrived at Mount Pisgah, received word from the President at Council 
Bluffs * to furnish one hundred mounted men for the expedition. 
Sixty had volunteered, and the muster was still in progress, when an 
event occurred to materially change the program, and delay the 
departure of the pioneers until the following spring. It was the call 
for the Mormon Battalion.' 

In April, 1846, war had broken out between the United States 
and Mexico. The original cause was the annexation of Texas in 
1845, but the immediate casus belli was the occupation by United 
States troops, in March, 1846, of disputed territory on the Texan 
frontier, an act regarded by Mexico as a virtual declaration of war. 
She resented it as such, and in April began hostilities. The victories 
of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, won by General Zachary 
Taylor on the 8th and 9th of May, drove the Mexicans across the Rio 
Grande, and here the war, in the opinion of many Americans, should 
have ended. But the majority of the nation, especially the South — 
bent upon extending slavery and preserving her balance of power — 
wished the strife continued, having set their hearts upon more. 
Nothing now would suffice but the extension of the boundaries of the 
Union to the Pacific Coast of California. This meant, in plain terms. 
the wresting from Mexico of her two provinces of New Mexico and 

* So called from the fad (hat the Indian tribes of thai region wore in the habit of 

inldiii" 1 1 1 < • i I- rulllii-ils thi'iv. 


California, lying directly in the path of the Republic in its proposed 
march to the sea. Great Britain, still claiming Oregon, also coveted 
California, and it was to checkmate that power in her ambitious 
designs, as well as to acquire more territory for future states, that the 
war with Mexico was continued. 

President Polk, having announced to Congress that war with 
Mexico existed by her own act, was authorized to issue a call for fifty 
thousand volunteers. At the same time ten million dollars were voted 
for war purposes. The plan was to strike Mexico in three places. 
General Stephen F. Kearney was to invade New Mexico and Cali- 
fornia, General Taylor to continue operations along the Rio Grande, 
and General Winfield Scott, commander-in-chief, to invade Mexico 
from the Gulf coast, carrying the war into the heart of the enemy's 
country. So much for the subject in general. The call for the 
Mormon Battalion was a portion of the plan matured at Washington 
for the invasion by General Kearney of the northern provinces of 

Let us now go back a little further. Shortly before the war 
broke out, and soon after the beginning of the exodus from Nauvoo, 
Elder Jesse C. Little, at the suggestion of President Young, visited 
Washington for the purpose of soliciting governmental aid for his 
people in their exodus. No gift of money or of other means was 
asked, but it was thought that the national authorities might wish to 
employ the Saints in freighting provisions and naval stores to Oregon 
or other points on the Pacific coast. Elder Little, who was in the 
east when he received his instructions from Nauvoo, carried with 
him to the capital letters of introduction from Governor Steele, of 
New Hampshire, and Colonel Thomas L. Kane, of Philadelphia; the 
former an old acquaintance of Elder Little's, and the latter — Colonel 
Kane — one of those brave and chivalric souls, too rarely met with in 
this world, ever ready to espouse, from a pure sense of justice and 
knightly valor, the cause of the oppressed. Such a class he 
believed the Mormons to be. Colonel Kane was brother to Dr. Kane, 
the famous Arctic explorer. Governor Steele's letter was addressed to 


Secretary Bancroft, of the U. S. Navy ; that of Colonel Kane to Vice- 
President George M. Dallas. 

Through ex-Postmaster-General Amos Kendall, Elder Little 
obtained an introduction to President Polk and other distinguished 
personages, with whom he had several interviews, laying before them 
the situation and prospects of his people and their application for 
governmental aid. He- was kindly received by the President, who 
referred to the Saints in favorable terms. He stated that he had no 
prejudice against them, but believed them to be good citizens and 
loyal Americans; as such he was "willing to do them all the good in 
his power, consistently." Elder Little, after his first interview with 
the President, addressed to him a petition which closed as follows : 

From twelve to fifteen thousand Mormons have already left Nauvoo for California, 
and many others are making ready to go ; some have gone around Cape Horn, and I trust, 
before this time, have landed at the Bay of San Francisco. We have about forty thousand 
in the British Isles, all determined to gather to this land, and thousands will sail this Fall. 
There are also many thousands scattered through the States, besides the great number in 
and around Nauvoo, who will go to California as soon as possible, but many are destitute 
of money to pay their passage either by sea or land. 

We are true-hearted Americans, true to our native country, true to its laws, true to its 
glorious institutions ; and we have a desire to go under the outstretched wings of the 
American Eagle ; we would disdain to receive assistance from a foreign power, although it 
should be proffered, unless our Government shall turn us off in this great crisis, and compel 
us to be foreigners. 

If you will assist us in this crisis, I hereby pledge my honor, as the representative of 
this people, that the whole body will stand ready at your call, and act as one man in the 
land to which we are going; and should our territory be invaded, we will hold ourselves 
ready to enter the field of battle, and then like our patriotic fathers, make the battle-field 
our grave, or gain our liberty. 

Just at this juncture the news reached Washington that the con- 
flict for some time pending between the United States and Mexico had 
begun, General Taylor having fought his first two battles with the 
Mexicans. This news, which set all Washington aflame, determined 
President Polk upon the project of taking immediate possession of 
California, and of using the migrating Mormons for that purpose. 
His plan, as laid before his cabinet, was to send Elder Little direct to 
the Mormon camps in Iowa, to raise a thousand picked men "to make 


a dash into California and take possession of it in the name of the 
United States." This battalion was to be officered by its own men. 
with the exception of the commander, who was to be appointed by 
the President. They were to be armed and equipped by the govern- 
ment, and furnished with cannon and everything necessary to defend 
the country they conquered. A thousand more Mormons from the 
eastern states were to be sent via Cape Horn in a U. S. transport for 
the same purpose. The plan was fully matured, and about to be 
executed, when it was changed through the influence of Senator 
Thomas Benton, of Missouri. Then came the adoption of the 
general plan of operations, involving a call for five hundred Mormon 
volunteers to form ;a portion of General Kearney's force to invade 
New Mexico and California. 

About the middle of June Elder Little left Washington for the 
west. He was accompanied by Colonel Thomas L. Kane, who had 
been commissioned by the President to carry special dispatches to 
-General Kearney, at Fort Leavenworth, relative to tbe Mormon 

The commander of the Army of the West, who was about to 
start for Santa Fe, on receiving these dispatches, at once detailed 
Captain James Allen to proceed to the camps of the Saints, muster 
the battalion, and march them to Fort Leavenworth, where they 
would be armed and prepared for the field. Thence he was to lead 
them to Santa Fe, in the trail of General Kearney and the main 
army. Captain Allen, accompanied by three dragoons, reached Mount 
Pisgah on the 26th of June. Elder Little and Colonel Kane, who 
were on the way thither, had not yet arrived. Here we touch the 
point in our narrative from which digression was made in order to 
explain more fully the call for the Mormon Battalion. 

At sight of the recruiting officer and his men, the Mormons at 
Mount Pisgah were at first somewhat alarmed, supposing them to be 
the vanguard of a United States army sent to intercept them. The 
threat of Messrs. Benson and Company, conveyed in Elder Brannan's 
letter, relative to disarming and dispersing the Saints if their leaders 


refused to sign away their rights, was probably known at Mount 
Pisgah, and its fulfillment now seemed imminent. But Captain Allen 
soon explained his errand to Apostle Woodruff and the High Council 
of the Stake,* and the first thrill of excitement subsided. The fol- 
lowing "Circular to the Mormoms" set forth more in detail the 
import of the officer's visit : 


I have come among you, instructed by Col. S. F. Kearney of the U. S. army, now 
commanding the Army of the West, to visit the Mormon camp, and to accept the service 
for twelve months of four or five companies of Mormon men who may be willing to serve 
their country for that period in our present war with Mexico ; this force to unite with the 
Army of the West at Santa Fe, and be marched thence to California, where they will he 

They will receive pay and rations, and other allowances, such as other volunteers or 
regular soldiers receive, from the day they shall be mustered into the service, and will be 
entitled to all comforts and benefits of regular soldiers of the army, and when discharged, 
as contemplated, at California, they will be given gratis their arms and accoutrements, 
with which they will be fully equipped at Fort Leavenworth. This is offered to the Mor 
mon people now. This year an opportunity of sending a portion of their young 
intelligent men to the ultimate destination of their whole people, and entirely at 
expense of the United States, and this advanced party can thus pave the way and look 01 
the land for their brethren to come after them. 

Those of the Mormons who are desirous of serving their country, on the conditions 
here enumerated, are requested to jmeet me without delay at their principal camp al the 
Council Bluffs, whither I am going to consult with their principal men, and to receive and 
organize the force contemplated to be raised. 

1 will receive all healthy, able-bodied men of from eighteen to forty-five years of age. 

J. Allen, Captain 1st Dragoons. 

Camp of the Mormons, at Mount Pisgah, one hundred and thirty-eight miles east of 
Council Bluffs, June 26th, 1846. 

Note. — I hope to complete the organization of this battalion in six days after my 
reaching Council Bluffs, or within nine days from this time. 

Carrying letters of introduction from the authorities at Mount 
Pisgah to the leaders at Council Bluffs. Captain Allen hurried on to 
the Missouri, whither he was preceded by a special messenger, sent by 
Apostle Woodruff to inform the President of his coming. 


* These "traveling Stakes of Zion," like oilier slakes, had their High Councils and 
all needful equipment, spiritual and temporal. 


The surprise, almost dismay, with which the main body of the 
Mormons received the startling news — startling indeed to them — 
that the United States government had demanded five hundred 
of their best men, to march to California and take part in the war 
against Mexico, may well be imagined. What ! the nation which, 
according to their view, had virtually thrust them from its borders, 
permitted mobs to plunder them, rob them of their homes, murder 
their prophets, and drive them into the wilderness, now calling upon 
them for aid ? Had that nation ever helped them in their extremity ? 
Had not their appeals for succor and protection, addressed to Gover- 
nors, Judges and Presidents invariably been ignored or denied? Five 
hundred able-bodied men, the pick and flower of the camp, wanted. 
And that, too, in an Indian country, in the midst of an exodus 
unparalleled for dangers and hardships, when every active man was 
needed as a bulwark of defense and a staff for the aged and feeble. 
Even delicate women, thus far, in some instances had been driving 
teams and tending stock, owing to the limited number of men avail- 
able. And had they not already buried, in lonely prairie graves, 
many of their sick and helpless ones, who had perished from sheer 
lack of needed care impossible to bestow? Such was the subject as 
it presented itself to them. Such were among their thoughts and 
reflections at that hour. 

And yet it was their country calling; that country to which their 
pilgrim ancestors had fled; for which their patriot sires had fought 
and suffered, whose deeds of heroism were among their highest and 
holiest traditions. America, land of liberty, land of Zion, the place 
for the Holy City which they or their children must yet uprear upon 
her chosen and consecrated soil! Such also were among their 

What was to be done? What would their leaders decide to do? 
Queries, these, that flew like lightning, as the news of the coming of 
the government's agent sped from place to place, and from tent to 
tent, through all the "Camps of Israel.*' Not long were they left 

tA/%, '/uc/i a ^fCJ 


" You shall have your battalion, Captain Allen," said Brigham 
Young; that officer having arrived at the Bluffs, met the Mormon 
leaders, and made known to them his errand in person. It was the 
1st of July. There were present, besides the Captain and the 
President, Heber C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, Orson Pratt, Willard 
Richards, George A. Smith, John Taylor, John Smith and Levi 
Richards. "You shall have your battalion," said Brigham 
determinedly, "and if there are not young men enough, we will take 
the old men, and if they are not enough, we will take the women," 
he added, a touch of grim humor tempering the sternness of his 
resolve. There not being enough able-bodied men on the Missouri to 
meet the requisition, back went three of the Apostles — Brigham 
Young, Heber C. Kimball and Willard Richards — to Mount Pisgah, in 
the role of recruiting sergeants. There they met Colonel Kane and 
Elder Little, the former, chaperoned by the latter, having come to 
visit the camps. From them they learned more fully of the avowed 
purpose of the government in calling for the Mormon volun- 

The leaders were not convinced, however, that the call was not 
designed as a test of Mormon loyalty ; nor were they converted from 
that view on hearing .later, from a source esteemed reliable, that their 
inveterate foe, Senator Benton, of Missouri, had obtained from 
President Polk after the call was issued, a pledge that if the 
Mormons refused to respond, United States troops should be sent to 
cut off their route, disarm and disperse them. Of this they were yet 
unaware. Still they regarded the demand for the troops — "demand" 
they styled it — as designed to test their loyalty, and the opportunity 
to prove their fealty and stultify their traducers, who were insisting 
that they were traitors and aliens to their country, was one not to 
be lost. 

Volunteers were enrolled at Mount Pisgah, and messengers sent 
to Garden Grove and other places, as far back as Nauvoo. to summon 
to head-quarters young men, old men and boys, to fill up the gaps in 
camp created by the enlistment of the Battalion. Men wore 


detailed especially to look after the families of the volunteers in their 
absence. The President and his party then returned to Council 
Bluffs, Colonel Kane going also, and on the arrival there of the 
Pisgah volunteers the muster was completed. Colonel Kane thus 
speaks of the event: "A central mass meeting for council, some 
harangues at the more remotely scattered camps, an American flag 
brought out from the store-house of things rescued and hoisted to 
the top of a tree-mast, and in three clays the force was reported, 
mustered, organized and ready to march." 

What were the Mormons doing with that "American flag?" 
What use had they for the Stars and Stripes, and why were they 
bringing with them into the wilderness — into Mexico — the sacred 
banner of their sires, if they were indeed traitors and aliens, as 
their enemies so persistently asserted? Was it all a trick, a political 
and hypocritical master-stroke? Had they foreseen this test of their 
fealty, and prepared that banner as a proof of their patriotism before- 
hand, as calcium light and red-fire are prepared and held in readi- 
ness for a theatrical tableau? If as much were to be asserted in rela- 
tion to that event, it would be no more than the Mormons have had 
to meet ever since that hour from their accusers. Such of these as 
are honest and sincere in their assertions have never understood the 
Mormons aright. 

" I want to say to every man," said Brigham Young, in his 
farewell address to the Battalion, — "the Constitution of the United 
States, as framed by our fathers, was dictated, was revealed, was put 
into their hearts by the Almighty, * * and I tell you in 
the name of Jesus Christ it is as good as ever I could ask for. I say 
unto you, magnify the laws. There is no law in the United States, 
or in the Constitution, but I am ready to make honorable." He had 
before remarked to Colonel Kane — re-uttering an idea formerly 
advanced by Joseph Smith — that the time would come when the 
Saints would "have to save the Government of the United States, or 
it would crumble to atoms." A people who cherish such sentiments 
may seem fanatical, but they certainly are not disloyal. 


After a farewell ball in Father Taylor's "bowery,"* where to the 
music of violin, horn, triangle, bells and tamborine, the glowing 
hours of a midsummer afternoon were cheerily, merrily chased and 
consumed, the advance companies of the Battalion set out for Fort 
Leavenworth. The date of the enlistment was the 16th of July. In 
all, the Battalion numbered five hundred and forty-nine souls. As 
many of these volunteers had much to do with the early settlement 
of Utah and were virtually among the pioneers of the Territory, we 
deem it but proper to here preserve the record of their names. The 
various companies and the personnel of each were as follows : 



Jefferson Hunt, Captain. Alexander McCord, 4th Sergeant. 

George W. Oman, 1st Lieutenant. Gilbert Hunt, 1st Corporal. 

Lorenzo Clark, 2nd Lieutenant. Lafayette N. Frost, 2nd Corporal. 

William W. Willis, 3rd Lieutenant, (1st Thomas Weir, 3rd Corporal (Private at M. 

Sergeant at Muster In.) 0.) 

James Ferguson, Sergeant Major. William S. Muir, 4th Corporal (Private at 

Phinehas R. Wright, 1st Sergeant (Private M. I., 1st Sergeant at Muster Out.) 

at Muster Out.) Elisha Everett, Musician. 

Ebenezer Brown, 2nd Sergeant. Joseph W. Richards. Musician, (Died at 

Reddick X. Allred, 3rd Sergeant. Pueblo.) 

* Says Colonel Kane: "It was the custom, whenever the larger camps rested for a 
few days together, to make great arbors, or boweries, as they called them, of poles, and 
brush, and wattling, as places of shelter for their meetings of devotion or conference. 
In one of these, * * was gathered now the mirth and beauty of the Mormon 


" If anything told that the Mormons had been bred to other lives, il was the appear- 
ance of the women as they assembled here. Before their lliglil they had sold their 
watches and trinkets as the most available recourse for raising ready money; and hence 
like their partners, who wore waistcoats cut with useless watch pockets, they, although 
their ears were pierced and bore the marks of rejected pendants, were without earrings, 
chains or broaches. Except such ornaments, however, they lacked nothing most becom- 
ing the attire of decorus maidens. The neatly darned white stockings, and clean white 
petticoal. Hie clear-starched collar and cheiuiselle. Hie soinclhing laded, <>nl\ because too- 
well washed lawn or gingham gown, thai fitted modishly to the waist of its prettj wears 
— these, if any of them spoke of poverty, spoke of a poverty thai had known better .lays." 




1 Allen, Rufus C. 

2 Allred, James R. 

3 Allred, James T. S. 

4 Allred, Reuben W. 

5 Allen, Albern 

6 Brown, John 

7 Butterfield, Jacob K. 

8 Bailey, James 

9 Brunson, Clinton D. 

10 Brass, Benjamin 

11 Blanchard, Mervin S. 

12 Beckstead, Gordon S. 

13 Beckstead, Orin M. 

14 Bickmore, Gilbert 

15 Brown, William W. 

16 Beran, James 

17 Bryant, John S. 

18 Curtis, Josiah 

19 Cox, Henderson 

20 Chase, Hiram B. 

21 Calkins, Alva C. 

22 Casper, William W. 

23 Calkins, James W. 

24 Calkins, Sylvanus 

25 Calkins, Edwin R. 

26 Colman, George 

27 Clark, Joseph 

28 Clark, Riley G. 

29 Decker, Zechariah B. 

30 Dobson, Joseph 

31 Dodson, Eli 

32 Earl. James C. 

33 Egbert, Robert C. 

34 Fairbanks, Henry 

35 Frederick, David 

36 Glines. James H. (Q. M. 

Sergeant at M. I., Pri- 
vate at M. 0.) 

37 Garner, David 

38 Gordon, Gilman 

39 Goodwin, Andrew 

40 Hulett, Schuyler 

41 Holden, Elijah E. 

42 Hampton, James (died at 

camp on Bio Grande.) 

43 Hawkins, Benjamin 

44 Hiekenlooper, William F. 

45 Hunt. Martial 

46 Hewett, Eli B. 

47 Hudson, Wilford 

48 Hoyt, Timothy S. 

49 Hoyt. Henry P. 

50 Ivy, Richard A. 

51 Jackson, Charles A. 

52 Johnson, Henry 

53 Kelly, William 

54 Kelley, Nicholas 

55 Kibley, James 

56 Lemon, James W. 

57 Lake, Barnabas 

58 Moss, David 

59 Maxwell, Maxie 

60 May field, Benjamin F. 

61 Naile, Conrad 

62 Oyler, Melcher 

63 Packard, Henry, (M. C. 

as Corporal.) 

64 Persons, Ebenezer 

65 Roe, Cariatat C. 

66 Riter, John 

67 Steele, George E. 

68 Steele, Isaiah C. 

69 Sessions, Richard 

70 Shepherd, Lafayette, (M. 

O. as Corporal.) 

71 Swartout Hamilton 

72 Sexton, George 

73 Sessions, John 

74 Sessions, William B. 

75 Taylor, Joseph 

76 Thompson, John 

77 Vrandenburg Adna 

78 Weaver, Miles 

79 Wriston, John P. 

80 Wriston, Isaac N. 

81 Weaver, Franklin 

82 Wilson, Alfred G. 

83 Wheeler, Merrill W. 

84 White. Samuel S. (Sam- 

uel F. in original) 

85 Webb, Charles Y. 

86 Winn, Dennis 

87 Woodworth, Lysander 

88 White, Joseph 

89 Willey, Jeremiah 

Jesse D. Hunter, Captain. 
Elam Luddington, 1st Lieutenant. 
Ruel Barrus, 2nd Lieutenant. 
Philemon C. Merrill, 3rd Lieutenant. 
William Coray, 1st Orderly Sergeant. 
William Hyde, 2nd Orderly Sergeant. 

David P. Bainey, 1st Corporal. 
Thomas Dunn, 2nd Corporal. 
John D. Chase, 3rd Corporal. 
William Hunter, Musician. 
George W. Taggart, Musician. 
Albert Smith, 3rd Orderly Sergeant. 



1 Allen, George 


Evans, William 

61 Noler, Christian 

2 Allen, Elijah 


Eastman, Marcus N. 

62 Owens, Robert 

3 Alexander, Horace M. 


Freeman, Elijah N. 

63 Pearson, Ephraim 

4 Allen, Franklin 

34 Follett, William A. 

64 Persons, Harmon D. 

5 Bush, Richard 


Fife, Peter 

65 Prouse, William 

6 Bird, William 


Green, Ephraim 

66 Park, James 1st 

7 Bingham, Thomas 


Garner, William A. 

67 Park, James 2nd 

8 Bingham, Erastus 


Garner, Phillip 

68 Richards, Peter F. 

9 Billings, Orson 


Hawk, Nathan 

69 Rogers, Samuel H. 

10 Bigler, Henry W. 


Huntsman, Isaiah 

70 Study, David 

11 Boley, Samuel (died 

on 41 

Hoffheins, Jacob 

71 Smith, Azariah 

Missouri River) 


Hanks, Ephraim R. 

72 Stevens, Lyman 

12 Barrowman, John 


Hawk, William 

73 Stoddard, Rufus 

13 Brackenberry, Benj. B 


Hinkley, Arza E. (Ezra 74 Simmons, William A 

14 Brown, Francis 

on original) 

75 Sly, James C. 

15 Bliss, Robert S. 


Hunter, Edward 

76 Steers, Andrew J. 

16 Bybee, John 


Haskell, George 

77 Stillman, Dexter 

17 Clark, George S. 


Harris, Silas 

78 Workman, Andrew J. 

18 Colton, Philander 

48 Jones, David H. 

79 Walker, William 

19 Cheney, Zacheus 


Keyser, Guy M. 

80 Willis, Ira 

20 Callahan, Thomas W. 

50 King, John M. 

81 Workman, Oliver G. 

21 Church, Haden W. 


Kirk, Thomas 

82 Willis, W. S. S. 

22 Camp, J. G. 


Lawson, John 

83 Watts, John 

23 Carter, P. J. 


Morris, Thomas 

84 Whitney, Francis T. 

24 Curtis, Dorr P. 


McCarty, Nelson 

85 Wright, Charles 

25 Carter, B. 


Mount, Hiram B. 

86 Wilcox, Edward 

26 Dayton, William J. 


Martin, Jesse B. 

87 Wilcox. Henry 

27 Dutcher, Thomas P. 


Murdock, John R. 

88 Wheeler, John L. 

28 Dolton, Henry S. 

58 Murdock, Price 

89 Winters, Jacob 

29 Dunham, Albert 

59 Myers, Samuel 

90 Zabriskie. Jerome 

30 Evans, Israel 


Miles, Samuel 

James Brown, Captain. 
George W. Rosecrans, 1st Lieutenai 
Samuel Thompson, 2nd Lieutenant, 
Robert CM, (Promoted limn Ordei 

geant to 3rd Lieutenant.) 
Orson B. Adams, 1st Sergeant at M. 

Sergeant at M. O. 
Elijah Elmer, 2ml Sergeant al M. 

Sergeant at M. O. 

company c. 

Joel J.Terrill, 3rd Sergeant,) I 'rivate at M.O.) 
David Wilken, 4th Sergeant; (PrivateatM. 0.) 
Jabez Nowlin, 1st Corporal : (Private at M. O.) 

ier- Alexander Brown, 2nd Corporal. 

Edward Martin, 3rd Corporal; (2nd Ser- 

2 ml geant at M. O. 

Daniel Tyler,4th Corporal; (3rd Sergt. at M.O.) 

lsl Richard ll. Sprague, Musician. 

Russell G.Brownell, Musician; (Corp'l at M.O.) 



1 Adair, Wesley 


Gould, Samuel 

62 Peck, Thorit, (Corporal 

2 Boyle, Henry G. (Henry 32 

Gibson, Thomas 

at M. O.) 

B. Miller on original) 


Green, John 

63 Peck, Isaac 

3 Burt, William 


Hatch, Meltliah 

64 Pulsipher, David 

4 Barney, Walter 


Hatch, Orin 

65 Persons, Judson 

5 Babcock, Lorenzo 


Holt, William 

66 Richie, Benjamin 

6 Brown, Jesse J. 


Harmon, Ebenezer 

67 Bust, William W. 

7 Bailey, Addison 


Harmon, Lorenzo F. 

68 Richmond, Benjamin 

8 Bailey, Jefferson 


Holdaway, Shadrach 

69 Reynolds, William 

9 Beckstead, William E. 


Hendrickson, James 

70 Riser, John J. 

10 Brimhall, John 


Hancock, Charles 

71 Smith, Milton 

11 Blackburn, Abner 


Hancock, George W. 

72 Smith, Richard 

12 Bybee, Henry G. 


Tvie, Thomas C. 

73 Shupe, James 

13 Glit't, James 

44 Johnston, William J. 

74 Shupe, Andrew J. 

14 Covil, John Q. A. 


Johnston, Jesse W. 

75 Shipley, Joseph 

15 Condit, Jeptha 

46 Johnson, Jarvis 

76 Squires, William, (Cor- 

16 Carpenter, Isaac 


Lay ton, Christopher 

poral at M. O.) 

17 Carpenter, William H. 


Larson, Thurston 

77 Shumway, Aurora 

18 Calvert, John 


Landers, Ebenezer 

78 Thompson, James L. 

19 Catlin, George W. 


Lewis, Samuel 

79 Thomas, Nathan T. 

20 Donald, Neal 


Myler, James 

80 Thomas, Elijah 

21 Dunn, James 


McCullough, Levi H. 

81 Tuttle, Elanson 

22 Dalton, Harry 


Morey, Harley 

82 Truman, Jacob M. 

23 Dalton, Edward 


Maggard, Benjamin 

83 Tindell, Solomon 

24 Durphy, Francillo 


Mowrey, John T. 

84 Wade, Edward W. 

25 Dodge, Augustus E. 


Mead, Orlando F. 

85 Wade, Moses 

26 Forbush, Lorin 


More, Calvin W. . 

86 Wood, William 

27 Fellows, Hiram W. 


Olmstead, Hiram 

87 White, John J. 

28 Fife, John 


Perkins, David 

88 Wilcox, Matthew 

29 Fifield, Levi 


Perkins, John 

89 Welsh, Madison 

30 Gould, John C. 


Pickup, George 



90 Wheeler, Henry 

Nelson Higgins, Captain. 
George P. Dykes, 1st Lieutenant. 
Sylvester Hulett, 2nd Lieutenant. 
Cyrus G. Canfield, 3rd Lieutenant. 
Nathaniel V. Jones, 1st Sergeant : (Pr 

at M. O.) 
Thomas Williams, 2nd Sergeant. 
Luther T. Tuttle, 3rd Sergeant. 

Alpheus P. Haws, 4th Sergeant. 
Arnold Stephens, 1st Corporal. 
John Buchanan, 2nd Corporal. 
William Goon, 3rd Corporal. 
Lewis Lane, 4th Corporal; (Private at M. O.) 
Willard Smith. Musician. 
Henry W. Jackson. (Henry J. on original.) 




1 Abbott, Joshua 

2 Averett, Juthan 

3 Brown, James 1st 

4 Brown, James S 

5 Badlam, Samuel 

6 Button, Montgomery 

7 Brizzee, Henry W. 

8 Boyd, George W. 

9 Boyd, William 

10 Barger, William W. 

11 Compton, Allen 

12 Cole, James B. 

13 Casto, William 

14 Casto, James 

15 Curtis Foster 

16 Clawson, John R. 

17 Cox, Amos 

18 Collins, Robert H. 

19 Chase, Abner 

20 Davis, Sterling 

21 Davis, Eleazer 

22 Davis, James 

23 Douglas. Ralph 

24 Douglas, James 

25 Flecther, Philander 

26 Frazier, Thomas 

27 Fatoute, Ezra 

28 Forsgreen John 

29 Finlay, Thomas 

30 Gilbert, John 

31 Gifford, William W. 

32 Gribble, William 

33 Hoagland, Lucas 

34 Henry, Daniel 

35 Hirons James 

36 Huntington, Dimick B. 

37 Hendricks, Wm. D. 

38 Holmes, Jonathan 

39 Higgins, Alfred 

40 Hunsaker, Abraham, (1st 

Sergt. at M. 0.) 

41 Jacobs, Sanford, (Corporal 

at M. O.) 

42 Kenny, Loren E. 

43 Lamb, Lisbon 

44 Laughlin, David S. 

45 Maxwell, William 

46 Meeseck, Peter J. 

47 Meacham, Erastus 

48 Bingham, Erastus 

49 Merrill, Ferdinand 

50 McArthur, Henry 

51 Oakley, James 

52 Owen, James 

53 Peck, Edwin M. 

54 Perrin, Charles 

55 Pettegrew, James P. 

56 Rollins, John 

57 Rawson, Daniel B. 

58 Roberts, Benjamin 

59 Runyan. Levi 

60 Rowe, William 

61 Richmond, William 

62 Robinson, William 

63 Raymond, Almon P. 

64 Smith. John G. 

65 Stephens, Alexander 

66 Spencer, William W. 

67 Stewart, Benjamin 

68 Stewart, James 

69 Stewart, Robert B. 

70 Sargent, Abel M. 

71 Savage, Levi 

72 Stillman, Clark 

73 Swarthout, Nathan 

74 Sharp, Albert 

75 Sharp, Norman 

76 Shelton, Sebert C. 

77 Sanderson. Henry W, 

78 Steele, John 

79 Thompson, Henry 

80 Thompson, Miles 

81 Tanner, Myron 

82 Twitchel, Anciel 

83 Tubbs, William 

84 Treat, Thomas 

85 Hayward, Thomas 

86 Tippets, John 

87 Walker, Edwin 

88 Woodward, Francis 

89 Whiting. Almon 

90 Whiting, Edmond 



Daniel C. Davis. Captain. 
lames Pace, 1st. Lieut. 
Andrew Lytle, 2d. Lieut. 
Samuel L. Gully, 3rd. Lieut. 
Samuel L. Brown. 1st. Sergt. 
Richard Brazier, 2nd. Sergt. 

Ebenezer Hanks. 3rd. Sergt. 
Daniel Browett, 4th. Sergt. 
James A. Sell, Corp. (died al Purl 
Levi W. Hancock, Musician. 
Jesse Earl. 



1 Allen John, (drummed 

28 Harmon, Oliver N. 

56 Pugmire, Jonathan, jun. 

out of service, non- 

29 Harris, Robert 

57 Rollins 

" Mormon") 

30 Harrison, Isaac 

58 Richardson, Thomas 

2 Allen, George 

31 Hart, James S. 

59 Richards, L. 

3 Bentley, John 

32 Harrison, Israel 

60 Roberts, L. 

4 Beers, William 

33 Hess, John W. 

61 Sanders, Richard T. 

5 Brown, Daniel 

34 Hickmot, John 

62 Scott, Leonard M. 

6 Buckley, Newman 

35 Hopkins, Charles 

63 Scott, James R. 

7 Bunker, Edward 

36 Hoskins, Henry 

64 Skein, Joseph 

8 Caldwell, Matthew 

37 Howell, T. C. D. 

65 Spidle, John 

9 Campbell, Samuel 

38 Howell, William 

66 Slater, Richard 

10 Campbell, Jonathan 

39 Jacobs, Bailey 

67 Snyder, John 

11 Cazier, James 

40 Judd, Hiram 

68 Smith, Lot 

12 Cazier, John 

41 Judd, Zadock K. 

69 Smith, David 

13 Clark, Samuel 

42 Jimmerson, Charles 

70 Smith, Elisha 

14 Clark, Albert 

43 Knapp, Albert 

71 Smith, John 

15 Chapin, Samuel 

44 Kelley, George 

72 St. John, Stephen M. 

16 Cox, John 

45 Karren, Thomas 

73 Stephens, Roswell 

17 Cummings, George 

46 Lance, William 

74 Standage, Henry 

18 Day, Abraham 

47 McLelland, Wm. C. 

75 Strong, William 

19 Dyke, Simon 

48 Miller, Daniel 

76 Tanner, Albert 

20 Dennett, Daniel Q. 

49 McBride. Haslam 

77 West, Benj. 

21 Earl, Jacob 

50 Miller, Miles 

78 Wilson, George 

22 Ewell, Wm. 

51 Park, Wm. A. 

79 Woolsey, Thomas 

23 Ewell, Martin F. 

52 Pettegrew, David 

80 Williams, James V. 

24 Earl, Justice C. 

53 Pixton, Robert 

81 Whitworth,Wm. 

25 Findlay, John 

54 Phelps, Alva, (died 


26 Follett, William T. 

the Arkansas) 

27 Glazier, Luther W. 

55 Porter, Sanford 

Several families of women and children accompanied their hus- 
bands and fathers in the Battalion, and these, with the officers' 
servants, brought the full number up to five hundred and forty-nine. 

Captain James Allen, whose brave and generous spirit had from 
the first endeared him to every soul in the Battalion, to the great 
grief of all fell sick and died at Fort Leavenworth on the 23rd of 
August. Lieutenant A. J. Smith, an officer not so highly esteemed 
by them, then took command of the Battalion and marched them to 
Santa Fe, which town had already been captured by General 


On October 13th, by order of the General, Colonel Philip St. 
George Cooke, a brusque and eccentric though brave and manly 
officer, assumed command of the Mormon Battalion. Then began 
their arduous and heroic march across the burning plains and 
rugged mountains of New Mexico to southern California. In all, the 
Battalion marched, from the Missouri to the Pacific, a distance of 
over two thousand miles, pioneering much of the way through an 
untrodden wilderness, braving dangers and enduring hardships com- 
pared with which fighting would have been mere sport. Said Col- 
onel Cooke, their commander : " History may be searched in vain for 
an equal march of infantry." 

Short rations, lack of water, excessive toil in road-making, well- 
digging and over-marching, caused much suffering, sickness and some 
deaths among the Battalion. Even before reaching Santa Fe their 
sufferings were severe, and many were disabled and prevented from 
proceeding farther. These disabled detachments, with most of the 
women of the Battalion, were placed in charge of Captain James 
Brown and ordered to Pueblo on the head-waters of the Arkansas 
River, while their comrades, the main body, including four women* 
who accompanied their husbands, pushed on to the Pacific coast. 
They arrived near San Diego late in January, 1847. 

General Kearney had reached California some time before, but 
with only a few men, having disbanded most of his force on being 
informed en route that California was already in the possession of 
the United States. Colonel John C. Fremont, who with sixty men 
was exploring west of the Sierras when the war broke out, had ral- 
lied the American settlers of Sacramento Valley — a few hundred 
strong — and with the co-operation of Commodores Sloat and Stock- 
ton, all but subdued the country before Kearney came. A few 
skirmishes then took place, and the conquest was complete. The 
war in California being virtually over before Colonel Cooke's command 

* These four women were Mrs. Melissa Burton Coray, wife of Sergeant Goray ; 
Mrs. Captain Davis, Mrs. Captain Hunter (who died in California) and Mrs. Ebenezer Brown. 


could reach the coast, the Mormon Battalion did not take part in any 
engagement. Fort-building and garrison service were about all that 
was required of them. Nevertheless they did much work as 
mechanics and laborers. They performed their duties in such a man- 
ner as to elicit the commendation of their military superiors, and win 
the sincere esteem of the native Californians.* Fremont and some 
of his men were their foes.f But General Kearney, Governor Mason 
and others in authority spoke in high praise of the patience, subor- 
dination and general good conduct of the Mormon soldiers.! " 

Prior to Kearney's arrival Colonel Fremont — authorized, it is 
said, by Commodore Stockton — had made himself military governor 
of California. As such he refused to recognize Kearney's author- 
ity. Thereupon the latter, backed by Colonel Cooke and the Mormon 
Battalion — the principal force then at his command — had Fremont 
arrested for insubordination and taken to Washington, where he 
was court-martialed. 

While some of these events were taking place on the Pacific 
coast, other scenes of a military character were being enacted on the 
distant shores of the Mississippi. After the departure of the Mormon 
leaders from Nauvoo in February, 1846, the. exodus of their people 

* Says Henry G. Boyle, one of the Battalion: " I think I whitewashed all San Diego. 
We did their blacksmithing, put up a bakery, made and repaired carts, and, in fine, did all 
we could to benefit ourselves as well as the citizens. We never had any trouble with the 
Californians or Indians, nor they with us. The citizens became so attached to us that 
before our term of service expired they got up a petition to the Governor to use his influ- 
ence to keep us in the service. The petition was signed by every citizen in the town." 

f Fremont was son-in-law to Senator Benton of Missouri. 

J Governor R. B. Mason, General Kearney's successor as military commandant of 
California, in his report to the Adjutant-General September 18th, 1847, wrote : " Of the 
services of the Battalion, of their patience, subordination and general good conduct you 
have already heard, and I take great pleasure in adding that as a body of men they have 
religiously respected the rights and feelings of this conquered people, and not a syllable of 
complaint has reached my ear of a single insult offered or outrage done by a Mormon 
volunteer. So high an opinion did I entertain of the Battalion and of their special fitness 
for the duties now performed by the garrisons in this country, that I made strenuous efforts 
to engage their services for another year." 


continued without cessation. The Saints were anxious that their 
enemies should have no ground upon which to base an accusation of 
bad faith, and no excuse for committing further outrages upon them. 
Major W. B. Warren, who with a small force of militia remained in 
Hancock County to preserve order, and doubtless to help on the 
exodus, thus reported to the Quincy Whiff on May 20th: " The Mor- 
mons are leaving the city with all possible dispatch. During the 
week four hundred teams have crossed at three points, or about 1,350 
souls. The demonstrations made by the Mormon population are 
unequivocal. They are leaving the State, and preparing to leave, with 
every means God and nature have placed in their hands. This ought 
to be satisfactory." The Warsaw Sic/nal, the anti-Mormon organ, 
published similar reports from Major Warren. 

As the Major says, this ought to have been satisfactory, but it 
was not. Men who were not sated at having imbrued their hands in 
blood to gratify political and religious animosities, are hard to satisfy. 
There was too good plundering at Nauvoo to permit the Mormons to 
dispose of their property and depart in peace, as they desired. Major 
Warren's reports, confirmed by events that were taking place daily, 
should have convinced reasonable men that the Mormons were in 
earnest in their exodus. But if convinced, the anti-Mormons failed 
to act upon their convictions. On the contrary, they continued to 
assert the falsehood that the Mormons did not intend to leave the 
State, and even raised troops at Carthage to march against Nauvoo. 
Governor Ford in his writings refers to these early settlers of Han- 
cock County as " hard cases.'** No fair-minded person, cognizant of 
the facts, will dispute the correctness of his estimate. A meeting 
between the leaders of the military mob and a committee of "new 
citizens" of Nauvoo — persons who had purchased Mormon properties 
and moved into the city — averted, but only for a little season, the 
threatened assault. 

*The Governor's comment is as follows : "I had a good opportunity to know the 
early settlers of Hancock County, and to my certain knowledge the early settlers, with 
some honorable exceptions, were, in popular language, hard cases." 


In July a party of Mormons from Nauvoo, ignoring a mobocratic 
edict ordering all of their faith to remain in the city except when leav- 
ing for the west, went into the country near a place called Pontoosuc, 
to help some of their brethren harvest a field of grain. While there 
they were set upon by a larger party of anti-Mormons, severely 
whipped and driven away. The last act in the drama of Mormonism 
in Illinois was thus begun. Several persons were arrested for this 
assault and taken to Nauvoo. The anti-Mormons retaliated by 
taking several of the Saints prisoners and holding them as hostages. 
The men held at Nauvoo, regaining their liberty, sued out writs 
against their captors for false imprisonment, which writs were placed 
in the hands of a deputy sheriff, one John Carlin of Carthage, to 
serve. Meeting some difficulty in executing these processes, he called 
out the posse comitatus, and having raised two regiments of troops 
started for Nauvoo. 

Governor Ford, being apprised of this movement, ordered Major 
John R. Parker to muster a force of volunteers and defend the city. 
Parker and Carlin were thus placed in direct antagonism. Each 
styled the other's force "a mob." A treaty of peace between Major 
Parker and Colonel Singleton — in immediate command of the posse — 
being rejected by the Colonel's men as too favorable to the Mormons, 
Singleton in disgust resigned, and Carlin appointed Colonel Brock- 
man in his stead. Governor Ford describes Brockman as "a Camp- 
bellite preacher, nominally belonging to the Democratic party, a 
large, awkward, uncouth, ignorant, semi-barbarian, ambitious of 
officer, and bent upon acquiring notoriety." On assuming command, 
Brockman and his "regulators" — as the posse was styled — advanced 
upon Nauvoo, and on the 10th of September began to bombard the 

The citizens, though such as bore arms were greatly outnum- 
bered by the attacking force, banded together for defense, and 
hastily fortifying the approaches to the city, returned the enemy's 
fire with spirit. Having no artillery, while Brockman's force was 
well supplied with cannon, they converted some old steam-boat 


shafts into guns, and placing them in position compelled the enemy 
to retire. 

Major Parker for some reason had left Nauvoo, and Colonel 
Johnson was now in command of the citizen force, which numbered 
about four hundred men. Brockman is conceded by anti-Mormon 
estimates to have had twice that many. The main stay of the 
defense was a select body of riflemen called the "Spartan Band," of 
which William Anderson and Alexander McRae were first and 
second captains. 

On the 12th of September occurred the battle of Nauvoo, a 
spirited action of an hour and a quarter's duration, between 
Brockman's force, which now renewed the attack with fury, and the 
overmatched but gallant defenders of the city. Colonel Johnson 
having fallen sick, Lieutenant-Colonel William E. Cutler directed the 
defense, with Daniel H. Wells as his aide. During the fight, which 
resulted in another repulse for the "regulators," Captain Anderson, 
his son Augustus and Isaac Morris were killed, and several others of 
the defenders wounded. On his side Brockman reported none killed, 
but twelve wounded. The siege lasted for several days. Finally, 
through the mediation of a citizen's committee from Quincy, a 
treaty was agreed upon between the forces militant. This treaty 
was as follows : 

1. The City of Nauvoo will surrender. The force of Colonel Brockman to enter 
and take possession of the city tomorrow, the 17th of September, at 3 o'clock p. m. 

2. The arms to be delivered to the Quincy Committee, to be returned on the cross- 
ing of the river. 

3. The Quincy Committee pledge themselves to use their influence for the protection 
of persons and property from all violence ; and the officers of the camp and the men 
pledge themselves to protect all persons and property from violence. 

4. The sick and helpless to be protected and treated with humanity. 

5. The Mormon population of the city to leave the State, or disperse, as soon as 
they can cross the river. 

6. Five men, including the trustees of the Church, and five clerks, with their fam- 
ilies (William Pickett* not one of the number) to be permitted to remain in the city for 
the disposition of property, free from all molestation and personal violence, 

Pickett's offense consisted in taking from one of the mob party— - Major McCalla 
n stolen from one of the Mormons who had been whipped and robbed at 1'imloc.suc. 


7. Hostilities to cease immediately, and ten men of the Quincy Committee to enter 
the city in the execution of their duty as soon as they think proper. 

We, the undersigned, subscribe to, ratify and confirm the foregoing articles of accom- 
modation, treaty and agreement, the day and year first above written. 

Signed by : Almon W. Babbitt, Joseph L. Heywood, John S. Fullmer, Trustees in 
Trust for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints ; Andrew Johnson, Chairman of 
the Committee of Quincy ; Thomas S. Brockman, commanding posse ; John Carlin, 
Special Constable. 

The terms of the treaty were outrageously violated by Brock- 
man and his regulators, as soon as they found themselves in full 
possession of the city. "A grim and unawed tyrant," says Ford of 
the mob leader; "a self-constituted and irresponsible power," he 
styles the so-called posse, who, now that Nauvoo was prostrate at 
their feet, proceeded to work their will upon the helpless inhab- 
itants. Mormons and non-Mormons, all who had defended the city 
or otherwise incurred the- displeasure of the lawless horde, were 
treated with every indignity. Some of the "new citizens" were 
mockingly baptized in the river in the name of Brockman and other 
leaders of the mob, and then driven out of town. Houses were 
plundered, and the aged and infirm abused and threatened. Finally, 
all the Mormons, such as had not already fled, were forced from 
their homes at the point of the bayonet, and thrown, men, women 
and children, sick, dying and shelterless, upon the western shore of 
the Mississippi. And this — shades of the patriots! — while their 
brethren of the Mormon Battalion were marching to fight their 
country's battles on the plains of Mexico. 

Colonel Thomas L. Kane, who was now returning east from his 
visit to the Mormon camps on the Missouri, touched at Nauvoo just 
after this final expulsion. What he saw there he graphically and 
eloquently told in a lecture delivered a few years later before the 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania. An extract from his lecture is 
here inserted : 

A few years ago, ascending the Upper Mississippi, in the autumn, when its waters 
were low, I was compelled to travel by land past the region of the rapids. My road lay 
through the half-breed tract, a fine section of Iowa which the unsettled state of its land- 
titles had appropriated as a sanctuary for coiners, horse thieves, and other outlaws. I had 


left my steamer at Keokuk, at the foot of the lower fall, to hire a carriage, and to contend 
for some fragment of a dirty meal with the swarming flies, the only scavengers of the 
locality. From this place to where the deep waters of the river return, my eye wearied 
to see everywhere sordid vagabonds and idle settlers ; and a country marred, without 
being improved, by their careless hands. 

I was descending the last hill-side upon my journey, when a landscape in delightful 
contrast broke upon my view. Half-encircled by the bend of the river, a beautiful city 
lay glittering in the fresh morning sun ; its bright new dwellings, set in cool, green 
gardens, ranging up around a stately dome-shaped hill which was crowned by a noble 
marble edifice whose high tapering spire was radiant with white and gold. The city 
appeared to cover several miles ; and beyond it, in the back-ground, there rolled off a fail- 
country, checjuered by the careful lines of fruitful husbandry. The unmistakeahle marks 
of industry, enterprise and educated wealth everywhere, made the scene one of singular 
and most striking beauty. 

It was a natural impulse to visit this inviting region. I procured a skiff, and rowing 
across the river, landed at the chief wharf of the city. No one met me there. I looked 
and saw no one. I could hear no one move, though the quiet everywhere was such that 
I heard the flies buzz, and the water-ripples break against the shallow of the beach. I 
walked through the solitary streets. The town lay as in a dream, under some deadening 
spell of loneliness, from which I almost feared to wake it ; for plainly it had not slept 
long. There was no grass growing up in the paved ways ; rains had not entirely washed 
away the prints of dusty footsteps. 

Yet I went about unchecked. I went into empty workshops, ropewalks and smithies. 
The spinner's wheel was idle ; the carpenter had gone from his work-bench and shav- 
ings, his unfinished sash and casing. Fresh bark was in the tanner's vat, and the fresh- 
chopped lightwood stood piled against the baker's oven. The blacksmith's shop was 
cold ; but his coal heap, and ladling pool, and crooked water-horn were all there as if he 
had just gone off for a holiday. No work people anywhere looked to know my errand. 
If I went into the gardens, clinking the wicket-latch after me, to pull the marigolds, 
heart's-ease and lady slippers, and draw a drink with the water-sodden water bucket and 
its noisy chain, or knocking off with my stick the tall, heavy-headed dahlias and sun- 
flowers, hunting over the beds for cucumbers and love-apples ; no one called out to me 
from any open window, or dog sprang forward to bark an alarm. I could bave supposed 
the people hidden in their houses, but the doors were unfastened ; and when at last I 
timidly entered them, I found dead ashes white upon the hearths, and had to tread a-tip- 
toe, as if walking down the aisle of a country church, to avoid rousing irreverent echoes 
from the naked floors. 

On the outskirts of the town was the city graveyard : but there was no record of 
plague there; nor did it in anywise differ touch from other Protestant American cemeter- 
ies. Some of the mounds were not long sodded; some of the st.mrs were newly set, 
their dates recent, and their black inscriptions glossy in the mason's hardly dried letter- 
ink. Beyond the graveyards, out in the fields, I saw on a spot hard by Where the fruited 
boughs of a young orchard had been roughly lorn down, the still smouldering remains of 
a barbecue fire, that had been constructed of rails from the fencing round it. It was the 


latest sign of life there. Fields upon fields of heavy headed yellow grain lay rotting 
ungathered upon the ground. No one was at hand to take in their rich harvest. As far 
as the eye could reach, they stretched away — they sleeping, too, in the hazy air of 

Only two portions of the city seemed to suggest the import of this mysterious soli- 
tude. On the southern suburb, the houses looking out upon the country showed, by their 
splintered woodwork, and walls battered to the foundation, that they had lately been the 
mark of a destructive cannonade. And in and around the splendid temple which had 
been the chief object of my admiration, armed men were barracked, surrounded by their 
stacks of musketry and pieces of heavy ordnance. These challenged me to render an 
account of myself, and why I had had the temerity to cross the water without a written 
permit from a leader of their band. 

Though these men were generally more or less under the influence of ardent spirits, 
after 1 had explained myself as a passing stranger, they seemed anxious to gain my good 
opinion. They told the story of the dead city; that it had been a notable manufacturing 
and commercial mart, sheltering over 20,000 persons ; that they had waged war with its 
inhabitants for several years, and been finally successful only a few days before my visit, 
in an action brought in front of the ruined suburb, after which they had driven them 
forth at the point of the sword. The defence, they said, was obstinate, but gave way on 
the third day's bombardment. They boasted greatly of their prowess, especially in this 
battle as they called it ; but I discovered that they were not of one mind as to certain of 
the exploits that had distinguished it ; one of which, as I remember, was, that they had 
slain a father and his son, a boy of fifteen, not long residents of the fated city, whom they 
admitted had borne a character without reproach. 

They also conducted me inside the massive sculptured walls of the curious temple, 
in which they said the banished inhabitants were accustomed to celebrate the mystic rites 
of an unhallowed worship. They particularly pointed out to me certain features of the 
building, which having been the peculiar objects of a former superstitious regard, thay had, 
as a matter of duty, sedulously defiled and defaced. The reputed sites of certain shrines 
they had thus particularly noticed ; and various sheltered chambers, in one of which was 
a deep well, constructed, they believed, with a dreadful design. Besides these, they led 
me to see a large and deep chiseled marble vase or basin, supported by twelve oxen, also 
of marble, and of the size of life, of which they told some romantic stories. They said 
the deluded persons, most of whom were emigrants from a great distance, believed their 
deity countenanced their reception here of a baptism of regeneration, as proxies for 
whomsoever they held in warm affection in the countries from which they had come. 
That here parents went into the water for their spouses, and young persons for their lov- 
ers. That thus the great vase came to be for them associated with all dear and distant 
memories, and was, therefore, the object of all others in the building to which they 
attached the greatest degree of idolatrous affection. On this account the victors had so 
diligently desecrated it, as to render the apartment in which it was contained too noisome 
to abide in. 

They permitted me also to ascend into the steeple to see where it had been lightning- 
struck on the Sabbath before, and to look out east and south, on wasted farms like those I 


had seen near the city, extending till they were lost in the distance. There, in the face of 
the pure day, close by the scar of divine wrath left by the thunderbolt, were fragments of 
food, cruises of liquor, and broken drinking vessels, with a brass drum and a steamboat 
signal-bell, of which I afterwards learned with pain. 

It was after nightfall when I was ready to cross the river on my return. The wind 
had freshened since the sunset, and the water beating roughly into my little boat, I hedged 
higher up the stream than the point I had left in the morning, and landed where a faint 
glimmering light invited me to steer. 

There, among the dock and rushes, sheltered only by the darkness, without roof 
between them and sky, I came upon a crowd of several hundred human creatures, whom 
my movements roused from uneasy slumber upon the ground. 

Passing these on my way to the light, I found it came from a tallow candle in a 
paper funnel shade, such as is used by street venders of apples and peanuts, and which, 
flaming and guttering away in the bleak air off the water, shone flickeringly on the 
emaciated features of a man in the last stage of a bilious remittent fever. They had done 
their best for him. Over his head was something like a tent, made of a sheet or two, 
and he rested on a partially ripped open old straw mattress, with a hair sofa cushion 
under his head for a pillow. His gaping jaw and glaring eye told how short a time he 
would monopolize these luxuries ; though a seemingly bewildered and excited person, who 
might have been his wife, seemed to find hope in occasionally forcing him to swallow 
awkwardly sips of the tepid river water, from a burned and battered, bitter-smelling tin 
coffee-pot. Those who knew better had furnished the apothecary he needed ; a toothless 
old bald-head, whose manner had the repulsive dullness of a man familiar with death 
scenes. He, so long as I remained, mumbled in his patient's ear a monotonous and mel- 
ancholy prayer, between the pauses of which I heard the hiccup and sobbing of two little 
girls who were sitting upon a piece of driftwood outside. 

Dreadful, indeed, was the suffering of these forsaken beings, bowed and cramped by 
cold and sunburn, alternating as each weary day and night dragged on. They were, 
almost all of them, the crippled victims of disease. They were there because they had 
no homes, nor hospital, nor poor house, nor friends to offer them any. They could not 
satisfy the feeble cravings of their sick; they had not bread to quiet the fractious hunger- 
cries of their children. Mothers and babes, daughters and grandparents, all of them 
alike, were bivouacked in tatters, wanting even covering to comfort those whom the sick 
shiver of fever was searching to the marrow. 

These were Mormons in Lee County, Iowa, in the fourth week of the month of Sep- 
tember, in the year of our Lord 1846. The city— it was Nauvoo, Illinois. The Mormons 
were the owners of that city, and the smiling country around. And those who had 
stopped their plows, who had silenced their hammers, their axes, their shuttles, and their 
workshop wheels ; those who had put out their fires, who had eaten their food, spoiled 
their orchards, and trampled under foot their thousands of acres of unharvested bread — 
these were the keepers of their dwellings, the carousers in their temple, whose drunken 
riot insulted the ears of the dying. 

I think it was as I turned from the wretched night watch of which 1 have spoken, 
that I first listened to the sounds of revel of a party of the guard within the city. Above 


the distant hum of the voices of many, occasionally rose distinct the loud oath-tainted 
exclamation, and the falsely intonated scrap of vulgar song; but lest this requiem should 
go unheeded, every now and then, when their boisterous orgies strove to attain a sort of 
ecstatic climax, a cruel spirit of insulting frolic carried some of them up into the high 
belfry of the Temple steeple, and there, with the wicked childishness of inebriates, they 
whooped, and shrieked, and beat the drum that I had seen, and rang, in charivaric 
unison, their loud-tongued steamboat bell. 

There were, all told, not more than six hundred and forty persons who were thus 
lying upon the river flats. But the Mormons in Nauvoo and its dependencies had been 
numbered the year before at over twenty thousand. Where were they ? They had last 
been seen, carrying in mournful train their sick and wounded, halt and blind, to disappear 
behind the western horizon, pursuing the phantom of another home. Hardly anything 
else was known of them ; and people asked with curiosity, what had been their fate — 
what their fortune. 

Returning now to the Mormons on the Missouri. With the 
departure of the Battalion in the summer of 1846, went every pros- 
pect, for that season, of the pioneer journey to the Rocky Mountains. 
The "Gamp of Israel" now prepared to go into winter quarters. 
Apostles Orson Hyde, Parley P. Pratt-, John Taylor, Elder Franklin 
D. Richards and others had been sent to England, the first three to 
set in order the affairs of the British Mission, now greatly demor- 
alized through certain financial operations of Elder Reuben Hedlock 
and others. They had inaugurated a Joint Stock Company, the chief 
object of which was to assist in emigrating the Saints to America. 
Through mismanagement the scheme, originally a good one, had 
become a sad failure.* The residue of the Twelve — Ezra T. Benson 
now being one of their number — remained with their people in the 
wilderness. During the sojourn upon the Missouri, Alpheus Cutler 
and Bishop George Miller fell away from the Church, each being fol- 
lowed by a small faction, thenceforth known as Cutlerites and 

Some of the Mormons had early crossed to the west side of the 
river, constructing a ferry-boat for that purpose, and settled, by 
permission of the Indians — Omahas — upon the lands set apart for 

The original project was devised by Joseph Smith, in conjunction with 
and Newel K. Whitney, at Nauvoo, early in 1842. 


their use by the Federal Government. These lands, which are now 
included in the State of Nebraska, were a portion of the vast tract 
once known as the Province of Louisiana, ceded by France to the 
United States in 1803. A very friendly feeling existed between the 
Pottawatomie and Omaha Indians and their Mormon "brothers"* — 
probably from the fact that both felt aggrieved at the treatment they 
had received from their white neighbors farther east. The Indians 
complained bitterly of being removed from their pleasant lands 
beyond the Mississippi to the damp and unhealthy bottoms of the 
Missouri. In return for permission from the Omahas — who were west, 
while the Pottawatomies were east of the river— to temporarily settle 
upon their lands and use what timber they required, the Mormons 
assisted the Indians to harvest and build, besides trading with them 
to mutual advantage. Major Harvey, the Indian Superintendent, 
did not approve of this arrangement, and tried to have the Mormons 
ejected; but President Polk, being appealed to through Colonel Kane, 
gave full permission for them to remain. Out of gratitude to Colonel 
Kane, the Saints afterwards named a settlement which they estab- 
lished on the east side of the river, Kanesville. 

As the season advanced the settlers on the west side were 
instructed to congregate in one place, and a site being chosen for that 
purpose they there founded their celebrated Winter Quarters. This 
place is now Florence, Nebraska, live miles above the city of Omaha. 
It then consisted of seven hundred houses of log, turf, and other 
primitive materials, neatly arranged and laid out with streets and 
byways, with workshops, mills, etc., and a tabernacle of worship in 
the midst; the whole arising from a pretty plateau overlooking the 
river, and well fortified with breast-work, stockade and block-houses, 
after the fashion of the frontier. Such was Winter Quarters. The 
settlement was divided into twenty-two wards, with a Bishop over 
each. There was also a High Council. The population of the place 
was about four thousand. Award east of the river contained a little 

* Several Pottawatomie chiefe, and delegations from the Sacs and Foxes had visited 
Joseph Smith at Nauvoo. 


over two hundred souls. Garden Grove and Mount Pisgah were also 
still inhabited; their numbers now swelled by the refugees from 
Nauvoo. Here in these humble prairie settlements, surrounded by 
Indians, hopeful and even happy, though enduring much sickness 
and privation, which resulted in many deaths, the pilgrim Mormons 
passed the winter of 1846-7. 




The beginning of utah history — why the mormons did not colonize the pacific 

coast the great basin utah's physical features daniel webster on the 

"worthless west" early spanish explorations escalante in utah valley la 

hontan's hearsays american trappers on the shores of the great salt lake 

colonel bridger captain bonneville colonel fremont early emigrations from 

the missouri to the pacific the donner disaster. 

TjYE HAVE now traced the history of the Mormon people from the 
VA/ birth of their Prophet and the inception of their religious 
organization down to that point where their record as founders of 
Utah is about to begin. These preliminary chapters, dealing with early 
Mormonism, have been deemed indispensable to the proper under- 
standing of a subject at once so unique and complex, so interesting 
and important as the history of our Territory. As premised at the 
opening, one cannot completely describe a lake or large body of water 
without giving some account of the origin, course and character of 
the streams flowing into and forming it ; nor fully and faithfully nar- 
rate the history of a country and its inhabitants, if ignoring utterly 
their antecedents. 

This is the author's explanation, — and he feels assured that 
the thoughtful reader will appreciate his motive and labors in this 
connection, — for entering more or less into detail with early 
Mormon annals. From this point begins the history of Utah proper; 
the narrative of early explorations in this region, and the settle- 
ment and formation of the Territory. 

The opening of the year 1847 at the camps of the Saints east 
and west of the Missouri, saw preparations in progress for the con- 
templated pioneer journey to the mountains. And not only for this, 


but for the continued exodus of the entire Church, so soon as a 
place of refuge suitable for their reception could be found. 

It was pretty well decided in the minds of the Mormon leaders, 
by this time, that the Pacific coast, — to which it was generally sup- 
posed they were migrating, — in spite of its many natural advantages, 
was no place for the main body of their people to settle. It might do 
for a colony, such as that of the ship Brooklyn, to make its way to 
California and there found a settlement, — as Elder Brannan and his 
company were now doing, — and other Mormon towns might spring 
up on the Pacific slope. But for the headquarters of the Church, 
and a permanent abiding place for the majority of the Saints, Califor- 
nia proper or any part of the coast was exceedingly undesirable. 

The reasons were these : that toward that favored land, that M 
Dorado, — though gold in California had not yet been discovered, — 
large numbers of emigrants, from Missouri and other border states, 
were now wending their way. Many had gone and were still going 
to Oregon, which Great Britain had finally relinquished, while others, 
as early as 1841, had bent their course to the future land of gold. 
Colonel Fremont, as seen, at the out-break of the Mexican war, had 
found enough American settlers in the Sacramento Valley to form, with 
his exploring party, a small army. And now that California, like 
Oregon and Texas, was a part of the American domain, — only await- 
ing the formality of its cession to the great Republic, — emigration 
thither was bound to increase manifold. 

For the Mormons to have mingled with or settled any where 
near their old enemies, the Missourians, or people holding similar 
prejudices against their religious views and social customs, 
would simply have been io invite a repetition, sooner or later, of the 
very evils which had caused them so much suffering, and from which 
they were then fleeing. So thought Brigham Young. So thought 
his fellow chiefs of the migrating Church. Who, from their stand- 
point, can question the wisdom of their decision? — a decision to halt 
midway, if possible, between the Missouri and the Pacific, in some 
spot undesired, uncoveted by others, where they might be free to 


worship God in their own way, and work out their religious and 
social problems unmolested. 

It was not for gold and silver, broad acres and teeming fields that 
these Latter-day Saints had left their homes, in this or in foreign 
lands. "After such things do the Gentiles seek," and the Saints, 
according to their faith, were no longer Gentiles, but of Israel. The 
children of Japheth perhaps had a mission in temporal things. If 
so, let them work it out, as best they might, before Him to whom all 
men are accountable. But as for Israel — for Ephraim — his mission 
was in spiritual things; comprehending indeed the temporal, but not 
to be absorbed and swallowed up by it. Religious liberty, freedom 
to worship God and prepare themselves for their future work of 
building up Zion, — these were the prime objects the migrating Mor- 
mons had in view. Gold and silver, houses and lands, flocks, herds, 
orchards, vineyards — though to all mortals more or less desirable — 
were but as dust beneath their feet by comparison. 

Nor is this an exaggeration. The Mormons were essentially a 
religious people, deeply, earnestly religious, as much so as were the 
Albegois of France, the Covenanters of Scotland or the Pilgrims of 
New England. Unquestionably such were the motives and feelings 
of the vast majority of the Saints in their exodus. They had proved 
it by that exodus, in which many had forsaken, not for the first, but 
for the fourth and fifth times, for conscience' sake, their earthly 

Zion, not Babylon, was in their thoughts. They had not 
relinquished their hopes concerning Jackson County. Many, perhaps 
most of those who had lived upon that land had sacredly kept the 
deeds to the homes from which they had been driven; while the few 
who had disposed of their possessions "in Zion," were believed by 
the others to have practically denied the faith.* 

They were but going into the wilderness for a season, where, 
free from contact with those who understood them not, or persisted 

* See remarks of Lyman Wight at a conference in Far West, February 5th, 1838, 

in relation to selling lands in Jackson County. 


in misinterpreting their motives, they might peaceably prepare them- 
selves for the time when, unless Joseph Smith was a false prophet and 
Brigham Young a blind leader of the blind, they or their children must 
needs return and build up Zion. Isolation, therefore, was what they 
sought, was what they must have, if they were to have peace, and fit 
and prepare themselves for what they believed was in their destiny. 

True, there was the alternative, ever open, of relinquishing 
their religious faith, and becoming in every respect homogeneous 
with the Gentiles. But this was utterly out of the question. 
Friendly with the Gentiles they would gladly have been, mingling 
with them, so far as need be, in society, in business and in politics. 
But to relinquish their religion for the sake of peace, — the very 
thought were treason. It would have made of their high professions 
a mockery, of their past experience, written in blood and tears, a 
farce. The life-stream of their martyred Prophet would have 
smoked to heaven in vain. No; come what would, they must cling 
to their principles, however unpopular, and stand or fall with them. 

Such were their thoughts and feelings. Such were the motives 
that impelled them westward. Such were their reasons for not 
settling, as a people, on the Pacific coast, and for isolating them- 
selves, instead, in the tops of the Rocky Mountains, a thousand miles 
from civilization. 

While the Saints are preparing to prosecute their journey, and 
their vanguard is making ready for its memorable march across the 
vast prairies and desolate plains lying west of the Missouri River, 
will be an appropriate time to pioneer the way before them into the 
region they are about to enter. 

Beyond the Rocky Mountains, the so-called "back-bone of the 
American continent," — the great water-shed dividing the streams 
flowing toward the Pacific from those which seek the Atlantic through 
the Mississippi and the Gulf of Mexico, — lies the region known in 
topographical parlance as the "Great Basin." It is a vast inter- 
mountain plateau, extending four or five hundred miles from east to 
west, and about the same distance from north to south. Its eastern 


edge does not touch the Rocky Mountains proper, but is rimmed by a 
smaller and almost parallel range called the Wasatch, between which 
and the great spinal column — the Rockies — is the region through 
which flow the Green and Grand Rivers. These, uniting with other 
streams, form the Colorado. The western rim of the Basin is the 
Sierra Nevada range, nearly parallel with, but much longer than the 
Wasatch, and separating the great plateau from the Pacific coast. 

The Basin on the north converges toward the Blue Mountains 
of Oregon, and on the south in the direction of the Colorado plateau. 
It is traversed north and south by numerous mountain ranges, some 
of which are as high as those composing the rim. For this reason 
the term "Basin," bestowed by the famous explorer, Colonel Fre- 
mont, on a partial acquaintance with the region, is now deemed a 
misnomer. Instead of being one basin it is many, a group of basins, 
each containing a "sink," or lake, whose waters have no visible out- 
let to the sea. The more prominent of these are the basin of the 
Great Salt Lake, whose lowest point of altitude is 4,170 feet above 
the sea level; Sevier Lake basin, with an altitude of 4,690 feet; 
Humboldt River basin, 4,147 feet; Carson River basin, at Carson 
Lake, 3,840 feet ; and the Walker River basin, the lowest point of 
which is 4,072 feet above the ocean. 

It is supposed by many, and the supposition is confirmed by 
geological signs, such as ripple-marks on the mountain sides, shells 
on the slopes and summits, etc., that this great elevated plateau was 
once a broad inland sea communicating with the Pacific. At that 
time these mountain tops were so many islands, laved or lashed by 
its briny waves. These sinks, or some of them, are believed to be 
the remains of that pre-historic sea, which for some reason disap- 
peared centuries before the foot of the European pressed the soil of 
the new world. 

The great drawbacks to this otherwise rich and valuable region 
are scarcity of timber and fresh water. The former is only to be 
found in the mountains or along the water courses, and these, in this 
arid region, are few and far between. Though artesian wells and 


irrigation have done much of late years to redeem the desert land, 
vast tracts of country still remain in statu quo, bare and unproduc- 
tive. But the mountains are full of minerals, from the precious 
metals down, and the term " treasure house of the nation" has not 
been inaptly bestowed upon this portion of the public domain. 

Among the remarkable features of the Great Basin, which com- 
prises the western part of what is now Utah Territory, and nearly 
the entire State of Nevada, are the Great Salt Lake and its neighbor- 
ing desert. The lake is wholly in Utah, and the desert lies along its 
western shore, stretching away to the south and west a hundred 
miles or more. This lake — the famous "Dead Sea of America" — is 
one of the most wonderful natural objects in all the West. Laving 
the base of the Wasatch range in northern Utah, it extends north 
and south for seventy-five miles, having a mean breadth of about 
thirty. Its extreme depth is sixty or seventy feet. Jutting up from 
its briny bosom are no less than eight mountain islands, lifting their 
craggy crests almost level with the rugged ranges surrounding them. 
Though constantly augmented by fresh rivers and streams, the 
waters of the lake remain ever intensely salt, As said, it has no 
outlet — at least none visible — its waters, far brinier than those of the 
ocean, and wonderfully buoyant withal, either evaporating to the 
clouds, sinking mysteriously in subterranean depths, or solidifying 
under the sun's rays and banking up in bright crystals and glittering 
incrustations along its shores. These waters were once supposed to 
be absolutely lifeless, but of late years some species of animalculce 
have been discovered therein. Fish cannot live in the Great Salt 
Lake, but several varieties abound in the fresh lakes and streams of 
this region. One of the main affluents of the Salt Lake is the river 
Jordan, the outlet of Lake Utah, forty miles southward. 

As stated, the Wasatch Mountains are the eastern rim of the 
Great Basin, :!: — at least they form the main portion of that rim. 

* Specifically the Coal Range, a portion of the Wasatch system twenty or thirty 
miles east of Salt Lake Valley, is the eastern rim. 


Traversing Utah from north-east to south-west, they divide the Ter- 
ritory into two unequal parts. Through the eastern section, which 
is not included in the Great Basin, run the Green and Grand Rivers 
and their tributaries. Eastward from and forming a spur of the 
Wasatch, near the Wyoming line, extends the Uintah range. West 
of the Wasatch, and running parallel therewith, are the Oquirrh 
hills, and west of them the Onaquis. To the south-east and through 
southern Utah generally are other ranges and broken ridges, diversi- 
fied with valleys and plateaus. 

Utah's lakes are mostly in the north, the principal one being the 
Great Salt Lake, previously mentioned. Of the fresh water lakes the 
Utah and the Bear — the last-named partly in Idaho — are the 
more notable. Sevier Lake is a shallow, brackish body fifty or sixty 
miles south of Lake Utab. Parowan Lake, formerly known as Little 
Salt Lake, is a small salt water sheet still farther south. The rivers 
feeding these lakes are formed principally of smaller streams, owing 
their origin to the snows of winter packed in the mountain tops and 
gradually melted by the rays of summer. 

Along the bases of the mountains, wherever these streams 
descend, — often spilling from the brims of little lakes among the 
summits, tumbling over high cliffs, forming beautiful cascades, 
and emerging into the valleys through deep gorges called canyons, — 
the soil as a rule is fertile, and if irrigated, susceptible of high culti- 
vation. In other parts, where not pure desert, hopelessly barren, it 
is so devoid of moisture and so strongly impregnated with salt and 
alkali, as to be all but irredeemable. Hot and warm sulphur springs, 
the waters of which are highly curative, also gush forth from the 
bases of these mighty hills. 

The rainfall of Utah averages twenty inches for the year, four- 
tenths coming in the spring, one-tenth in summer, three-tenths in 
autumn, and the rest during the winter. Owing to its scarcity in 
summer, irrigation is resorted to for crop-raising. The ground, dur- 
ing the heated term, is fairly parched and blistered by the sun, and 
the climate, though ordinarily temperate and delightful — the atmos- 


pheric rarity counteracting to a great extent the heat — is at times 
almost tropical. The climate of south-western Utah — the Santa 
Clara region — is well nigh tropical the whole year round. 

In the canyons along the water-courses spring groves of quak- 
ing-asp, maple and pine, and in spring and early summer rich grasses 
and wild flowers cover the sides of the ravines. But the valleys, 
when Utah was first settled, save for the slight symptoms of verdure 
following the trail of winding streams in their weary pilgrimage 
across barren plains, had neither groves nor grass to hide their 
nakedness. Like the brown and sun-burnt hill-sides above them, 
they were either utterly bare, or clothed with sagebrush, sun-flowers 
and other wild and worthless growths springing prolifically on every 

Such is or was Utah, in the year 1847, a land of mountains, val- 
leys, lakes, rivers and sandy wastes; directly in the path of early 
overland emigration from the Missouri to the Pacific, but shunned by 
all passers because of its sterile and forbidding aspect. The "Great 
American Desert," — such was its name upon the maps and in the 
school books of that period. 

Its only human dwellers at that time, — save here and there a 
few trappers or mountaineers, exiles of civilization, consorting with 
savages, and dwelling in some isolated fort or cave or hut among the 
hills, — were roving bands of Indians, some of them the most 
degraded of their race. These savages, who subsisted by fishing, 
hunting, root-digging and insect-eating, shared with wild beasts and 
venomous reptiles the then barren and desolate, but now fruitful and 
lovely land of Utah. 

The popular estimate of this whole western region, including the 
Pacific Coast, at that early day, is expressed in the following words 
of a speech by Daniel Webster on the floor of the United States 
Senate. He was denouncing a proposition to establish a mail route 
from Independence, Missouri, to the mouth of the Columbia River. 
Says the great orator and statesman : "What do we want with this 
vast, worthless area? This region of savages and wild beasts, of 


deserts, of shifting sands and whirlwinds of dust, of cactus and 
prairie dogs? To what use could we ever hope to put these great 
deserts, or those endless mountain ranges, impenetrable, and covered 
to their very base with eternal snow? What can we ever hope to do 
with the western coast, a coast of 3,000 miles, rock-bound, cheerless, 
uninviting, and not a harbor on it? Mr. President, I will never vote 
one cent from the public treasury to place the Pacific Coast one inch 
nearer to Boston than it now is." 

Yet it was to the very heart of this inhospitable region, "a thou- 
sand miles from anywhere," that Brigham Young, America's greatest 
colonizer, led his exiled people ; and by his genius and energy, and 
their united industry, under the blessing of divine providence, sub- 
dued the desert, made the wilderness to blossom, and became the 
founder of a hundred cities. 

So far as known, the first white men, moderns, to approach and 
partly penetrate the Utah region, were a small band of Spaniards, 
a detachment of the army of Francisco Vazquez de Coronado, the 
famous explorer of New Mexico. Being at Zuni — then Cibola — in 
1540, and having heard of a great river to the north-west, Coronado 
despatched Captain Garcia Lopez de Cardenas with twelve men to 
explore it. This party is supposed to have proceeded by way of the 
Moquis villages — previously captured by the Spaniards — to the banks 
of the Colorado, just within Utah's southern boundary. They did 
not cross the river, but returned soon to report to Coronado at 

In July, 1776, — that immortal month of an immortal year, — two 
Franciscan friars, Francisco Antanasio Dominguez and Silvester 
Velez de Escalante, Spanish officials of New Mexico, with seven men 
set out from Santa Fe in quest of a direct route to Monterey on the 
Californian sea-coast. Pursuing a devious, north-westerly course, Esca- 
lante and his comrades traversed what is now western Colorado and 
crossed White River, flowing west, near the Utah line. White River 
was called by them San Clemente. They then passed Green River — 
San Buenaventura — and following up the Uintah and crossing the 


mountains came to a stream which they at first named Purisima, 
probably from the purity of its waters. This was no other than the 
Timpanogos or Provo River, which they followed down to Utah 

The Spaniards were kindly received by the native Utahs — 
dwelling in willow huts in the valley — from whom they derived 
considerable information regarding that and adjacent parts. But 
they could learn nothing of a route to the sea, nor of Spanish 
settlers in all that region. Among other things they were told of a 
valley to the northward, in which there was a large salt lake, 
covering many leagues, with which their own fresh lake — Timpanogos 
— communicated. The waters of the larger lake were described as 
extremely salt and injurious, — a fact many times since proven by the 
hapless bather unfortunate enough to swallow much of the saline 
liquid. The Utahs, or, as Escalante styles them, "Timpanois" 
further said that he who wet any part of his body with this water 
immediately felt an itching in the wet part. Near this lake dwelt the 
Puaguampe, or Sorcerers, "a numerous and quiet nation," speaking 
the language of, but not otherwise emulating the hostile Comanches, 
whom the Utahs greatly dreaded. The Puaguampe dwelt in "little 
houses of grass and earth" and drank from "various fountains or 
springs of good water" which were "about the lake." 

Escalante describes Utah Valley — north of which his party did 
not go — as extending from north-east to south-west sixteen Spanish 
leagues, and having a width of ten or twelve leagues. It was quite 
level, and, excepting the marshes on the lake-shore, arable. Provo 
River they renamed San Antonio. To the Jordan they gave the 
name of Santa Ana, and christened other streams in the vicinity. 
The Indians subsisted then, as later, by fishing and hunting. Bear, 
deer and buffalo ranged the region freely, and the bounding jack- 
rabbit, still so plentiful, was not lacking. The streams were filled 
with fish, and the marshes with wild fowl. 

Late in September the Spaniards, accompanied by two native 
guides, resumed their journey, turning now to the south-west in the 


direction of Monterey. Passing down the Sevier, which river they 
named Santa Isabel, they skirted the eastern shore of the lake and 
crossed Beaver River. They then visited the valley now bearing the 
name of Escalante. There, owing to the exhaustion of their food 
supplies, and the prospect of a long and arduous journey to the sea- 
coast — for still they could learn of no open route to the Pacific — they 
reluctantly abandoned the expedition. Turning eastward they 
traveled toward the Colorado, purchasing from the natives, as they 
went, seeds with which to make bread. Reaching the river, they 
found, after much difficulty, a ford in latitude 37°, — near where Utah 
and Arizona now divide. Passing thence by way of the Moquis 
villages they reached Zuni and in due time Santa Fe. They arrived 
there January 2nd, 1777. 

To establish beyond dispute the identity of the discoverer of 
the Great Salt Lake would prove a difficult if not an impossible task. 
The first to hear of it — if credence may be given to his very fanciful 
narrative — was Baron La Hontan, lord-lieutenant of the French 
colony at Placentia, Newfoundland. La Hontan, whose narrative 
was first published in English in 1735, tells how in 1689 he sailed 
for six weeks up a certain affluent of the Mississippi called Long 
River, passing through various savage tribes till he came near the 
nation of the Gnacsitares. There he met four Mozeemlek slaves, 
captives of the Gnacsitares, who gave him a description of the 
country from which they originally hailed. Their villages, they said, 
stood upon a river springing out of a ridge of mountains, whence 
Long River likewise derived its source. The Mozeemleks were 
numerous and powerful. The slaves informed La Hontan that at a 
distance of a hundred and fifty leagues from where he then stood 
their principal river emptied itself into a salt lake, three hundred 
leagues in circumference by thirty in breadth, the mouth of the river 
being two leagues broad. The lower part of the stream was adorned 
with "six noble cities," and there were above a hundred towns, great 
and small, "round that sort of sea." The lake was navigated with 
boats. The government of the land was despotic, and was "lodged 


in the hands of one great head'' to whom the rest paid "trembling 
submission," etc. So much for La Hontan and his hearsays. 

Now, as to the actual discovery of the Great Salt Lake. Many 
are the rival claims and accounts concerning it. Some of these are 
easily disposed of in the negative. Others must stand for what 
they are worth until disproved or more thoroughly established. Col- 
onel John G. Fremont claimed the honor of discovery as late as 1843; 
he having that year passed the Rocky Mountains on his second 
exploring expedition to the West. The year before he had gone only 
as far as South Pass, that great gateway of overland travel, which he 
elaborately described in his report to Congress. He now penetrated 
to the Great Basin, accompanied by the noted scout Kit Carson and 
other daring spirits, and on the 6th of September, from the crest of 
an elevated peninsula* a little north of Weber River, caught his first 
glimpse of America's Dead Sea. 

Launching his rubber boat upon the briny waters, he explored 
the island now known as Fremont Island — so named by Captain 
Stansbury in 1849 — but which Fremont himself called Disappoint- 
ment Island, from failing to find there the fertile fields and abundant 
game he had anticipated. Fremont supposed himself to be the first 
white man, not only to embark upon, but to see the Great Salt 
Lake. In both conjectures he was in error. The lake had been 
discovered, and boats launched upon it by American trappers nearly 
twenty years before the advent of the "Pathfinder" into the Great 
Basin. As early as the "twenties," if not before, this whole region 
was overrun by American and British fur-hunters, trapping, explor- 
ing, building forts, trading and fighting with the Indians, from 
British America to Mexico. The celebrated Hudson's Bay Company 
and the scarcely less famous North American Fur Company, were 
among the earliest, if not the very earliest organizations to engage in 
these lucrative though perilous pursuits. 

Bancroft, the Pacific States historian, is disposed to accord the 

* This peninsula is known in Weber County as Little or Low Mountain. 


honor of discovering the Lake to Colonel James Bridger, founder 
of the once celebrated fort, bearing his name, situated on Black's 
Fork of Green River. Bridger, it is said, who in 1825 was 
trapping in the Bear River region, in Cache or Willow Valley, in 
order to decide a wager among his men as to the probable course 
of the Bear, followed that stream through the mountains till 
he stood upon the shores and tasted of the briny waters of the great 
inland sea. In the spring of 1826 four men, it is said, explored the 
lake in skin boats, and reported that it had no outlet. So little was 
known of the great West at that time, even by the adventurous 
spirits who traversed it, that they thought it quite probable this lake 
was an arm of the Pacific ocean. 

Other claims, not so well authenticated as Bridger's, place the 
time of probable discovery at about 1820. A trapper named Provost — 
for whom Provo River presumably was named — is said to have been 
in this vicinity during that year. By some, William N. Ashley is 
thought to have preceded Bridger. Mr. Ashley, in 1825-6, led a large 
company from St Louis through South Pass and founded on Utah 
Lake, Fort Ashley*. He is said to have named the Sweetwater and 
Green rivers, — the latter after one of his party. His own name 
still clings to Ashley's Fork. 

Among the notable characters traversing the Great Basin about 
this time was Peter Skeen Ogden, of the Hudson's Bay Company, 
who gave his name to the Ogden or Humboldt river.f Another was 
Jedediah S. Smith, of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, who, in 
1826-7 penetrated with a party from the shores of the Great Salt 
Lake to California; thence recrossing the Sierras and returning to 
this region. Smith and his associates, William L. Sublette and 
David E. Jackson, are reputed to have taken the first wagons from 
the Missouri River to the Rocky Mountains. Their wagons, however, 
were left at Wind River, and did not pass the Rockies. 

In 1832-3, came the renowned Captain Bonneville, whose 

* Utah Lake was formerly called Lake Ashley. 

f Weber River was also named for a trapper in that region. 


adventures in this region were afterwards immortalized by Washing- 
ton Irving. His name has been given to the great fossil lake or 
prehistoric sea supposed to have once existed in the Great Basin. 
Bonneville was by birth a Frenchman, but at that time a United 
States army officer on leave.* His wagons, twenty in number, laden 
with Indian goods, provisions and ammunition, are believed to have 
been the first to roll down the western slope of the Rockies. He is 
thought to have been the first also to use ox-teams upon this line of 

From 1834 to 1839 parties of missionaries, men and women, 
crossed the Rocky Mountains to the shores of the Pacific. Mrs. 
Narcissa Whiteman and a Mrs. Spalding are reputed to have been 
the first white women to perform this long and perilous pilgrimage. 

And all this and more before Colonel Fremont stood upon these 
desolate, brine-washed shores, and imagined himself a second 
Balboa discovering another Pacific, in this already many times dis- 
covered inland sea. 

Overland emigration from the Missouri to the Pacific began 
about the year 1841. It was small at first, but increased yearly, 
until at the close of 1844 two or three thousand men, women and 
children had settled on the Pacific coast. Most of these were in 
Oregon, but California from the first had her share. Among those 
who reached "the land of gold" via the Utah region in 1841, were 
John Bidwell and Josiah Belden. Some of Mr. Bidwell's pioneer 
reminiscences have recently appeared in the Century Magazine. 

The usual route of travel from the Missouri at that time was 
up the Platte River, along the Sweetwater and through South 
Pass. Beyond that point, those going to Oregon would bend their 
course northward to Soda Springs and Fort Hall, one of the Hudson 
Bay Company's stations; while those for California would follow 
Bear River to within a few miles of the Great Salt Lake, and then 
turn westward, crossing the country to the Sierras. Later, a new 

* Bonneville, promoted to the rank of Colonel, was in 1849 the commanding officer 
at Fort Kearney. 


route to California, called the " Hastings Gut-Off," was planned. Of 
this, more anon. 

Dr. Marcus Whitman, in 1842, made his celebrated ride from 
Oregon back to the States, passing through Utah by way of Uintah, 
and proceeding on to Santa Fe and St. Louis. He returned the fol- 
lowing summer to Oregon, with a large body of emigrants. 

Among the companies for Oregon in 1844 was one led by 
Cornelius Gilliam, of Clay County, Missouri, prominently connected 
with the Mormon troubles of 1838. Ex-Governor Boggs, the 
"exterminator,'' crossed over to California some time later. 

In 1845, Colonel Fremont again visited the shores of the Great 
Salt Lake, passing thence into California, to be next heard from in 
connection with the Mexican war. That year the emigration westward 
was heavier than that of any previous season ; five companies with 
two hundred and fifty wagons going to Oregon alone. In 1846 the 
emigration was not quite so large, though it was estimated at two 
thousand five hundred souls, mostly men; one thousand and seven 
hundred of whom went to Oregon and the remainder to California. 
The last company of the season was the ill-starred Donner party, 
whose tragic story, being virtually a portion of Utah's early history, 
we will briefly relate. 

The Donner party consisted of George Donner, James F. Reed, 
and about eighty-five others, men, women and children. In com- 
pany with others they left the frontier at Independence, Missouri, 
late in April or early in May, 1846. Separating west of South Pass, 
on the stream known as Little Sandy, from their friends who were 
going to Oregon, the Donner party, in the latter part of July set 
out for Fort Bridger.* There they tarried four clays, prior to taking 
the "Hastings Cut-off" for California. This route, which was just 
beginning to be traveled, was by way of Bear River, Echo and Weber 
Canyons, around the south shore of Great Salt Lake, and across the 

* Mr. Reed was the original leader of the party, but the day after separating from the 
<iivlm.ii emigrants G ■ge Donner was elected captain of the company, which was thence- 
forth known as the Donner party. 


desert to the Humboldt and the Sierras. Its projector was Lansford 
W. Hastings, a mountaineer and guide, who, with the proprietors of 
Fort Bridger, being interested in the new route, were doing all in 
their power to induce emigration that way. Mr. Reed states that 
some friends of his, who had preceded him to California with pack 
animals, had left letters for him with Mr. Vasquez, Bridgets part- 
ner, advising the company to go by way of Fort Hall, and by no 
means to take the Hastings Cut-off; but that Vasquez, as he learned 
later, had kept these letters, thus preventing the party from being 

Near the mouth of Echo Canyon they found a letter sticking in 
a sage-brush. It proved to be from Hastings, who was then piloting 
a company through Weber Canyon. It stated that if the Donner 
party would send a messenger after him, he would return and guide 
them along a better way than the Weber, which was represented as 
being very difficult. Accordingly, Mr. Reed and two others — Messrs. 
McCutchen and Stanton — followed and overtook Hastings near Black 
Rock, at the south end of the Lake. He could not then return, but 
gave Mr. Reed some information concerning a "cut-off" — still 
another — from the mouth of Echo Canyon across the mountains into 
Salt Lake Valley. The latter then returned to camp. 

The route now taken by his party was the one followed, next 
season, by the Mormon Pioneers, — up East Canyon, over the Big and 
Little Mountains and down Emigration Canyon into the Valley. The 
way was extremely difficult, and sixteen days were consumed by the 
Donner party in cutting a road through the canyons. Then came the 
crossing of the western desert, where many of their cattle gave out for 
want of grass and water, while others were lost or stolen by Indians, 
compelling them to abandon some of their wagons in the midst 
of the sandy waste. Delayed by these and other misfortunes, the 
ill-fated company did not strike the main trail on the Humboldt until 
late in September. By that time the last companies of the season 
had passed. Another month brought them to the foot of the Truckee 
Pass of the Sierras. 


Early snows now came, completely blocking up the way. Some 
of the company killed their cattle and went into winter quarters near 
Truckee Lake, but others, hoping still to thread the pass, delayed 
building their cabins until heavier snows fell, burying cattle, cabins 
and all. It was now December, their provisions were well-nigh 
exhausted, and starvation stared the hapless emigrants in the face. 
An advance party on snow-shoes pushed ahead over the mountains, 
braving snow and ice and wintry blasts, to obtain relief for their 
suffering companions. Before reaching New Helvetia — now Sacra- 
mento — several of the party died from cold, hunger and exhaustion, 
and the others, freezing and starving, were compelled to eat their 

Captain Sutter, of Sutter's Fort, near Sacramento, and others 
nearer the coast, on learning of the terrible fate impending over the 
snow-bound travelers, fitted out relief parties and sent them to the 
rescue. This timely action saved most of the sufferers, but out of 
the original eighty-seven, persuaded into taking this death-trail 
across the Basin, thirty-nine perished from cold and starvation. 
The survivors, when found, had been subsisting for weeks — horrible 
extremity! — upon the bodies of their dead companions. Such was 
the sad fate of the Donner Party. The last one rescued, a German, 
who had become a ferocious cannibal, was picked up in April, 1847. 




The mormon pioneers — their journey across the great plains — pawnees and sioux — 

the pioneer buffalo hunt fort laramie the mississippi mormons south pass 

major harris colonel bridger " a thousand dollars for the first ear of 

corn raised in salt lake valley" a discouraging prospect elder brannan 

again— some of the battalion boys fort bridger— miles goodyear echo canyon 

— the valley of the great salt lake. 

|j*)ET us now bring forward into the Great Basin the vanguard of 
^ the migrating Mormons encamped upon the Missouri. "The 
word and will of the Lord concerning the Camp of Israel in their 
journeyings to the West," was issued by President Young at Winter 
Quarters on the 14th of January, 1847. A few paragraphs of this 
manifesto — the first of its kind penned by the Prophet's successor — 
will convey some idea of the nature of the preparations for the con- 
tinued exodus : 

Let all the people of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and those who 
journey with them, be organized into companies, with a covenant and promise to keep all 
the commandments and statutes of the Lord our Cod. 

Let the companies be organized with captains of hundreds, captains of fifties, and 
captains of tens, with a president and his two counselors at their bead, under tin- direction 
of the Twelve Apostles ; 

And this shall be our covenant, that we will walk in all the ordinances of the Lord. 

Let each company provide themselves with all the teams, wagons, provisions, cloth- 
ing, and other necessaries for the journey that they can. 

When the companies are organized, let them go to with their might, to prepare for 
those wbn are to tarry. 

Let each company with their captains and presidents decide bow many can go next 
spring; and then choose out a sufficient number of able-bodied and expert men, to take 
teams, seeds, and farming utensils, to go as pioneers to prepare for putting in spring crops. 

Let each company bear an equal proportion, according to the dividend of their prop- 
erly, in taking the poor, the widows, the fatherless, and the families of those who have 


gone into the army, that the cries of the widow and the fatherless come not up into the 
ears of the Lord against this people. 

Let each company prepare houses, and fields for raising grain, for those who are to 
remain behind this season, and this is the will of the Lord concerning his people. 

Let every man use all his influence and property to remove this people to the place 
where the Lord shall locate a Stake of Zion ; 

And if ye do this with a pure heart, in all faithfulness, ye shall be blessed ; you shall 
be blessed in your flocks, and in your herds, and in your fields, and in your houses, and in 
your families. 

sfc^sfc^ ^ % >^ * ^ 

Seek ye and keep all your pledges one with another, and covet not that which is thy 

Keep yourselves from evil to take the name of the Lord in vain, for I am the Lord 
your God, even the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob. 

I am he who led the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt, and my arm is 
stretched out in the last days to save my people Israel. 

Cease to contend one with another, cease to speak evil one of another. 

Cease drunkenness, and let your words tend to edifying one another. 

If thou borrowest of thy neighbor, thou shalt return that which thou hast borrowed ; 
and if thou canst not repay, then go straightway and tell thy neighbor, lest he condemn 

If thou shalt find that which thy neighbor has lost, thou shalt make diligent search 
till thou shalt deliver it to him again. 

Thou shalt be diligent in preserving what thou hast, that thou mayesi he a wise ste- 
ward ; for it is the free gift of the Lord thy God, and thou art his steward. 

If thou art merry, praise the Lord with singing, with music, with dancing, and with 
a prayer of praise and thanksgiving. 

If thou art sorrowful, call on the Lord thy God with supplication, that your souls 
may be joyful. 

Fear not thine enemies. I'm- they are in mine hands, anil 1 will d y pleasure with 


My people must lie tried in all things, that they may lie prepared to receive the glory 
that I have for them, even the glory of Zion, and he thai will mil bear chastisement, isnol 
worthy of my kingdom. 

Agreeable to these instructions the Saints went to work with a 
will, and as spring opened all was life, bustle and stir at their camps 
on the Missouri, and at their other settlements on the prairies of 

The personnel of the pioneer band, selected to precede the main 
body, was as follows. They are here given as divided into companies 
of "Tens:" 



Wilford Woodruff. Captain, 
John S. Fowler, 
Jacob D. Burnham, 

Ezra T. Benson, Captain, 
Thomas B. Grover, 
Barnabas L. Adams, 
Boswell Stevens, 


Orson Pratt, 
Joseph Egbert, 
John M. Freeman, 


Amasa M. Lyman, 
Starling Driggs, 
Albert Garrington, 
Thomas Bullock, 

Marcus B. Thorpe, 
Geo. A. Smith, 
Geo. Wardle. 

George Brown, 
Willard Richards, 
Jesse C. Little. 


Phinehas H. Young, Captain, Addison Everett, 

John Y. Green, Truman 0. Angell, 

Thomas Tanner, Lorenzo D. Young, 
Brigham Young, 


Luke S. Johnson, Captain, George R. Grant, 

John Holman, Millen Atwood, 

Edmund Ellsworth, Samuel B. Fox, 

Alvarus Hanks. Tunis Bappleyee, 

Bryant Stringham, 
Joseph S. Scofield, 
Albert P. Rockwood. 

Harry Pierce, 
Wm. Dykes, 
Jacob Weiler. 

Stephen H. Goddard, Captain, Sylvester H. Earl, 

Tarlton Lewis, John Dixon, 

Henry G. Sherwood, Samuel H. Marble, 
Zebedee Coltrin, 


Charles Shumway, Captain, Erastus Snow, 

Andrew Shumway, James Craig, 

Thos. Woolsey, Wm. Wordsworth, 
Chauncey Loveland, 

James Case, Captain 
Artemas Johnson, 
Wm. C. A. Smoot, 
Franklin B. Dewey, 

Seth Taft, Captain, 
Horace Thornton, 
Stephen Kelsey, 
John S. Eldredge, 
Ghiiilcs D. Barnum, 


Wm. Carter, 
Franklin G. Losee, 
Burr Frost, 
Datus Ensign, 


Alma M. Williams, 
Rul'us Allen, 
Roberi T. Thomas, 
James W. Stewart, 

George Scholes, 
Wm. Henrie, 
Wm. A. Empey. 

Wm. Vance, 
Simeon Howd, 
Seeley Owen. 

Franklin B. Stewart, 
Monroe Frink. 
Eric Glines, 
Ozro Eastman. 

Elijah Newman, 
Levi N. Kendall, 
Francis Boggs, 
David Grant. 

0^1_ Us$. Us 

fo. ^u^ 

in. c*/y\/ . 




Howard Egan, Captain, 
Heber C. Kimball, 
Wm. A. King. 
Thomas Gloward, 

Hosea Cii>Imiil:. 
Robert Byard, 
George Billings, 


Appleton M. Harmon, Captain, Orrin P. Rockwell, 
Carlos Murray, Nathaniel T. Brown, 

Horace K. Whitney, R. Jackson Redding, 

Orson K. Whitney, John Pack, 

Edson Whipple, 

Philo Johnson, 
Wm. Clayton. 

Francis Pomeroy, 
Aaron Fair, 
Nathaniel Fairbanks 

John S. Higbec. Captaii 
John Wheeler, 
Solomon Chamberlain, 
Conrad Klineman. 

Norton Jacobs, Captain, 
Charles A. Harper, 
George Woodard, 

John Brown, Captain, 
Shadrach Roundy, 
Levi Jackman, 


Joseph Rooker, 
Perry Fitzgerald, 
John H. Tippetts, 


Stephen Markham, 
Lewis Barney, 
George Mills, 


Lyman Curtis, 
Hans C. Hansen, 
Matthew Ivorv, 

James Davenport, 
Henson Walker, 
Benjamin Rolfe. 

Andrew Gibbons, 
Joseph Hancock, 
John W. Norton. 

David Powers, 
Hark Lay (colored), 
Oscar Crosby (colored). 

Joseph Matthews, Captain, 
Gilbroid Summe, 
John Gleason, 


Charles Burke, 
Alexander P. Chessley, 
Rodney Badger, 

Norman Taylor. 
Green Flake (colored I, 
Ellis Eames. 

A few of these were non-Mormons, who had cast in their lot 
with the Saints. As seen, twelve times twelve men had been chosen 
— whether designedly or otherwise we know not — but one of their 
number, Ellis Eames, falling sick after the company left Winter Quar- 
ters, returned, leaving the pioneer roll at one hundred and forty- 

Besides the men, there were Ibree women and two children in 
the camp. The women were Harriet Page Wheeler Youn,g wile of 
Lorenzo D. Young; Clara Decker Young, wife of Brigham Young, 


and Ellen Sanders Kimball, wife of Heber C. Kimball. The children 
were Isaac Perry Decker, stepson, and Lorenzo Sobieski, own son of 
Lorenzo D. Young. 

According to that veteran, it was no part of the original plan to 
include women and children in the pioneer company. The hardships 
and dangers in prospect were foreseen to be such as would test the 
strength and endurance of the hardiest and healthiest men, who had 
consequently been chosen. The idea of taking delicate women and 
helpless children along, to hinder — as it was naturally presumed they 
would — the march to the mountains, if thought of, was not for a 
moment entertained. "Uncle Lorenzo," still living to tell the story, 
claims to have made the suggestion which gave to the pioneer 
band its triad of heroines. His wife Harriet being in feeble health, 
which was further imperilled by the damp, malarial atmosphere of 
the Missouri bottoms, pleaded so earnestly for the privilege of accom- 
panying her husband, that the President, his brother, yielding to 
their entreaties, finally consented. The children of course were per- 
mitted to go with their parents. The other women were then 
included as well. Clara D. Young and Isaac Perry Decker were 
brother and sister, children of Harriet Young by a former marriage. 
More than once during that rugged journey to the mountains did 
these heroic women, in their capacity of "ministering angels" — 
nurses to the sick — prove that no mistake was made when they were 
permitted to accompany the pioneers on their long pilgrimage. 

Heber C. Kimball was the first of the leaders to move toward 
the mountains. On the 5th of April, taking six of his teams, he left 
Winter Quarters and formed a camp about four miles westward, 
beside a spring, at or near a place called Cutler's Park. This camp 
was the nucleus of the pioneer company. 

The general conference of the Church convened at Winter Quar- 
ters on April 6th. On the 8th, such of the Apostles as had joined 
the camp returned to meet their confrere, Parley P. Pratt, who had 
just arrived from Europe. At a council held that evening in the office 
of Dr. Willard Richards. Parley reported the condition of affairs 

s(/?fcU\tl. U ^fflA^Jj 


abroad. Reuben Hecllock and others, promoters of the Joint Stock 
Company, had been severed from the Church and their speculative 
operations among the British Saints brought to an end. A final set- 
tlement had been made with the stock-holders. A general reform 
was in progress throughout the mission, and the spiritual was once 
more ascendant over the temporal. Such was the substance of 
Elder Pratt's report. 

On the 9th another start was made for the mountains. The 
leaders, however, had no sooner rejoined the camp, now west of the 
Elk Horn, than they again started back to Winter Quarters, this time 
to greet Apostle John Taylor, who bad also returned from Europe, 
bringing with him over two thousand dollars in gold, contributed to 
the Church by its British members. Apostles Pratt and Taylor had 
both come by way of New Orleans. Their associate, Orson Hyde, 
had landed at New York, and was on his way west. These three did 
not join the pioneer band, but remained to help organize some of the 
succeeding companies. Parley P. Pratt and John Taylor followed in 
the wake of the pioneers that season, but Orson Hyde tarried on the 

Leaving general affairs on the Missouri in the hands of these 
Apostles, and having appointed a special committee, consisting of 
Isaac Morley and Newel K. Whitney, to superintend the emigration, 
President Young and the other leaders again joined their camp 
beyond the Elk Horn. They crossed that stream, one of the north 
tributaries of the Platte, on a raft constructed by some of their 
company who had gone before. It was now the 15th of April. They 
were twelve miles west of the Elk Horn, and forty-seven miles from 
Winter Quarters. 

On April 16th, at about 2 p. in., the pioneers broke camp and 
traveled three miles. On the 17th they proceeded seven miles farther, 
camping that night near a cotton-wood grove. In order to save their 
corn they felled hundreds of these trees, and permitted their learns to 
browse on the foliage. 

During the next few days the camp was thoroughly organized 


under the direction of President Young. In addition to the captains 
of tens, already named, there were captains of hundreds and fifties 
appointed. The captains of hundreds were Stephen Markham and 
Albert P. Rockwood; of fifties, Addison Everett, Tarlton Lewis and 
James Case. There was also a military organization, the officers of 
which were as follows : Brigham Young, Lieutenant-General ; Jesse C. 
Little, Adjutant; Stephen Markham, Colonel; John Pack and Shadrach 
Rounty, Majors; Thomas Tanner, captain of artillery. The artillery 
consisted of one cannon, carried at first in a wagon, but subsequently 
mounted on a separate pair of wheels. It was taken along to overawe 
hostile Indians, or perform more serious execution if found necessary. 
Captain Tanner had eight men to assist him in its management. 

Thomas Tanner and Burr Frost were the blacksmiths of the 
camp. On them devolved the duty of repairing wagons, resetting 
wheel tires, etc. ; a portable forge and tools having been provided for 
that purpose. Farmers with plows, mechanics with tools, builders 
and colonizers in general were all included in the company. Like 
Caesar's legions in Gaul and Britain the pioneers went prepared, not 
only to fight if necessary, but to make roads, build bridges, construct 
boats and do all things necessary in the settlement of a new country. 

Thomas Bullock was clerk of the camp, and Willard Richards 
and William Clayton its historians. Besides, many others kept 
daily journals of events, thus preserving a very complete record for 
the use of the historian in after years. Among the best of these 
may be mentioned those of Wilford Woodruff, Orson Pratt and 
Horace K. Whitney. From these records we learn that the pioneers 
had, at starting, seventy-two wagons, ninety-three horses, fifty-two 
mules, sixty-six oxen and nineteen cows. The census of the camp 
also comprised seventeen dogs and some chickens. In addition to the 
animals used in the teams, there were only eight or ten horses. 
Mounted men consequently were few. Most of the pioneers walked 
nearly all the way from the Missouri River to the Great Salt Lake, a 
distance of over a thousand miles. The same is true of the vast majo- 
rity of Utah's early settlers who subsequently crossed the plains. 


General Young instructed the camp as follows : The men were 
to travel in a compact body, each with his loaded gun in hand, 
or, if a teamster, in his wagon, ready for instant use. If the gun 
were a cap-lock, he was to take off the cap and put on a piece of 
leather to exclude moisture and dirt; if a flint-lock he must take out 
the filling and fill the pan with tow or cotton. Each man was to 
keep beside his wagon, and not leave it except by permission. The 
vehicles were to travel two abreast wherever practicable, and in case 
of hostile demonstrations by savages, four or five abreast. At five 
o'clock in the morning the bugle would sound the call to rise, assem- 
ble for prayers, feed teams, and get breakfast, and at seven give the 
signal for starting. At 8:30 p. m., at the sound of the bugle, each 
was to retire for prayers in his own wagon, and at 9 o'clock all but 
the sentries to bed. 

The sentries were selected from a body of fifty men, with Stephen 
Markham as their captain ; twelve guards were on duty at a time, and 
the night was divided into two watches. These guards were not to 
leave the vicinity of the wagons. Whenever it became necessary to 
stake out the horses and cattle to graze at a distance from the camp, 
an extra guard was provided. The stock, however, were generally 
kept inside the enclosure formed by corralling the wagons, according 
to the custom of the plains. In forming the corral, the tongues of the 
wagons were placed outside, with a fore-wheel of each vehicle locked 
in a hind wheel of the one ahead. At one or both ends of the cir- 
cular or oblong enclosure thus formed, an opening would be left. 
These gateways were carefully guarded. Sometimes, near a lake or 
river, the camp would form a semi-circle, resting on the bank. 

■ The pioneers sacredly observed the Sabbath ; no unnecessary 
toil or travel being done on that day. Divine services were held reg- 
ularly. As formerly, excessive levity was frowned upon by the 

Thus organized, equipped and instructed, the pioneers proceeded 
on their way, slowly traveling up the north bank of the Platte. The 
regular route at that time was along the south bank, where grass was 


more plentiful and the Indians less troublesome. Few if any trav- 
elers chose the north side, which was regarded as more difficult and 
dangerous. The pioneers preferred it for one reason: that their people 
who followed them would thus escape contact with the migrating Mis- 
sourians, who sought every occasion to quarrel with the Mormons 
whenever they met them. For several hundred miles, therefore, they 
virtually broke a new road over the plains ; a road subsequently trav- 
eled by tens of thousands of their people with ox-teams and hand- 
carts. It was known for many years as "the old Mormon trail." 
Much of it is now covered by the track of the Union Pacific Railway. 

Pursuing their journey from the Elk Horn, the pioneers, in the 
latter part of April, found themselves in the heart of the Pawnee 
Indian country. These savages were still quite numerous, though 
their ranks had lately been decimated by the warlike Sioux, their 
implacable enemies. Thus far they had been very troublesome to 
the pioneers, stampeding and stealing their stock, and burning the 
prairie grass before and around them, destroying the feed upon 
which they mainly depended for their teams. But the Indians had 
offered no violence. 

It was about one o'clock in the afternoon of April 21st that the 
pioneers halted on the bank of a long, narrow lake close by the river. 
They had scarcely formed their wagons in a semi-circle and placed 
their guards, when they were surrounded by swarms of savages, male 
and female, coming from all directions. Many had forded the river 
some distance below and followed the pioneers to their camp-ground. 
Among them was Shefmolun, chief of the Pawnee nation. Their 
manner was not hostile, and their motive, as soon appeared, purely 
mercenary. Presenting certificates, signed by various travelers, to 
the effect that the Pawnees were friendly and that it was the custom 
to make them small presents for the privilege of passing through 
their country, they intimated by a young Indian interpreter that 
similar gifts would be acceptable from the pioneers. The latter read- 
ily responded, imparting of their limited stores a few articles, such as 
powder, lead, salt, tobacco and flour, in quantities proportionate to the 

y ^e^^^. 


amounts possessed. But the red men were not satisfied. Like Oliver 
Twist, they wanted "more." More the pioneers could not afford to 
give, and so informed them. The Pawnees professed the fear that 
their "white brothers" would scare away the buffalo in passing along, 
and hinted that from such a large company they expected bigger 
presents. Further parleying ensued, and finally the savages left, still 
unsatisfied, though not at all unfriendly. That night, which was 
cold and stormy, the cannon was limbered and placed outside the 
camp, while an extra guard stood armed and ready to repel any 
assault that might be made by the Indians. But the night wore 
away in peace, and the pioneers were not molested. Some of the 
guards, overpowered by the previous day's toil, fell asleep at their 
posts, and their guns and hats were removed by their waggish com- 
rades. Their mortification on awaking served in lieu of a reprimand, 
and the sleeping act was not repeated. 

Next came the difficult passage of the Loup Fork, another of the 
Platte's numerous tributaries, rolling like that majestic river over 
treacherous beds of quicksand. Some of the teams narrowly escaped 
drowning, and heavily laden vehicles came near capsizing. The 
water was only two feet deep, but the quicksands would nearly pull a 
wagon to pieces, making a sound like the rattling of wheels over a 
stony pavement. Fording with the loaded vehicles was finally dis- 
continued, and rafts were constructed to carry the loads, leaving the 
empty wagons to be drawn across by teams. A boat of leather called 
the Revenue Gutter, which had been brought as a wagon-box from 
Winter Quarters, was also used in crossing this and other streams. 
This boat had formerly belonged to Ira Eldredge. The passage of 
the Loup Fork was finally effected without accident. 

During the next few days several valuable horses were lost, two 
being killed by the accidental discharge of firearms and the others 
stolen by Indians. This loss was considered serious, as there were 
scarcely enough horses in camp to make traveling "at all comfort- 
able.-' Several men were shot at by Indians while out hunting for 
the stolen animals. 


Prior to crossing the Loup Fork, some of the pioneers had 
picked up a few plowshares and other pieces of iron lying 
around the site of a government station which had recently 
been burned to the ground during an incursion of the hostile 
Sioux. President Young would not permit this appropriation of 
property except upon the score of the government's indebtedness 
to James Case, one of the company, who had been employed as 
an Indian farmer. Those who took the iron were required to 
settle for it with Father Case, who was in turn directed to report 
to the proper authorities the amount he had thus collected on 

The country through which they were passing, though monoto- 
nous in aspect, was nevertheless pleasing to the eye. Before and 
behind, on right and left, a vast level prairie, its waving grass, 
swept by gentle winds, limited on the right at a distance by a 
continuous range of majestic bluffs. On the left the muddy waters 
of the Platte, rolling ceaslessly over beds of quicksand; the river 
often hid from view by many handsome cottonwood groves fringing 
its sandy shores. The soil was everywhere of a sandy nature, 
promising little at that time to agriculture. Such was the general 
appearance of that region, where the iron-horse now thunders 
along the river's majestic course, and where flourish and wave the 
golden corn-fields of Nebraska. 

Grand Island was reached about the 1st of May. Here the 
prairies swarmed with buffalo. A grand hunt was indulged in by 
the pioneers, — a dozen horsemen and as many footmen having 
previously been detailed for that purpose. After much exciting 
sport, ten of the animals were killed and brought to camp. Most of 
the company had never seen a buffalo before. Some of the hunters 
were verdant enough to attempt to kill one by shooting him full in the 
forehead, from which the bullets rebounded without, making the least 
impression. The hide on the skull-piece of one of the dead bisons 
was found to be an inch thick, and covered with a coarse mat of hair 
— in itself a helmet of defense — which fully accounted for the pheno- 


menon of rebounding balls.* The proceeds of this buffao hunt, — 
one bull, three cows and six calves, — were carried to camp in live 
wagons, temporarily unloaded for the purpose. The meat was 
equally distributed among the tens, each company receiving about 
one quarter. 

After this day's sport the President instructed his men not to 
kill game wantonly, as was the custom with many who crossed the 
plains, — a custom which has done much to render the buffalo race 
extinct. " If we slay when we have no need/' said he, "we will need 
when we cannot slay." Game continued more or less plentiful, the 
hunters supplying the camp with buffalo, deer, antelope, geese, 
ducks, etc., as often as necessary, and as they approached the moun- 
tains fine trout began to be taken from the streams. A grizzly bear 
and her cubs also became trophies of their skill. 

Early in May a French trader named Charles Beaumont, returning 
with furs from Fort Laramie to the frontier, visited the pioneer camp, 
fording the Platte for that purpose, but leaving his wagons on the 
southern shore. Many embraced the opportunity thus afforded of 
sending letters back to Winter Quarters. Hitherto they had been 
content to improvise post-offices by the way, using the skull of a dead 
buffalo, or some other conspicuous and sheltering object, in which to 
deposit the missives left for their friends who were to follow. Fifty or 
sixty letters were now written, all of which Mr. Beaumont courteously 
undertook to deliver. The pioneers at this point were strongly 
tempted to cross the river and continue their journey along the regu- 
lar route. There grass and game were abundant, and travelers were 
not so much molested, while on the north side the Indians kept up 
their prairie-burning' tactics, and horses and cattle were at times 
almost famished for feed. The temptation, however, was resisted, 
for reasons already given, and up the north bank they proceeded. 

: \ kvorite method of the Indians for killing buffalo was to chase the lil the] 

were " winded." and then, riding up alongside, strike one with an arrow in the lower pari 
ofthespine. The beast, falling paralyzed, could then be hamstrung, and the cl 

tinned ad libitum. 


On May 21st they put up a guide-board, reading: "From Win- 
ter Quarters 409 miles; from the junction of the north and south 
forks (of the Platte) 91 miles. * * * According to Fremont, this 
place is 132 miles from Laramie." Similar guide-boards they had 
placed, and continued to place, at various points for the benefit of 
future emigration. Their method of measuring distances was by 
means of an ingenious machine invented by William Clayton and 
constructed by Appleton M. Harmon, a skillful mechanic. The 
machinery of the "roadometer" was so arranged that the revolutions 
of a wagon wheel, acting by screws and cogs upon smaller wheels, 
the whole attached to an axle-tree of one of the wagons, indicated 
from day to day the miles and parts of miles traveled.* 

Near Chimney Rock, on the 24th of May, the pioneers encoun- 
tered a band of mounted Sioux, about thirty-five in number, who 
forded the river and made friendly advances. These Indians were 
much better accoutred than the Pawnees and other tribes nearer the 
frontier. Many of them wore broadcloth, with fur caps, profusely 
decorated with beads and other ornaments, and were armed with 
bows, steel-pointed arrows and fire-arms. The chief sent his men to 
lodge some distance from the camp, but requested for himself the 
privilege of remaining with the pioneers over night. They granted 
his request, spreading a tent for his accommodation, and feeding 
him and his band that night and the next morning. These Sioux 
carried with them the American flag, and bore a recommendation 

* The machine is thus described by its inventor : 

•• The whole machinery consists of a shaft about eighteen inches long, placed on gudg- 
eons, one in the axle-tree of the wagon, near which are six arms placed at equal distances 
around it, and in which a cog works which is fastened on the hub of the wagon wheel, 
turning the shaft once around at every revolution of the wagon wheel. The upper gudg- 
eon plays in a piece of wood nailed to the wagon box. and near this gudgeon, on the shaft, 
a screw is cut. The shaft lays at an angle of 45 degrees. In this screw a wheel works 
on an axle (fixed in the side of the wagon) of 60 cogs, and which makes one revolution 
for each mile traveled. In the shaft on which this wheel runs four cogs are cut on the 
forepart, which plays in another wheel of 40 cogs, which shows the miles and quarters of 
miles up to ten miles. The box incasing the whole is 18 inches long, 15 inches high and 
3 inches thick." 



written in French, from a Mr. Papan, agent of the American Fur 

About June 1st the pioneers arrived opposite Fort Laramie. 
According to their reckoning, they were now five hundred and forty- 
three miles from Winter Quarters. They had traveled this distance 
in about seven weeks. The first half of their westward journey was 
now over. 

Before crossing the river — North Platte — they were visited 
by several men from the Fort, who announced themselves as 
Mormons from Mississippi, a portion of a company which, with Cap- 
tain James Brown and the invalid detachments of the Mormon Bat- 
talion, had spent the winter at Pueblo. Of the Mississippians the 
Crow and Therlkill families and a few others — seventeen in all — had 
come on to Laramie to join the pioneers and accompany them over 
the mountains. They had been waiting at the Fort for two weeks.* 
They had five wagons, one cart, eleven horses, twenty-four oxen, 
twenty-two cows, and a few bulls and calves. Captain Brown's com- 
mand, they said, expected soon to be ordered to California, by way of 
Fort Laramie and the South Pass. 

From a party of traders who arrived from the west, the pioneers 
received rather discouraging reports regarding the route ahead. 
The snows, they were told, were so deep on the Sweetwater, and 
deeper still in the mountains, that no grass for feed could be found. 

President Young and several of the Apostles now crossed the river 
in their leathern skiff and walked up to the Fort to confer with the 
resident authorities. Fort Laramie, at this time, was a trading post 
of the American Fur Company. It had been established in 1834, by 
William Sublette and Bobert Campbell, with a view to monopolizing 
the trade as well as resisting the attacks of those warlike tribes, the 

*Their names were as follows : Robert Crow. Elizabeth Crow. Benjamin R. Crow, 
Harriet Crow, Elizabeth Jane Crow, John McHenry Chow. Waller II. Crow. William 
Parker Crow, Isa Vinda Exene Crew. Ira Minda Almarene Crow, George W. Therlkill, 
Matilda Jane Therlkill, Milton Howard Therlkill. James William Therlkill. Archibald Lit- 
tle, James Chesney, Lewis B. Myers. 


Arapahoes, Cheyennes and Sioux, roaming over the plains between 
the Missouri river and the Black Hills. It was situated upon 
Laramie River, a branch of the North Platte; Laramie being the 
name of a French trapper killed by the Arapahoes on that stream. 
Sold in 1835 to Milton Sublette, James Bridger and others, Fort 
Laramie had been rebuilt, and was now the chief trading post on the 
great overland route. 

The principal man at the Fort was James Bordeaux, a French- 
man. He received President Young and his party very politely, and 
as they had decided to travel from that point on the south side of the 
river, owing to reports that the north side was no longer practicable, 
he hired to them his ferry-boat for the reasonable sum of fifteen dol- 
lars. He informed them that their old enemy, ex-Governor Boggs, of 
Missouri, had passed that way with a company some time before, and 
had warned him to look after his horses and cattle when the Mor- 
mons came along. According to Mr. Bordeaux, the ex-Governor did 
not succeed in prejudicing him to any great extent, for he had 
answered that let the Mormons be what they might, they could not be 
worse than Boggs and his party, who were quarreling and separating 
continually. "Mr. Bordeaux told us," says Wilford Woodruff, "that 
we were the best behaved company that had come that way." He 
said the Crow Indians were very troublsome in that region, having 
lately run off all the mules and horses belonging to the Fort. 

The pioneers now crossed the Platte ; the ferry averaging four 
wagons an hour. While thus engaged the rumor reached them that 
companies of emigrants, aggregating two thousand wagons, mostly 
from Missouri, Illinois, and Iowa, and bound for Oregon, were on the 
way west. Some of them expected to reach Fort Laramie next day. 
Many other trains were said to be forming on the frontier. Camping 
near the Fort, the pioneers set up their forges and repaired some of 
their wagons prior to resuming their journey. 

Amasa M. Lyman, Thomas Woolsey, John H. Tippitts, and 
Boswell Stevens were now sent horse-back to Pueblo to take charge 
of the main body of the Mississippi Saints, and bring them over the 


mountains in the trail of the pioneers. It was supposed that 
Captain Brown's detachment would come also. Indeed the Battalion 
men had already started, and were now marching toward Fort 

Friday, June 4th, the pioneers resumed their journey. Deducting 
Apostle Lyman's party, and adding the Mississippians who had already 
arrived, the company was now increased to one hundred and sixty- 
one. They started about noon, taking the regular emigrant trail 
toward the mountains. On the 5th, while resting to let their cattle 
graze, a small company of eleven wagons, bound for Oregon, rolled 
ahead of them. Next day — the Sabbath — another company, number- 
ing twenty-one wagons, passed. A third company, with thirteen 
wagons, went ahead during the noon halt of the 7th. On the 8th 
a small company from the west was encountered. These wagons 
were from Fort Bridger, the first trading post beyond the mountains, 
and were laden with furs and peltries for Fort Laramie. The day 
following, three men with fifteen horses, mostly pack animals, over- 
took and passed the pioneers. They were from Santa Fe, and bound 
for the Bay of San Francisco, via the Great Salt Lake. 

In the Black Hills region the pioneers consumed a week, recross- 
ing the Platte. Here the river was usually fordable, but it was now 
the high water season and fording was impracticable. The stream 
was fifteen feet deep and a hundred yards wide. To this point the 
President had previously sent a detachment of men with their boat, 
the Revenue Cutter, to ferry over the Oregon companies. When the 
main body of the pioneers reached the river this work was in 
progress. The little skiff carried the loads and the empty wagons 
were floated. Some of them were whirled over several times by the 
swift current. For each wagon and load the ferrymen received $1.50, 
and were glad to take their pay in flour, meal and bacon at Missouri 
prices. A little money was also realized. Other companies that soon 
arrived were carried over at the same rates. The proceeds of this 
labor, excepting a few extra dollars for the ferrymen, were equally 
divided among the members of the camp. 


These supplies were as timely as they were totally unexpected 
Their provisions were well-nigh exhausted, and to have their flour 
and meal bags replenished in this far-off region, and at the hands of 
their old enemies, the Missourians, was regarded by them as little less 
than a miracle. Apostle Woodruff compared it to the feeding of 
Israel with manna in the wilderness. 

Besides their boat, two or three light rafts, constructed on the 
spot, were used by the pioneers at this ferry. It being demonstrated 
that "swimming" the wagons injured them, a heavier raft was built, 
strong enough to bear a loaded vehicle, and by means of this the rest 
of the wagons were taken over. This raft consisted of two large cot- 
tonwood canoes, placed parallel to each other, a few feet apart, firmly 
pinned with cross-pieces, and with nailed slabs running lengthwise. 
A rudder and oars were attached, with a little iron work, and the 
"boat" was complete. The only loss sustained during this crossing 
was one horse belonging to the Crow company, drowned while swing- 
ing the river. 

It occurred to President Young that this was an eligible place 
to establish a ferry for the benefit of the companies that were to 
follow. Accordingly, nine men were detailed for that purpose. They 
were Thomas Grover, Captain; John S. Higbee, Luke S. Johnson, 
Appleton M. Harmon, Edmund Ellsworth, Francis M. Pomeroy, Wil- 
liam Empey, James Davenport and Benjamin F. Stewart. They were 
instructed to remain at the ferry for about six weeks, or until the 
next company from Winter Quarters came along, by which time it was 
thought they would have earned enough to supply the needy with 
provisions. They were then to join that company and come on to the 
mountains. Eric Glines, against the President's wish, insisted on 
remaining at the ferry, but a few days later reconsidered his design 
and following, rejoined the main body. 

On the 19th of June the camp continued its journey. The order 
of traveling was as follows: Each company of ten took its regu- 
lar turn in the lead; the first ten one day, the second ten next day. 
and so on ; every ten taking its turn in van and rear. 


They reached Independence Rock* on the 21st of June. A mile 
or two beyond they forded the Sweetwater, and, contrary to report 
found plenty of good grass along that river. But they had to beware 
of the poisonous alkaline waters of the vicinity, which proved so 
fatal to the cattle and horses of succeeding companies. Five days 
later they arrived at South Pass, the celebrated dividing ridge sepa- 
rating the waters here flowing east and west toward the Atlantic 
and the Pacific oceans. Now began the western descent of the 

At Pacific Springs, two miles west of the Pass, the pioneer van- 
guard met Major Moses Harris, a noted scout and trapper, who had 
accompanied to that point a party of travelers from Oregon, going 
east. He intended now to return, as guide to some of the emigrant 
companies bound for the north-west. From him the pioneers derived 
some information regarding the region of their destination, — the 
valley of the Great Salt Lake. His report, like Fremont's, was rather 
discouraging. He spoke of the country as sandy and destitute of 
timber and vegetation, excepting sagebrush. He gave a more favor- 
able account of "a small region under the Bear River mountains, 
called Cache Valley," where trappers and traders were in the habit 
of "caching" their furs and other effects to hide them from the 
Indians. Cache Valley, Major Harris said, was "a fine place for 
wintering cattle." He presented for the perusal of the pioneers a 
file of Oregon papers beginning with the date of February 11th, 
1847 ; also a number of the California Star, published by Samuel 
Brannan at Verba Buena, and edited by E. P. Jones. 

In this neighborhood also, according to Erastus Snow, they 
encountered another veteran mountaineer, Thomas L. Smith — sur- 
named "Peg-leg" — who lived in the Bear River mountains, near 
Soda Springs. He advised them to direct their course toward Cache 
Valley, and plant their colony in that region. 

In the forenoon of June 28th. the pioneers arrived at the point 

* So named from the feci thai a passing party had thei 


where the Oregon and California roads diverged. Taking the latter 
or left-hand route, they crossed the Little Sandy, and that evening 
met Colonel James Bridger, of Bridger's Fort, accompanied by two of 
his men. They were on their way to Fort Laramie. In conversation 
with President Young and the other leaders, with whom he encamped 
that night, Bridger gave them in his peculiar way additional informa- 
tion regarding the route ahead, and the region toward which they 
were traveling. His report was synopsized by historian Clayton as 
follows : 

We will find better grass as we proceed ; there is no blacksmith shop at his fort at 
present ; there was one but it was destroyed. Nearly a hundred wagons have gone over 
the Hastings route through Weber's Fork. They crossed the Black's Fork, and went a 
little south of west from his place. It is impossible for wagons to follow down Green 
River. Neither can it be followed in boats. * * * From Bridger's Fort 
to the Great Salt Lake, Hastings said, was about one hundred miles. Bridger himself 
had been through fifty times, but could form no correct idea of the distance. Mr. Hast- 
ings' route leaves the Oregon road at Bridger's. We could pass over the mountains 
further south but in some places we would meet with heavy bodies of timber and would 
have to cut our way through. In the Bear River Valley there is oak timber, sugar trees, 
cottonwood and pines. There is not an abundance of sugar maple, but plenty of beautiful 
pines. There is no timber on the Utah Lake, but some on the streams emptying into it. 
Into the outlet of the Utah Lake three well timbered streams empty. In the valleys 
southeast of the Salt Lake there is an abundance of blue grass and white clover. The 
outlet of the Utah Lake does not form a large river, neither a rapid current, but the water 
is muddy and the banks of the river low. Some of his men have been around the Salt 
Lake in canoes. But while they went out hunting, their horses were stolen by the Indians. 
They then spent three months going round the lake in canoes hunting beavers, the dis- 
tance being five hundred and fifty (?) miles. The Utah tribe of Indians live around the 
lake and are a bad people , if they catch a man alone they are sure to rob and abuse him, 
if they don't kill him, but parties of men are in no danger. These Indians are mostly 
armed with guns. * * * There was a man who had opened a farm in 

Bear River Valley, where the soil is good and likely to produce grain, were it not for the 
excessive cold nights. There is a good country south of the Utah Lake or southeast of 
the Great Basin. Three rivers unknown to travelers enter into the Sevier Lake. There 
is also a splendid country north of the California mountains, calculated to produce every 
kind of grain and fruit, and there are several places where a man might pass from it over 
the mountains to the California settlements in a day. * * * The great 
desert extends from the Salt Lake to the Gulf of California, which is perfectly barren. 
Mr. Bridger supposes it to have been an arm of the sea. There is a tribe of Indians in 
that country who are unknown to either travelers or geographers. They make farms and 
raise an abundance of grain of various kinds. He can buy any quantity of the very best 


wheat from them. * * * This country lies south of Salt Lake, distant 

about twenty clays' travel, but the country through which one would have to go to reach it 
is bad, and there would be no grass for animals to subsist on. He supposes there might 
be access to it from Texas. * * * He never saw any grapes on the Utah 

Lake, but there are plenty of cherries and berries of several kinds. He thinks the region 
around the Utah Lake is the best country in the vicinity of the Salt Lake, and the country 
is still better the farther south one goes until the desert is reached, which is upwards of 
two hundred miles south of the Utah Lake. There is plenty of timber on all the streams 
and mountains and an abundance of fish in the streams. * * * He passed 
through the country a year ago last summer in the month of July ; there is generally one 
or two showers of rain every day, sometimes very heavy thunder storms but not accom- 
panied by strong winds. * * * He said we would find plenty of water 
from here to Bridger's Fort, except after crossing Green River, when we have to travel 
about twenty miles without water, but there is plenty of grass. * * * We 
need not fear the Utah Indians, for we could drive the whole of them in twenty-four 
hours. Mr. Bridger's theory was not to kill them, but make slaves of them. The 
Indians south of the Utah Lake raise as good corn, wheat and pumpkins as were ever 
raised in old Kentucky. 

In conclusion, the erratic Colonel expressed the opinion, — simi- 
lar to that of Major Harris, — that it would be unwise to bring a large 
colony into the Great Basin until it had been proven that grain could 
be raised there. He said that he would give a thousand dollars for 
the first ear of corn that ripened in Great Salt Lake Valley. 

Crossing and journeying down the right bank of the Big Sandy, 
the pioneers on the last day of June came to Green River. Several 
of them there fell sick with mountain fever, causing delirium; though 
none of the cases were considered dangerous, or threatened to be of 
long duration. The river was high and rapid, — about eighteen rods 
wide, with from twelve to fifteen feet of water in the channel. Ford- 
ing was therefore out of the question. Two rafts were construe led 
from the cottonwood trees lining the banks of the river, and prepar- 
ations for crossing the stream at once begun. 

Just at this juncture, who should ride into camp but Elder 
Samuel Brannan, the same who, in February, 1846, had sailed from 
New York for California on the ship Brooklyn. He was just from the 
Bay of San Francisco, having left there with two companions on the 
4th of April, one day before the pioneer vanguard started from Win- 


ter Quarters. Ider Brannan and his companions had crossed the 
Sierras over the deep snows which had buried the Donner party, — 
whose ghastly relics in skulls and scattered bones they had beheld in 
passing, — and come by way of Fort Hall to meet the pioneers. 
Brannan informed the President that his colony, which had reached 
the Bay of San Francisco on the 31st of the previous July, were 
settling on the San Joaquin river. He had brought with him from 
the coast sixteen copies of the California Star, the paper he had there 
established. Brannan's main purpose in coming to meet the Presi- 
dent was to induce him to settle with his people on the Pacific coast. 
In this he was unsuccessful. 

Green River was now crossed and before noon on the 3rd of 
July all the wagons were safe over. A camp was formed three miles 
below the point of crossing. The President now gave such of the 
pioneers as had families in the next company the privilege of return- 
ing to meet them. Five only decided to return, namely : Phinehas 
H. Young, George Woodward, Aaron F. Farr, Eric Glines and Rodney 
Badger. Taking the Cutter wagon they started eastward on the 
morning of the 4th. They were accompanied to the ferry by President 
Young, Heber C. Kimball and a few others. They there met thirteen 
of Captain Brown's Battalion men, out in pursuit of horse-thieves, 
who had stolen from them at Pueblo and were now supposed to be 
at Fort Bridger. One of the soldiers — William Walker — decided to 
return with the five pioneers. The others, escorted by the President 
and his party, joined the pioneer camp. The "glorious 4th," it 
being the Sabbath, was sacredly observed by the pioneers on Green 

Resuming their journey, they continued a few miles down the 
right bank of the river, then leaving it and ascending some bluffs, 
crossed a gently undulating sandy plain, and descended upon Black's 
Fork. Following up that stream they forded Ham's Fork, crossed and 
recrossed the Black, and finally xm July 7th arrived at Fort Bridger- 
This celebrated post — the second permanent one established on 
the great overland route — consisted of two adjoining log houses, 


with dirt roofs, surrounded by a stockade of logs eight feet high. 
It was built upon one of several small islands formed by as many 
branches of Black's Fork. These islands were covered with excellent 
grass, and had considerable timber; mostly cottonwood and willow. 
The fort, still owned by Bridger and Vasquez, was the abode of a 
score or more of human beings, white men, Indian women, and half- 
breed children. In the vicinity were nine Indian lodges, where 
dwelt the families of other trappers and hunters who had also taken 
squaws for wives. 

Here the pioneers again set up their forges, shoeing horses and 
repairing wagons, prior to undertaking the rough mountainous 
journey now before them. Despite all adverse reports, President 
Young had decided to penetrate to and colonize, if possible, the desert 
shores of the Great Salt Lake. The route thither lay to the south- 
west, along the ragged spurs of the towering Uintahs, snow-capped 
and glistening in the July sun. 

On the 9th they set out from Fort Bridger, by way of the Hast- 
ings Cut-off. Samuel Brannan and a few others returned toward 
South Pass to meet Captain Brown and his detachment. Near Bear 
River the pioneers encountered Miles' M. Goodyear, another moun- 
taineer, who was also somewhat acquainted with Great Salt Lake 
Valley. He owned a place on Weber River, where he had built a 
stockade similar to Fort Bridger, and was engaged in trading, trapping 
and stock-raising. He gave them little or no encouragement, but 
spoke of hard frosts, cold climate and the difficulty of raising grain 
and vegetables in that region. Still they pressed on undaunted. 
Fording Bear River, which stream yielded them some fine trout, they 
continued following the dim wagon trail of previous emigration, as it 
rose over steep hills or plunged into deep and rocky ravines now in 
their path. 

At noon on the 12th President Young, who was stricken with 
mountain fever, fell behind with a few wagons, but requested the 
main body to move on. They did so, and that night camped uear a 
large and curious cave, which they named for one of their number 



Redding's Cave, — Jackson Redding being one of the first to visit it. 
This was at the head of Echo Canyon. 

Next morning messengers were sent back to meet the President. 
Returning with Heber C. Kimball, they reported that the President 
was better, but would not travel ■ that day. Orson Pratt was 
requested to take wagons and men, and preceding the main body 
down the canyon, endeavor to find near its mouth the Reed and 
Donner trail across the mountains to the Great Salt Lake. Weber 
Canyon, the route generally followed from the mouth of Echo, had 
been reported impassable owing to high water. 

At about 3 p. m. Orson Pratt's vanguard, consisting of forty-two 
men with twenty-three wagons, started down Echo Canyon. This 
company was composed as follows : 

Orson Pratt, (commanding), 

Stephen Markham, (aide), 

John Brown, 

C. D. Barnum. 

Charles Burk, 

Francis Boggs, 

A. P. Ghessley, 

Oscar Crosby, 

Lyman Curtis, 

James Chessney, 

Walter Crow, 

John Crow, 

Bobert Crow, 

Walter H. Crow, 

Benjamin B. Crow, 
John S. Eldredge, 
Joseph Egbert, 
Nathaniel Fairbanks, 
John S. Freeman, 
Green Flake, 
John S. Gleason, 
David Grant, 
Hans G. Hansen, 
Levi Jackman, 
Stephen Kelsey, 
Levi N. Kendall, 
Hark Lay. 
Joseph Matthews, 

Lewis B. Myers, 
Elijah Newman, 
David Power, 
0. P. Rockwell, 
Jackson Redding, 
Shadrach Roundy, 
James W. Stewart, 
Gilbroid Summe, 
Horace Thornton, 
Marcus B. Thorpe, 
George W. Therlki: 
Norman Taylor, 
Seth Taft, 
Robert Thomas. 

The women and children of the Crow family accompanied them, and 
were thus among the first to enter Salt Lake Valley, a 

Echo Canyon, — which was destined to become more historic still 
in Utah annals, — was described by Orson Pratt as a narrow valley 
from ten to twelve rods wide, upon each side of which the hills rose 
abruptly to a height of from eight to twelve hundred feet, with ver- 
tical and overhanging precipices of red pudding-stone and red sand- 
stone, dipping to the north-west in an angle of about twenty degrees. 
The canyon ran south-west. The rocks were worked into many 


curious shapes, probably by the rains, and the country was very 
mountainous in every direction. The road down the canyon was 
quite rough, crossing and recrossing the stream — Red Fork or Echo 
Creek — many times. Willow and aspen grew in the valley and upon 
the slopes, and there were some scrub cedars clinging to the rocks 
and upon the hills. Echo Creek, toward the mouth, was a small 
stream eight feet across, putting into the Weber from its right bank. 
Weber River at this point was about seventy feet wide and two or 
three feet deep, with a rapid but clear current rolling over a bottom 
of boulders. Its course was west-north-west. The height above the 
sea at the junction of the two streams was found to be 5,301 feet. 

Such was Echo Canyon in July, 1847. Ten years and a few 
months later that narrow valley, walled in by vertical and overhang- 
ing cliffs, blocked with ice and snow — a veritable bulwark of Nature — 
wore a somewhat different aspect, and became the scene of one act 
of an intensely interesting drama, in which the nation whence the 
pioneers had fled, and the mountain-girt state which they and their 
compatriots here framed, played principal and opposing parts. What- 
ever the merits of that controversy — and the full truth of it has 
never yet been told — Echo Canyon and its warlike episode are 
immortal. The bridge that Horatius kept, the storied pass of Ther- 
mopylae, are not more securely niched in History's golden temple of 
the past, than Echo Canyon in her pantheon of the present and the 

The most difficult part of the pioneer journey was still before 
them. Level plains and rolling prairies were long since past. Their 
path now lay wholly among the mountains. High hills, deep 
ravines, rugged canyons, rock-obstructed and clinked with brush and 
timber, — over and through these they must cut and dig their way. 

Passing clown the Weber about four miles, crossing that stream 
and striking the Donner trail — now so dim as to be hardly discernible 
— the Pratt vanguard proceeded toward East Canyon.* A dozen men 

* The statement sometimes made thai the Mormon Pioneers, on their way from Echo 
Canyon in July. 1x47. entered Parley's Park, is an error. 


with spades and axes went before the wagons. Six miles up a 
ravine, through which flowed a small, clear stream, brought them to 
a dividing ridge, whence they descended slowly another ravine so 
choked and obstructed as to be all but impassable. Four hours were 
consumed in going about two miles. 

At length they reached East Canyon. Up that difficult gorge 
they toiled for eight weary miles, crossing and recrossing its crooked 
willow-fringed torrent thirteen times. Large grey wolves, startled 
out of their lairs, glared fiercely at them as they passed, and reluc- 
tantly retired up neighboring glens and ravines. The deadly rattle- 
snake — the policeman among reptiles — sounded his warning as if 
summoning assistance to arrest the further progress of these daring 
and dangerous human intruders. Here and there the fresh track of 
a buffalo, some wanderer of his race, appeared; the brush at the 
roadside, against which the brute had rubbed in passing, still retain- 
ing some of its hair. 

Leaving East Canyon the trail turned up a ravine to the west, 
and finally crossed over another ridge or summit, — Big Mountain. 

Hitherto naught but a seemingly endless succession of Alps on 
Alps, hills piled on hills, had greeted the tired vision of the struggling 
vanguard, pushing through these mountain fastnesses. But now, from 
the summit of this pass, a broader and grander view was obtained. 
Glimpses of the open country appeared. To the south-west, through 
a vista of sloping mountains, — the V of the canyon prospect changed 
to a W by the intervention of a massive peak towering in the distance 
— two small sections of Salt Lake Valley were visible. The lake was 
yet unseen, but beyond loomed the blue and snow-tipped Oquirrhs, 
and peering above them a w shadowy summit of the far-off Onaqui 
range, dimly outlined against the western sky. It was from this 
summit — Big Mountain — that Orson Pratt and John Brown, riding 
horseback .ahead of their company, on Monday, July. 19th, 1847, 
caught the first glimpse had by any of the pioneers of the Valley of 
the Great Salt Lake. 

Having descended Big Mountain, — a steep and dangerous slide, 


where wheels were double-locked lest teams and wagons should rush 
on to destruction, — the hopeful vanguard pushed on cheerily, their 
spirits and strength materially renewed by what they had seen. A 
few miles farther the trail, avoiding a canyon on the left, rose 
abruptly over another high hill — Little Mountain — whence it de- 
scended into the gorge since known as Emigration Canyon. 

A mile below Little Mountain, on July 21st, Pratt's com- 
pany halted for noon beside a swift-running stream which they 
named Last Creek. Here they were overtaken by Erastus Snow, a 
messenger from the rear. The pioneer company was now traveling 
in three detachments. Elder Snow said that it was President Young's 
impression that on emerging from the mountains they should bear 
to the northward and stop at the first convenient place for putting in 

That afternoon, Orson Pratt and Erastus Snow, taking a single 
saddle-horse, preceded the rest of the company down the canyon. 
Near the mouth of the gorge, — which they found to be impassable, 
owing to a dense thicket, where rocks, brush and timber completely 
choked the way, — they crossed to the south side of the creek and 
followed the trail up over a steep and dangerous hill, — " so very 
steep," says the record, "that it was almost impossible for heavy 
wagons to ascend, and so narrow that the least accident might pre- 
cipitate a wagon down a bank of three or four hundred feet." From 
the summit of this hill the two pioneers saw for the first time 
the broad, open valley, belted with snow-capped peaks, and the blue 
waters of the lake flashing and shimmering in the summer sun- 
beams. A shout of rapture broke from their lips, and having drunk 
their fill of the inspiring scene, they descended from the hills to 
the plateau or bench below. 

Meantime the middle or main company, after repairing some of 
their wagons, — broken in passing over the rocky and stumpy route, — 
had almost overtaken the vanguard in Emigration Canyon. The 
rear wagons, with the sick President, were at the same time approach- 
ing East Canyon. On the 22nd they encamped there, and on the 


23rd crossed Big Mountain. The President, reclining in Apostle 
Woodruff's carriage, requested to have it turned upon the summit 
so that he might see those portions of the Valley that were now 
visible. Gazing long and earnestly at the prospect, he exclaimed : 
"Enough. This is the right place. Drive on." 

That night the President's party encamped in a small birch 
grove, whence issued a beautiful spring. It was about midway 
between the Big and Little mountains, near the cozy canyon nook 
now called Mountain Dell. Here, at Birch Spring, on the evening 
of July 23rd, the party was joined by John Pack and Joseph Mat- 
thews, who had returned to report that the companies ahead had cut 
their way through the mouth of the canyon, entered and partly 
explored the Valley, and made choice of a spot for putting in crops. 
It was late in the forenoon of the day following — the memorable 24th 
— that the rear wagons rolled through the mouth of Emigration Can- 
yon, and Brigham Young, the founder of Utah, looked his first upon 
the full glory of the Valley by the Lake. 




Pen picture of salt lake valley HOW it looked to the pioneers CONTRASTED impres- 






XT WAS no Garden of the Hesperides upon which the Pioneers 
«!• gazed that memorable July morning. Aside from its scenic 

splendor, which was indeed glorious, magnificent, there was little 
to invite and much to repel in the prospect presented to their view. 
A broad and barren plain hemmed in by mountains, blistering in the 
burning rays of the midsummer sun. No waving fields, no swaying 
forests, no verdant meadows to rest and refresh the weary eye, but 
on all sides a seemingly interminable waste of sagebrush bespangled 
with sunflowers, — the paradise of the lizard, the cricket and the rat- 
tlesnake. Less than half way across the baked and burning valley, 
dividing it in twain — as if the vast bowl, in the intense heat of the 
Master Potter's fires, in process of formation had cracked asunder — a 
narrow river, turbid and shallow, from south to north in many a 
serpentine curve, sweeps on its sinuous way. Beyond, a broad lake, 
the river's goal, dotted with mountain islands; its briny waters 
shimmering in the sunlight like a silver shield. 

From mountains snow-capped, seamed and craggy, lifting their 
kingly heads to be crowned by the golden sun, How limpid, laughing 
streams, cold and crystal clear, leaping, dashing, foaming, Hashing, 
from rock to glen, from peak to plain. But the fresh canyon streams 


are far and few, and the arid waste they water, glistening with beds 
of salt and soda and pools of deadly alkali, scarcely allows them to 
reach the river, but midway well nigh swallows and absorbs them in 
its thirsty sands. Above the line of gray and gold, of sage and sun- 
flower, the sloping hillsides and precipitous steeps clothed with pur- 
ple and dark-green patches. These, the, oak-bush, the squaw-berry, 
and other scant growths, with here and there a tree casting its lone 
shadow on hill or in valley ; a wire-grass swamp, a few acres of with- 
ered bunch-grass, and the lazily waving willows and wild-rose bushes 
fringing the distant streams, the only green things visible. 

Silence and desolation reign. A silence unbroken, save by the 
cricket's ceaseless chirp, the roar of the mountain torrent, or the 
whir and twitter of the passing bird. A desolation of centuries, 
where earth seems heaven-forsaken, where hermit Nature, watching, 
waiting, weeps, and worships God amid eternal solitudes. 

A voice breaks the stillness. It is the voice of Brigham Young. 
Pale and wasted from his recent illness, and still reclining wearily in 
the light vehicle which has borne him through the mountains, the 
pioneer chieftain sweeps with a prescient glance the gorgeous pano- 
rama spread out before him, — the contrasted splendors of mountain, 
valley, lake and stream, glorious and glittering in the summer sun- 
light. Far over and beyond all these extends that inspired gaze. It 
sees not merely the present, but the future; not only that which is, 
but that which is to be, when from these barren sands shall rise, as 
rose proud Venice from the sea, a city fair as Adriatic's island queen, 
and no less wealthy, famed and powerful. It sees the burning plains 
to blooming gardens turn; the desert change to an oasis; the sterile 
valley, the reproach of Nature, which naught before had borne, 
teeming with varied life and yielding rich fruits and rare flowers for 
the sustenance and delight of man. An inanimate Sarah, a barren 
Rachel, transformed by the touch of God to a joyful mother of chil- 
dren. The curse of centuries is lifted, the fetters of ages are stricken 
off, and the redeemed earth, like a freed captive, looks up to heaven 
and smiles. Cities, towns and hamlets multiply; farms, fields, 


orchards and vineyards fill all the land. Egypt, the wilderness, are 
past ; another Canaan appears ; and here a Moses who shall smite the 
rock, a Joshua to sit in judgment and divide to Israel his inheritance. 

Still he gazed on. Still rolled before that enraptured sight, in 
waves of prophetic imagery, the sunlit panorama of the future. Saw 
he no cloud? Yes, one. He thought upon the oppressor and he 
frowned, for he was human, and he remembered the past; upon the 
Master and His mission of mercy, and a softened look played upon 
the wan and wasted features. Yes, he too could forgive, as he 
hoped with all men to be forgiven. If the Gentile came he should 
be welcome, blessing should be given for cursing, and the olive 
branch, and not the sword, would Ephraim extend to Japheth. But 
he must come peaceably, give friendship for friendship, and honor 
the laws of the commonwealth. No stirrers-up of strife, no mobo- 
cracy would be tolerated. Japheth, if he desired it, should indeed 
"dwell in the tents of Shem," but he must dwell there in peace and 
in propriety, or his room would be preferable to his company. 

Is it all fancy ? Did no such thoughts sweep through the mind 
of the Mormon leader that day — one who believed himself, as tens 
of thousands believed him, a divinely appointed law-giver, a Moses 
indeed to another and a veritable Israel"? Did no such sentiments 
swell his breast, as he surveyed for the first time the land, the desert 
land, which his directing genius and his people's united industry 
were destined to redeem and render immortal? Perhaps we shall see 
as we proceed. 

"The very place." Such were his simple words, but they were 
words that spoke volumes. Says Wilford Woodruff, who, with Heber 
C. Kimball, Lorenzo D. Young and others had remained behind with 
the President, and now stood with him upon the narrow plateau 
near the mouth of Emigration Canyon : "We gazed in wonder and 
admiration upon the vast valley before us, with the waters of the 
Great Salt Lake glistening in the sun, mountains towering to the 
skies, and streams of pure water running through the beautiful val- 
ley. It was the grandest view we had ever seen till this moment. 


Pleasant thoughts ran through our minds at the prospect that not 
many years hence the house of God would be established in the 
mountains and exalted above the hills, while the valleys would be 
converted into orchards, vineyards and fruitful fields, cities erected to 
the name of the Lord, and the standard of Zion unfurled for the 
gathering of the nations. President Young expressed his entire sat- 
isfaction at the appearance of the valley as a resting place for the 
Saints, and felt amply repaid for his journey. While lying upon his 
bed in my carriage, gazing upon the scene before us, many things of 
the future, concerning the Valley, were shown to him in vision." 

Some of the pioneers, however, weary and worn by their long 
pilgrimage, were far from enchanted at the prospect of remaining in 
such a desolate place. Their hearts sank within them at the 
announcement of their leader, that this was the very spot, — a spot 
which he claimed to have previously seen in vision, as held in 
reserve by the Almighty for His people.* Said Harriet Young: 
"Weak and weary as I am, I would rather go a thousand miles far- 
ther than remain in such a forsaken place as this." Ellen Kimball, 
her sister pioneer, felt likewise, Clara D. Young was the only one of 
the three who felt at all satisfied with the situation. Said she in later 
years: "It did not look so dreary to me as it did to the other ladies. 
They were terribly disappointed because there were no trees. My 
poor mother was almost heart-broken. I don't remember a tree 
that could be called a tree." Lorenzo D. Young says there was a 
scrub-oak or a cottonwood here and there, but that the general out- 
look was dreary and disheartening. And thus were opinions and 
impressions divided. All in all it is evident, from the concensus of 
these views, which might be multiplied ad libitum, that beyond the 
scenic glory of Salt Lake Valley, which still remains unrivalled, its 
inviting features at that time were more visible to the eye of faith 
than to the natural vision. 

* Says Erastus Snow : " It was here he had seen the tent settling down from 
heaven and resting, and a voice said unto him, ' Here is the place where my people Israel 
shall pitch their tents.' " 


Continuing, Apostle Woodruff says: "After gazing awhile upon 
this scenery, we moved four miles across the table-land into the val- 
ley, to the encampment of our brethren, who had arrived two days 
before us. They had pitched upon the banks of two small streams 
of pure water, and had commenced plowing. On our arrival they 
had already broken five acres of land, and had begun planting pota- 
toes in the Valley of the Great Salt Lake." 

Orson Pratt had been the first of the pioneers to tread the site 
of Salt Lake City. We left him and Erastus Snow on the afternoon 
of the 21st of July, descending the hills near Emigration Canyon, 
after drinking in with rapture the inspiring scene which had burst 
some moments before upon their view. As said, they had but one 
horse between them, and Erastus was now riding. The day being 
warm, — the temperature about 96° Fahr., — he had taken off his coat 
and flung it loosely over the saddle. When about three miles from 
the canyon he missed his coat, and returned to look for it. Orson 
Pratt meanwhile walked on alone, descending from plateau to plain. 
After traversing a circuit of about twelve miles, the two returned to 
their camp in the canyon. 

Erastus Snow states that after entering the valley they first 
directed their course toward the stream now called Mill Creek, where 
the tall canes along its banks "looked like inviting grain." Disap- 
pointed by the delusion, and remembering the President's injunction 
to "bear to the northward," they turned in that direction and came 
to the banks of City Creek. This creek then divided in twain a little 
above Temple Block ; one branch running westward and the other 
southward. It was 9 or 10 o'clock p. m. when they rejoined their 
companions. Pratt's company, after their leader left them, had only 
advanced three miles clown the canyon and were now encamped one- 
and-a-half miles above the mouth. 

Next morning, the main company having arrived, Orson Pratt, 
George A. Smith and seven others rode into the valley to explore, 
leaving the others to follow them and make practicable the "nar- 
rows" at the mouth of the canyon. Descending into the valley aboul 


five miles, the explorers turned northward toward the Lake. "For 
three or four miles," says Orson Pratt, "we found the soil of a most 
excellent quality. Streams from the mountains and springs were 
very abundant, the water excellent, and generally with gravel bot- 
toms. A great variety of green grass, and very luxuriant, covered 
the bottoms for miles where the soil was sufficiently damp, but in 
other places, although the soil was good, the grass had nearly dried 
up for want of moisture. We found the drier places swarming with 
very large crickets, about the size of a man's thumb. This valley is 
surrounded by mountains, except on the north; the tops of some of 
the highest being covered with snow. Every one or two miles 
streams were emptying into it from the mountains on the east, many 
of which were sufficiently large to carry mills and other machinery. 
As we proceeded towards the Salt Lake, the soil began to assume a 
more sterile appearance. * * * We found, as we pro- 
ceeded on, great numbers of hot springs issuing from near the base 
of the mountains. These springs were highly impregnated with salt 
and sulphur. The temperature of some was nearly raised to the boil- 
ing point. We traveled for about fifteen miles after coming down into 
the valley; the latter parts of the distance the soil being unfit for 
agricultural purposes." 

Returning from this jaunt, which evidently took in the neigh- 
borhood of the Warm and Hot Springs, they found their wagons 
encamped in the valley, four or five miles below Emigration Canyon. 

On the morning of the 23rd, after despatching messengers to 
meet the President and inform him of what had been seen and done, 
the camp removed to the south branch of City Creek, near the Eighth 
Ward or Washington Square, not far from where the Methodist 
Church and its palatial neighbor the Hotel Knutsford now stand. 
A meeting was there called. Orson Pratt prayed and dedicated the 
land and camp to the Lord, and he and Willard Richards addressed 
those assembled. Various committees were then appointed, and 
preparations at once made for putting in crops. The planting 
season being virtually past, no time was to be lost if they hoped to 

) adXt^ {JJi^^u,- 


reap any results from their labors. Within two hours from the time 
they arrived on City Creek, ground was broken a short distance from 
camp — in the very business heart of Salt Lake City — and three plows 
were kept going during the rest of the day. George W. Brown, 
William Carter and Shadrach Roundy ran the first furrows plowed by 
white men in Salt Lake Valley.* Owing to the extreme dryness of 
the soil, plowing was at first very difficult, and more than one plow- 
share was broken in the hard sun-baked earth. But a dam having 
been placed in the creek, and the surrounding soil well flooded, the 
work was rendered comparatively easy. At 3 o'clock p. m. the 
pioneer thermometer indicated 96° F. A thunder shower swept over 
from the west that afternoon, but scarcely enough rain fell to lay the 
dust. A heavier shower fell next evening. 

These rains were particularly welcome and gratifying, not only 
on account of the prevailing heat and dryness, but from the fact that 
the pioneers had received the impression, in spite of Colonel 
Bridger's report, that such phenomena as mid-summer showers were 
unknown in the Great Basin. They saw many days during that and 
ensuing seasons, when, but for the memory of these refreshing rains, 
that early impression would certainly have been confirmed. 

On the morning of the 24th the pioneers began planting, first 
putting in their potatoes. Having planted a few acres they turned 
the waters of the creek upon their little field and gave the soil "a 

* George W. Brown, now residing at Charleston, Wasatch County, Utah, writes : 
" We moved camp from Emigration Creek to City Creek near where the Deseret Bank 
now stands. A meeting was called soon after we halted. Orders were given to begin 
plowing. (I had turned my oxen out with their yoke on). A rush was made to begin. 
All eager to get started first. I succeeded in being the first one to hitch up. John S. 
Eldredge furnished the plow (having it all ready). I picked up my whip and both drove 
and held the plow and turned the first sod in Utah Territory. This occurred about 11 
o'clock a. m. July 23rd, 1847." 

William Carter, of St. George, Washington County, says: -July 23rd. 1S-47. I pul 
in my plow on the south side of the Thirteenth Ward, opposite Tuft's Hotel, on the wesi 
side of the block. Levi Kendall and Bishop Taft pul in their plow and broke Ihe beam. 
This was close to camp and they could not plow. 1 plowed about half an acre before any 
other teams came. This took place about noon.'' 


good soaking.'' This was the beginning of their vast and successful 
system of irrigation — since famous throughout the civilized world — 
which has done so much toward redeeming the desert Basin, and 
making Utah a veritable Eden in the midst of a barren waste. 

About midday, or early in the afternoon, President Young and 
his party arrived at the camp on City Creek. It was in his honor 
that July 24th — the day of his arrival — was set apart by the pioneers 
to commemorate their advent into the valleys of the mountains. 

The day following was the Sabbath. The grateful pioneers did 
not forget it. Assembling at 10 a. m. in the circle of their encamp- 
ment, they paid their devotions to the Most High. George A. Smith 
was the first speaker, and he was followed by Heber C. Kimball and 
Ezra T. Benson. All expressed themselves as satisfied with the 
country to which they had come, with their present situation and 
future prospects. Apostle Kimball drew attention to the fact that 
not one human life had been lost during their long journey from the 
Missouri, and that they had been favored by divine providence in 
various ways. In the afternoon the Sacrament was administered, 
after which the assembly was addressed by Wilford Woodruff, Orson 
Pratt and Willard Richards; Lorenzo D. Young, John Pack and 
others also making a few remarks. But the sermon of the day was 
delivered by Apostle Orson Pratt, who took for his text Isaiah 
52: 7,8: 

How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that 
publisheth peace ; that bringeth good tidings of good, that publisheth salvation ; that saith 
unto Zion, Thy God reigneth ! 

Thy watchmen shall lift up the voice ; with the voice together shall they sing : for 
they shall see eye to eye, when the Lord shall bring again Zion. 

The Apostle proceeded to show that these inspired words, and 
not only these but many other predictions of the ancient seers, bore 
directly upon the situation of the pioneers and their people, who were 
now beginning to plant their feet in the midst of the Rocky Moun- 
tains. The prophets of old, he declared, had foreseen this very 
establishment of the Lord's house in the "tops of the mountains," 


where it was "exalted above the hills," and "all nations*' would 
yet "flow unto it." 

Whether or not the Apostle's literal view be taken, there 
is no denying that in the light of those prophecies the situation 
of the pioneers was particularly striking, and that these descendants 
of the Pilgrims and Puritans, as ready as their New England ances- 
tors to recognize God's hand in their westward flight, had ample rea- 
son, from their standpoint, to accept, as they undoubtedly did, their 
Apostle's interpretation as true and genuine. Would not their feet 
be indeed "beautiful upon the mountains" to those who were even 
now awaiting the "glad tidings," soon to be sent back to them, of a 
home of peace and safety unto which the Lord was about to "bring 

The President, though his feeble condition would not permit 
him to preach a sermon that day, added a few practical words from 
his arm chair, where he sat while he addressed them. "He told the 
brethren," says Apostle Woodruff, "that they must not work on 
Sunday ; that they would lose five times as much as they would gain 
by it. None were to hunt or fish on that day, and there should not 
any man dwell among us who would not observe these rules. They 
might go and dwell where they pleased, but should not dwell with us. 
He also said that no man who came here should buy any land : that 
he had none to sell;* but every man should have his land measured 
out to him for city and farming purposes. He might till it as he 
pleased, but he must be industrious and take care of it." 

While there exists no proof that it was the purpose of the Mor- 
mon leader to set up anew at that time the system of the United 
Order, the character of his instructions on this occasion were strik- 
ingly reminiscent of the past history and operations of the Saints 
under the great social plan introduced and partly established by their 
Prophet. The proposed measuring out to each member of the com- 
munity of that portion of land which he was required to industri- 

None of them had any title to Hie land at thai lime li was >ti]| Mexican soil. 


ously cultivate, was in perfect keeping with the plan of the United 
Order, and strongly suggestive of the mission once given to Bishop 
Edward Partridge in Jackson County, Missouri. "He might till it as 
he pleased," but he must not sell it, nor work it on the Sabbath. 
Though each man was to have an "inheritance" as an individual 
possession, he was expected to hold and use it in a way not incon- 
sistent with the public weal; "every man seeking the interest of 
his neighbor and doing all things with an eye single to the glory 
of God." 

The Israelitish, or at all events ancient genius of the United Order 
is apparent. Nothing is plainer than that Joseph Smith's concept of 
a community, while subsequent in enunciation and practice to the 
theories of the French socialists and Robert Owen, was not inspired 
by modern socialism and its methods. If he had ideals, they were 
ancient and biblical, not modern and secular. They were Moses and 
Joshua, rather than Owen and Saint-Simon. Joseph and Brigham in 
their time were each compared to Moses, and that, too, by Gentile 
writers; Brigham, no doubt, because he was not only, like Joseph, a 
law-giver, but actually led a people, as Moses led Israel, through a 
wilderness to their "land of promise." But he was not one whit less 
a Joshua in dividing to an Israel their "inheritance." And yet, be it 
remembered, it was the order of Enoch, "the seventh from Adam," 
and not an order of Moses and Joshua, that Joseph Smith had sought 
to establish. The patriarchal or plural marriage system of the 
Saints, — now known to the Church in general, and about to be 
openly avowed to the world, — was also Israelitish in theory and in 
practice, as were their patriarchal family organizations, formed at 
Nauvoo and Winter Quarters, according to "the law of adoption." 

Before proceeding with our narrative, let us here touch upon 
another point. 

Brigham Young, soon after his arrival in Salt Lake Valley, is 
said to have remarked : "Now if they" — the Gentiles — "will let us 
alone for ten years, I'll ask no odds of them." Some have construed 
this as a covert threat against the Federal Government, signifying a 



settled purpose on the part of the Mormon leader to set up an inde- 
pendent government, hostile to and even militant against the United 
States. Such a conclusion is wholly unwarrantable. Aside from 
all considerations of Mormon loyalty, so many times proven, the 
idea of a handful of people numbering only a few thousand souls, 
whose religion forbade strife and bloodshed, hurling themselves 
against a nation of thirty or forty millions, and that nation the 
United States, is so ridiculous as to carry with it its own refutation. 
Brigham Young has been deemed a fanatic, but no one ever accused 
him of being a fool. Defensive measures he might, and did employ, 
as we shall see, against United States troops, sent, as he believed and 
as they themselves boasted, to re-enact in Salt Lake Valley the 
bloody scenes of Jackson County and Far West, but never did he lift 
finger or lisp word in aggressive warfare against the Union. On the 
contrary when its life seemed hanging by a thread, which the shears 
of Secession were put forth to sunder, he not only repelled all over- 
tures from the South to join Utah to the Confederacy, but offered to 
President Lincoln material aid in the nation's defense. No; all that 
Brigham Young could have meant, when he said that if let alone for 
ten years he would " ask no odds of them" was that by that time, 
Mormonism in all probability would have demonstrated to the world 
its true spirit and motives, so much misunderstood.— demonstrated 
them by practical results; and if thai would not avail to win il 
friends, then its numerical strength, combined with its admirable 
strategic position behind the rocky ramparts of Nature's own rearing, 
would enable it to successfully withstand the assaults of mobs, such 
as had formerly sought its destruction. 

Brigham Young, having '-laid down the law" to the pioneer 
congregation that Sunday afternoon — July 25th, 1*47 — nexl directed 
the organization of three exploring parties, to start oul next 
morning and explore the country to the north, south and west. Said 
he: "It is necessary thai we should learn the facilities of the 
country and be able to report to our brethren whose eyes arc turned 
towards us. But I can tell you before you start," he added, "thai 


you will find many good places and many facilities for settlements all 
around us, and you will all return feeling satisfied that this is the 
most suitable place, and the place for us to make our commence- 
ment. Here is the place to build our city." Experience has 
certainly proven, since that hour, the truth of the great colonizer's 

Monday morning, July 26th, the pioneers resumed their secular 
labors. Plowing and planting began early, so anxious were they 
to get in their crops while there yet remained hope of a har- 
vest. Carpenters and blacksmiths were at work rigging up plows 
and other implements, with a view to increasing at once the force of 
husbandmen. The explorers also started out according to instruc- 
tions, the President heading one party in person, and leaving the camp 
about 10 o'clock a. m. This party consisted of Brigham Young, 
Heber C. Kimball, Willard Richards, Wilford Woodruff, George A. 
Smith, Ezra T. Benson, Albert Carrington and William Clayton. 
Messrs. Kimball, Woodruff, Benson and Smith had ascended City 
Creek Canyon several miles the Saturday evening before. The 
party now climbed the hills west of the canyon and proceeded north- 
ward, the President still riding. "A good place to raise an ensign," 
he remarked — a fragment of Apostle Pratt's sermon probably linger- 
ing in his mind — as the party planted their feet upon a prominent 
peak near the western edge of a mountainous spur partly enclosing 
the valley on the north. "Ensign Peak," the mountain was accord- 
ingly named, which title it still bears. Wilford Woodruff was the 
first to ascend it. The President, still feeble, could hardly climb, 
even with assistance, to the summit. From the top of Ensign, the 
view on all sides was more than ever sublime. Descending to the 
valley, the party visited the Warm Springs, in which some of them 
bathed, finding the waters "very pleasant and refreshing." They 
were especially beneficial to those who had been afflicted with 
mountain fever. They returned to camp about 5 p. m. 

Joseph Matthews and John Brown, returning from the western 
mountains, reported the distance across the valley as being about 


fifteen miles. The soil west of the river they found to be of inferior 
quality to that upon the east side. No fresh water was discovered 
after leaving the "Utah Outlet,''* which was about two miles from 
camp. They had brought back a stray horse, found near the moun- 
tains, and supposed to have been lost by the Donner party, or some 
other company that had passed that way. 

Other explorers returning reported that the canyons in the 
vicinity contained plenty of timber, such as sugar-maple, ash, oak, 
fir and pine. 

While the explorers had been absent, the farmers had planted 
three more acres with potatoes, and several acres with corn, peas and 
beans. These crops, planted so late, were not destined to mature ; 
though a few small potatoes "from the size of a pea upward to that 
of half an inch in diameter" were obtained as excellent seed for 
another year's planting. 

Early on the morning of the 26th, before the President's explor- 
ing party had set out, Lorenzo D. Young obtained permission to 
remove his wagons from the south branch of City Creek to a more 
elevated, and as he believed, healthier site on the branch running 
westward, near what was afterwards known as the Whitney Corner, 
opposite the north-east corner of Temple Block. There stood a soli- 
tary scrub-oak, one of the few trees at first visible in the valley. 
Beneath the scant shade of this exile of the forest, — for it was 
neither monarch nor resident of the wood, — he placed his cov- 
ered wagon-box, lifting it from the wheels for that purpose, and did 
all in his power to make a comfortable and cozy little nook for his 
dejected wife, so sadly dispirited over the treeless and desolate aspect 
of their new home. The President and his party, passing by on 
their way to the mountains, decided that tins was a better camp- 
ground than the one then occupied. Other wagons were therefore 
directed to remove to that vicinity, which, being done, it was thence- 

* The name given to the river Jordan, the outlet of Lake I tah, by lie' trappei 
guides of the Great Basin. 


forth known as the Upper Camp. In the neighborhood a spot for a 
garden was selected, and its cultivation immediately begun. 

Early on the morning of the 27th, a couple of Indians — Utes — 
visited the camps and traded with the pioneers, exchanging two 
ponies for a rifle and a musket. The red men were quite friendly, 
and seemed very anxious to trade. 

About half past eight Amasa M. Lyman, Rodney Badger and 
Roswell Stevens, who had parted from the pioneers at Fort Laramie 
to go to Pueblo, arrived at head-quarters on City Creek. They were 
accompanied by Samuel Brannan. They reported Captain Brown's 
command as being within two days' march of the Valley. 

Half an hour later, the President's exploring party, including 
the Apostles, Elder Brannan and several others, started for the Great 
Salt Lake, taking with them a carriage, several riding and pack ani- 
mals, with bedding and provisions for a two days' journey. The Utah 
Outlet, which they forded, was described as being about six rods wide 
and three feet deep, with a gravel bottom; the water, unlike that of 
the mountain streams, being unclear, and the current not very rapid. 
Thirteen miles over a level plain covered with sage-brush and grease- 
wood, with here and there a stagnant alkaline pool, or dry bed of a 
lake, baked and cracked by the sun, brought them to the -point of 
the mountain," near the southern shore of the lake. Nooning at a 
large spring in that vicinity, the waters of which were slightly brack- 
ish, they rode on a few miles farther to where a large, black rock 
stood upon the shore. The somber color of this lone basaltic cliff 
readily suggested the name it should bear, and they called it Black 
Rock, bestowing upon it the same title as that given it by the 
Donner party, according to Mr. Reed, the season before. It was not 
then, as now, separated from the shore by water. The pioneers 
walked to it dry-shod. Brigham Young was the first to lave his hand 
in the lake. After a bath in its briny and buoyant waters, the won- 
derful properties of which much impressed them, they partly explored 
Tooele Valley, west of the Oquirrh mountains. At dusk they set out to 
return to the place of their noon halt, and there encamped for the night. 

^UjldL'Vl^ V&w- /fj^UHJ] 


Next morning Apostle Woodruff, while out hunting for his car- 
riage whip, lost the evening before, descried in the distance a band of 
about twenty Indians, whom he at first mistook for bears. Being 
unarmed, he turned his horse's head and trotted slowly toward camp. 
One of the Indians called to him, and then, mounting a pony, rode 
at full speed to overtake him. The savage, on coming up, informed 
the pioneer, who had waited for him, that he and his company were 
Utes, and that they wanted to trade. He accompanied Elder Wood- 
ruff to camp. Having no time to spare, the President's party at once 
set out for the south, along the eastern base of the Oquirrhs, leaving 
the Indian to await the coming of his companions. 

The land now passed over for about ten miles was barren and 
devoid of water. A few miles south of a place where they halted for 
noon, Orson Pratt, ascending a high ridge, saw for the first time Utah 
Lake. Goats, sheep and antelope were seen at various points frisk- 
ing about and among the hills. Re-crossing the valley the party 
returned to the banks of City Creek, fully convinced, from all they 
had yet seen, that the most eligible site for their city lay in that 

Accordingly, that evening the President, accompanied by the 
Apostles, proceeded to a spot between and a little below the forks of 
City Creek, and striking his cane in the earth, said: "Here will be 
the Temple of our God. Here are the forty acres for the Temple. The 
city can be laid out perfectly square, north and south, east and west." 
It was then and there decided that the building of the city should 
begin at that point; the Temple block to contain forty acres, and the 
city blocks surrounding, ten acres each, exclusive of the streets. 
The smaller blocks were to be sub-divided into lots of ten rods by 
twenty, giving one-and-a-quarter ncres to each lot. The streets were 
to be eight rods wide, intersecting at right angles, with sidewalks 
twenty feet in width on either hand. The houses should stand in 
the centres of the lots, twenty feet back from the front. Four city 
blocks were reserved for public squares. 

Such was the plan adopted by these city-building Apostles in 


council. Afterwards, the entire body of pioneer settlers convened at 
the Temple grounds, and ratified by unanimous vote this action of 
their leaders. The Apostles were appointed a committee to superin- 
tend the laying out of the city. 

Thus was Salt Lake City, the Mormon metropolis, planned and 
located; the date of the event being Wednesday, July 28th, 1847. 
Subsequently some modifications were made in the original plan, 
such as reducing the size of Temple Block from forty to ten acres, as 
being "more convenient," and as the city grew up over the foot-hills or 
benches, the formation of blocks of two-and-a-half acres in lieu of ten. 
Some of them were irregular, also, instead of being perfectly square, 
owing to the peculiar lay of the land. But in general the original 
plan remained unchanged. Beyond the city limits, in the farming 
and pasturing districts, fields of five, ten and twenty acres were laid 
out; the smallest ones being nearest the city, and the others graded 
according to size beyond them. 

City Creek, Salt Lake's main water supply, was in due time 
changed from its original channel, or channels, and made to run in 
one straight aqueduct down North Temple Street, from the mouth of 
the canyon westward to the Jordan. Near the canyon's mouth, and 
at various points along the principal channel, the waters were 
diverted for irrigating and domestic purposes, pleasant little rills 
flowing down most of the streets, along the outer edges of the side- 
walks. Tree-planting was encouraged, not only in the lots, where 
rich orchards in time brought forth luscious fruits — apples, pears, 
peaches, plums, apricots, cherries, currants, etc., — but also along the 
side-walks, where cottonwood, box-elder and locust soon cast a 
grateful shade, and clear and sparkling streams cooled the air, 
delighted the eye, and made music as they murmured by. Not. many 
seasons elapsed, after the pioneer year 1847, before the main city of 
the Saints, which served as a model for scores of others, with its 
wide and regular streets flanked with shade-trees, neat and substan- 
tial dwellings embowered in groves and gardens, crystal streams fresh 
from the towering snow-crowned hills, flowing down both sides of 


its charming and healthful thoroughfares, presented the appearance, 
especially in summer when orchards were all abloom, of one vast, 
variegated boucmet, radiant with beauty and redolent of mingled 
perfumes. The transformation from sage-brush and sun-flower was 
truly wonderful, and the fair and peaceful city, — as peaceful as it was 
fair, — was a perpetual delight, not only to its builders and inhabi- 
tants, but likewise to the stranger guest, the weary traveler and 
passing pilgrim from abroad. 




The pioneer settlers RE-INFORCED CAPTAIN JAMES brown and his COMPANY THE MIS- . 











•L HE pioneer settlers of Salt Lake Valley now began to receive 
>K re-inforcements. The first to arrive was Captain James 
Brown's detachment of the Mormon Battalion, accompanied by 
the main portion of the Mississippi Saints who had joined the 
soldiers at Pueblo. Being aware of their approach, President Young 
and others on the 29th of July mounted their horses and went out 
to meet them. 

The advance columns were encountered about three miles 
from camp; the main body, with Captains Brown and Higgins and 
Lieutenant Willis, some distance behind them in Emigration Canyon. 
A thunder-storm accompanied by a cloud-burst occurred while they 
were yet in the canyon, swelling the mountain streams, causing them 
to rush and roar tumultuously clown their rocky channels, over-flow 
their banks in places and flood the surrounding soil. Simultane- 
ously a shower spread over a large portion of the valley. Having 
emerged from the gorge, Captain Brown's company, escorted by the 
President and his party, marched to the inspiring strains of martial 


music to the camps on City Creek, arriving at the lower one about 
4 p. m. They received a joyful welcome. The soldiers, some of 
whom were mounted, numbered over one hundred; the Mississippians 
about the same. They brought with them sixty wagons, one 
carriage, one hundred horses and mules, and three hundred head of 
cattle ; adding materially to the strength of the pioneer colony. 

It had been the design of Captain Brown, on leaving Pueblo, 
to push on without delay to the Bay of San Francisco. But the Bat- 
talion's term of enlistment having expired, and his teams being jaded 
and many of his wagons broken, he now decided to tarry in Salt 
Lake Valley and await further orders from his military superiors. 
The soldiers formed a separate camp on City Creek, about midway 
between the two camps of the pioneers. 

At a general meeting held next evening, the President, in behalf 
of the whole people, publicly thanked the Battalion for the important 
service they had rendered their country and their co-religionists. 
He expressed the belief that the Church had been saved from 
destruction by the enlistment of these troops on the frontier. Simi- 
lar sentiments were voiced by him to the main body of the Battalion 
after their arrival from California. 

Captain Brown's men, at the request of the President, con- 
structed, two days after their arrival, a bowery in which to hold pub- 
lic meetings on Temple Block. This primitive structure — the first 
building of any kind erected by the Mormons in the Rocky Moun- 
tains — was similar to the boweries constructed by them at their various 
settlements between the Mississippi and the Missouri. Posts were 
set in the ground, and upon these rude pillars long poles were laid 
and securely fastened with wooden pegs or strips of rawhide. 
This framework, overlaid with timbers and brush, formed an umbra- 
geous if not a very substantial roof; a good shelter from the sun and 
a fair though insufficient one from wind and rain. Its dimensions 
were forty by twenty-eight feet, — large enough to accommodate the 
assembly of the entire camp. 

At one end of these boweries it was customary to erect a plat- 


form and stand, well boarded in at the back, for the use of presid- 
ing officers and speakers; a space in front being reserved for the 
choir. At first seats would be improvised from whatever articles 
came handy, but in due time rude benches would follow, resting 
upon a floor or on the ground ; the character and extent of the 
improvements would largely depend upon the permanency of the set- 
tlement of which the bowery was the center of worship, social 
amusement and gatherings in general. Though top and sides were 
well covered and closed in, the meetings held in such buildings would 
be virtually in the open air, and during bad weather would have to 
be suspended and in winter time discontinued. Until the "Old Tab- 
ernacle" was built — the forerunner of the present Tabernacle — these 
boweries were the only regular places of public worship in Salt Lake 

The original bowery, erected by the Battalion boys, must not be 
confounded with the " Old Bowery," subsequently built on Temple 
Block, which, after several years' use as a house of worship, was 
transformed into a theater, — the original Thespian temple of Utah. 
Concerning this particular structure, in connection with the local 
history of music and the drama, we shall have more to say here- 

July 31st — the day the first bowery was erected — witnessed an 
exciting and bloody affray between two small bands of Indians, Utes 
and Shoshones, who were trading at the camps on City Creek. Two 
young men, one of either tribe, began disputing over a theft alleged 
to have been committed by the Ute. He was accused of stealing a 
horse belonging to the Shoshones and trading it to one of the set- 
tlers for a rifle. Being detected, he refused to relinquish either horse 
or rifle. Hence the quarrel, followed by a combat, between the two 
young warriors. During the fight one broke his gun-stock over the 
other's head. The affair was waxing warm, and matters began get- 
ting serious, when an old man, father of one of the combatants, 
strove to separate them. For this purpose he lashed with a heavy 
thong of rawhide their heads and faces. The son's antagonist struck 


the old man, whereupon the latter seized a stick of timber and shat- 
tered it over the warrior's head. The two were finally separated, 
and the Ute retired to one of the lower camps. While there a horse 
belonging to the Shoshones wandered by. Mounting his own pony, 
the Ute started to drive the other animal toward the mountains. 
The Shoshones, being apprised of this new theft, sent four of their 
number in hot pursuit. Overtaking the thief they shot him dead, 
likewise killing his horse. Returning, they brandished a bloody rifle, 
and informing the other Utes of what they had done, intimated by 
fierce looks that the trouble might not yet be over. 

It seems that there was bad blood between the two tribes, owing 
to the Utes coming over the line from the valleys southward to 
trade with the settlers, a privilege which the Shoshones, who 
claimed the land where the camps were situated, desired to monopo- 
lize. They showed marked displeasure toward all who traded 
with the Utes, regarding it as an infringement of their rights. 
They expressed their willingness to sell the land for fire-arms, pow- 
der and lead. 

The excitement attending this tragic incident having somewhat 
abated, the slayers of the Ute sat down and proceeded to devour with 
great apparent relish some large crickets they had caught, of the kind 
infesting the valleys. They harvested these insects for bread, as a 
farmer would wheat or corn. We have heard more than one pioneer 
speak of these " cricket cakes*' of the savages, but never knew one 
to admit having tasted them.* 

It was now Saturday evening. A little over a week had the 
Pioneers been in Salt Lake Valley. A summary of their labors 
during that time was reported by Colonel Markham as follows : Three 
lots of land, aggregating fifty-three acres, had been plowed, and 

*The California Indians offered to Fremont's explorers in L845 a rerj superior 
quality of meal, which the white men purchased, and made into bread. One da] some 
wings and legs of grasshoppers were found in the meal, which led to the discovery, much 
to the disgust of the buyers and users of the commodity, that it was pounded up grass- 
hoppers they had been eating and relishing. 


planted with potatoes, peas, beans, corn, oats, buckwheat, garden 
seeds, etc., and about three acres of corn and some beans and 
potatoes were already beginning to sprout. Thirteen plows and three 
harrows had been worked during the week, and various repairs made 
to broken implements. The valley had been explored, the several 
canyons visited, and a road made to the timber. A saw-pit had also 
been constructed, and a large pine log, brought down from the 
mountains for the purpose, converted into lumber for a skiff. 

Sunday morning, August 1st, the camp assembled for worship 
in the Bowery. The President, who was again ill, did not attend, 
but the other Apostles were present. Heber C. Kimball presided, and 
was the first speaker. His remarks were very practical. He 
enquired if there was a guard out around the cattle. If not, he 
advised that one be placed immediately, as the Indians, after 
remaining in camp over night, had left very suddenly that morning 
without assigning any reason for their abrupt departure. He was 
followed by Orson Pratt, in a characteristic sermon on the ancient 
prophecies ; continuing his theme of the Sunday before. Apostle 
Kimball then spoke again, still in a very practical vein, and still upon 
the subject of the Indians. He warned the settlers against selling 
guns and ammunition to the savages, or allowing them, through 
carelessness, to steal from them. Several guns, he said, had been 
stolen by their dusky visitors the day before. As to the land upon 
which they had settled, it did not belong to the red men, and to pay 
them for it, as they desired, would impoverish the community. 
No man must sell his inheritance. The speaker predicted that five 
years would not elapse before they and their people who followed 
them would be better off than ever they were at Nauvoo. 

Willard Richards, Amasa M. Lyman and others addressed the 
afternoon meeting, when it was decided to concentrate the three 
camps in one, and work more unitedly than heretofore. The project 
of building a stockade, for further protection against thieving and 
hostile savages, was also mooted. Colonel Rockwood, Captains 
Brown and Lewis and Lieutenant Willis spoke to this question, which 


involved that of building and inhabiting houses during the coming 
winter, instead of dwelling in tents and wagons. It was thought 
that a log house, sixteen by eighteen feet, would cost about forty 
dollars, and one of adobes — sun-burnt bricks — about half that sum. 
Samuel Brannan favored adobe houses, one of which, he said, might 
be built in a week. His printing office in California had been put up 
and a copy of his paper issued in fourteen days. Samuel Gould and 
James Dunn reported themselves as lime-burners, and -Sylvester H. 
Earl, Joel J. Terrill, Ralph Douglas and Joseph Hancock as brick- 
makers. It was decided by vote that a stockade of logs and adobes 
be at once erected. Thus the famous "Old Fort" had its origin. 

Next morning the three camps moved all their wagons to a spot 
a little east of the upper camp-ground, and formed them into an 
oblong corral between the two branches of City Creek. A dam was 
put in the stream some distance above, and the waters so diverted 
that pleasant little rivulets were soon running down outside as well 
as inside the corral of wagons. The Indians, on account of their 
stealing proclivities, were not now permitted inside the enclosure. 

On the morning of August 2nd Orson Pratt and Henry G. Sher- 
wood began the survey of Salt Lake City. Heber C. Kimball's teams 
went into the canyon and brought the first loads of logs for the fort, 
and other laborers began making adobes and preparing mounds for 
the same purpose. The day was very warm and the camp exceed- 
ingly busy. 

Ezra T. Benson and Porter Rockwell were now sent back to meet 
the next companies from Winter Quarters, supposed to be somewhere 
on the plains between the Missouri River and the mountains. They 
started about noon of the 2nd, going horseback, and taking with 
them the following letter : 

Pioneer Camp, Valley of the Great Salt Lake, Aug. 2, 1847. 
To General Charles C. Rich and the Presidents and Officers of the Emigrating 


Dear Brethren. — We have delegated our beloved brother, Ezra T. Benson, and 
escort to communicate to you by express the cheering intelligence that we have arrived in 
the most beautiful valley of the Great Salt Lake ; that every soul who lefl Winter Quarters 


with us is alive, and almost every one enjoying good health. That portion ot the Battalion 
that was at Pueblo are here with us, together with the Mississippi company that accom- 
panied them, and they are generally well. We number about four hundred souls, and 
we know of no one but what is pleased with our situation. We have commenced the 
survey of a city this morning. We feel that the time is fast approaching when those 
teams that are going to Winter Quarters this fall should be on the way. Every individual 
here would be glad to tarry if their friends were here, but as many of the Battalion as 
well as the Pioneers have not their families here, and do not expect that they are in your 
camp, we wish to learn by express from you the situation of your camp as speedily as 
possible, that we may be prepared to counsel and act in the whole matter. We want 
you to send us the name of every individual in your camp, or, in other words, a copy of 
your whole camp roll, including the names, number of wagons, horses, mules, oxen, 
cows, etc., and the health of your camp ; your location, prospects, etc. If your teams are 
worn out, if your camp is sick and not able to take care of themselves, if you are short of 
teamsters, or if any other circumstance impedes your progress, we want to know it im- 
mediately, for we have help for you, and if your teams are in good plight, and will be 
able to return to Winter Quarters this season, or any portion of them, we want to know 
it. We also want the mail, which will include all letters and papers and packages be- 
longing to our camp, general and particular. Would circumstances permit, we would 
gladly meet you some distance from this, but our time is very much occupied, notwith- 
standing we think you will see us before you see our valley. Let all the brethren and 
sisters cheer up their hearts and know assuredly that God has heard and answered their 
prayers and ours, and led us to a goodly land, and our souls are satisfied therewith. 
Brother' Benson can give you many particulars that will be gratifying and cheering to you 
which I have not time to write, and we feel to bless all the Saints. 

In behalf of the council, Brigham Young, President, 

Willard Bichards, Clerk. 

Utah Valley was next explored. Jesse C. Little and a party, 
returning on the 5th of August from a tour in that vicinity, reported 
that there was a fine country east of Utah Lake, the soil being well 
adapted for cultivation. They virtually confirmed the report of 
Escalante, the Spaniard, who had discovered that lake and valley 
seventy-one years before. 

On the 6th of August the President and the Apostles who were 
with him, namely: Heber C. Kimball, Orson Pratt, Willard Richards, 
Wilford Woodruff, George A. Smith and Amasa M. Lyman, "renewed 
their covenants" by baptism. President Young, entering the water 
— City Creek — immersed each of the others according to the usual 
mode, after which he laid hands upon and confirmed them, resealing 
upon each his Apostleship. Heber C. Kimball— next to Rrigham 



Young the senior of the Twelve — then baptized and confirmed the 
President in like manner. This example of "renewing covenants" 
was subsequently followed by the entire camp, and by all their 
brethren and sisters who came after them. Even to this day it is 
the custom with those who " gather to Zion," to receive rebaptism 
on reaching the settlements of the Saints in the Rocky Mountains. 

A weather note of August 7th tells of " a terrible whirl-wind " 
that struck the camp about noon, doing considerable damage. It 
whirled a fowl high in air, tore tents and wagon-covers and shook 
things in general violently. 

In the afternoon of that day the Apostles repaired to Temple 
Block and selected their "inheritances." Brigham Young took a 
block east of the Temple site and running south-east, upon which to 
settle his family and friends. Heber C. Kimball took a block north 
of the Temple, Orson Pratt a block south, and Wilford Woodruff a 
block cornering on the Temple grounds. George A. Smith chose one 
on the west, and Amasa M. Lyman one near Wilford Woodruff's. 
Willard Richards was not in camp at the time, but it was supposed 
that he would prefer settling on the east near the President, to whom 
he was related. Subsequently other selections of lands were made 
by the Apostles for their friends who were yet to come. 

On the 9th of August Captain James Brown, Samuel Brannan 
and others set out for San Francisco by way of Fort Hall. The 
object of Captain Brown's trip to the coast was to draw the pay due 
from Government to the men of his detachment; the Battalion 
to which they belonged having been honorably discharged at Los 
Angeles on the 16th of July. The Captain took with him the muster 
roll of his detachment, with power of attorney from each man to sign 
for and receive his pay. Those besides Samuel Brannan who ac- 
companied him were Abner Blackburn, Gilbert Hunt, John Fowler, 
William Gribble, Henry Frank, Lysander Woodworth and Jesse S. 
Brown, the Captain's eldest son. Elder Brannan acted as their 

It is believed that he returned to California somewhat crestfallen, 


having failed to convince the Mormon leaders that the Pacific coast, 
where he had located his colony, was a more desirable place for 
the Saints to settle and build up a State, than the desert shores 
of the Great Salt Lake. Elder Brannan, always more a man of the 
world than a devout religionist, probably surveyed the subject from 
a business standpoint. Considering that alone he was undoubtedly 
correct. But Brigham Young and his associates, as shown, had 
other than material ends in view. Hence their determination to 
remain separate — at least for a season — from the Gentiles, whose 
worldly aims and pursuits, if in the majority, would have tended to 
thwart the spiritual plans and purposes of the Mormon colonists; 
rendering the "building up of Zion" difficult if not impossible. 

Captain Brown's party were accompanied as far as Bear River 
by Jesse C. Little, Lieutenant Willis, Joseph Matthews, John Brown 
and John Buchanan. Passing up the eastern shore of the Great Salt 
Lake they came to Weber River, where, as stated, Miles M. Goodyear, 
whom the Pioneers met on their way to the Valley in July, had built 
a log fort and was engaged in trapping and trading. Captain Brown 
called at the fort and conversed with its proprietor. This, perhaps, 
was the beginning of negotiations between them, ending, as we shall 
see, in the purchase of the Goodyear fort, lands and improvements 
by the Captain, on his return from California. 

Colonel Little and his party, after separating from Brown and 
Brannan, explored Cache Valley, of which Major Harris had spoken 
so favorably to the Pioneers at South Pass. Lewis B. Myers and a 
companion also visited that valley about the same time. Returning, 
they confirmed the reports relating to that section. Cache Valley, it 
was found, was not only "a fine place for wintering cattle," but, 
when watered, an excellent farming region as well. It is known 
today as "Utah's Granary." 

The explorers of the north returned to Salt Lake Valley on the 
14th of August. A few days later, Albert Carrington, John Brown 
and others started on an exploring trip to Twin Peaks, being the first 
of the Pioneers and probably the first white men to plant their feet 


upon those well-nigh inaccessible summits, tipped with perpetual 
snow. The ascent was made on the 21st of August. 

Meantime work on the stockade had begun and was progressing 
rapidly. The site selected for the fort was about three-quarters of a 
mile south-west of the City Creek encampment. A portion of the 
Sixth Ward of Salt Lake City still bears the familiar name of the 
"Old Fort Block," though the fort itself, which once enclosed it, 
has long since disappeared. There, on the 10th of August, 1847, 
were laid the foundations of the first houses erected in Salt Lake 
Valley, — the first built by the Mormons west of Winter Quar- 
ters. Brigham Young started four of these houses, Heber C. 
Kimball four, Stephen Markham one, Willard Richards one, and 
Lorenzo D. Young one. This was the beginning of the Old Fort. 
The first house finished and occupied was Lorenzo D. Young's. 
These houses extended continuously along the east line of the stock- 
ade, beginning at the nort-heast corner. Their order was as follows : 
Brigham Young, four rooms; Lorenzo D. Young, two; Heber C. Kim- 
ball, five; Willarcl Bichards, two; Wilford Woodruff, two; George A. 
Smith, two; Amasa M. Lyman, two; and Erastus Snow, one. These 
first dwellings were of logs. They had poles for rafters, willows for 
roofs and in lieu of shingles earth ; an insufficient shelter, as was found 
later, from autumn rains and winter's melting snows. Floors and 
ceilings were rare, and of the rudest and most primitive kind, while 
window glass was almost an unknown quantity. 

Plowing and planting by this time had been suspended, thirty 
additional acres having been put under cultivation, making eighty- 
three in all. Most of the settlers were now busily occupied, 
chopping and hauling logs, making adobes and preparing to build. 

The first white child born in Utah opened its eyes to the light on 
Monday, August 9th, 1847 — two weeks and two days after the arrival 
of the Pioneers. This infantile re-info rcement was a girl, the 
daughter of John and Catharine Campbell Steele, both of the 
Mormon Battalion, who came into the Valley in Captain Brown's 
company on the 29th of July. Their child was born at 4 o'clock 


a. m., in her father's tent on Temple Block. She was named Young 
Elizabeth Steele, after President Young and Queen Elizabeth. The 
father, John Steele, was a mason, and according to his account built 
nearly one-third of the "Old Fort" with his own hands, using a 
trowel made by Burr Frost out of a saw-blade. Mr. Steele also 
claims to be the pioneer shoe-maker of Utah. He resides at 
Tocpuerville, in the southern part of the Territory. His daughter 
lives at Kanarra, in Kane County, and is now Mrs. James 

The first death in the pioneer colony followed hard upon the 
heels of the original birth. It occurred just two days later. The 
victim was a little three-year-old child of George and Jane Therlkill, 
— a grand-child of Robert Crow. Wandering away from camp a 
little to the south, it had fallen into the creek, where it was dis- 
covered, drowned, about five o'clock in the afternoon. Every 
possible effort was made to restore it, but without avail. The 
parents mourned bitterly their loss, and a shadow of sympathetic 
gloom rested for a season upon the whole encampment. 

On August 12th an observation was taken by Orson Pratt and 
William Clayton to ascertain the height of Temple Block. It was 
discovered to be 4,309 feet above the sea level, and sixty-five feet 
above the Utah outlet. Ascending City Creek canyon one mile the 
altitude above the Temple grounds was found to be 214 feet. 

Surveyor Sherwood and his aids were still busy laying out the 
city. Messrs. Tanner, Frost and their fellow sons of Vulcan were 
engaged in shoeing oxen and re-setting wheel tires for the com- 
panies that were about to return to Winter Quarters. Some of these 
were Battalion men who had not seen their families since bidding 
them adieu on the frontier thirteen months before. A party of men 
who had been to the lake to boil down salt, returned, reporting that 
they had found, lying between two sand-bars on the lake-shore, a 
beautiful bed of salt all ready to load into wagons. Several loads 
were brought to camp, and two of them taken east by the company 
that set out a few days later for the Missouri River. 



August 16th was the day of their departure. Most of the 
ox-teams started and traveled to the mouth of Emigration Canyon, 
where they were joined next day by the residue of the company. 
There were seventy-one men, with thirty-three wagons and ninety- 
two yoke of oxen; also some horses and mules. Their organization 
was similar to that of the Pioneers. There were two divisions, made 
up of companies of tens. Tunis Rappleyee and Shadrach Roundy 
were the two captains of divisions, and William Clayton was historian. 
The personnel of the company was as follows: 


Tunis Rappleyee, Captain. 


Skein, Captain, George Cummings, 

Artemas Johnson, Thomas Richardson, 

James Cazier, captain of guard William Burt, 

of first division, James Dunn, 

Joseph Shipley, 
Samuel Badlam, 
Roswell Stevens. 

Zebedee Goltrin, Captain, 
Ghauncey Loveland, 
Lorenzo Babcock, 


Samuel H. Marble, 
George Scholes, 
William Bird, 

Joshua Curtis, 
John S. Eldredge, 
Horace Thornton. 

Francis Boggs, Captain, 
Sylvester H. Earl, 


Seeley Owen, 
George Wardle, 

Clark Stillman, 
Ahnon M. Williams 

R. Jackson Redding, 
William Carpenter, 
Henry W. Sanderson, 
Bailey Jacobs, 


Shadrach Roundy, Gaptaii 

FIRST TEN (five wagons): 
John Pack, 
Robert By aid, 
Benjamin W. Rolfe, 

Thomas Colward, 
Lisbon Lamb, 
William Clayton. 

Jobn H. Tippitts. Captaii 
Francis T. Whitney, 
James Stewart, 
Charles A. Burke, 

second tex (five wagons): 
William C. McLelland, 
Norman Taylor, 
Lyman Stevens, 
Lyman Curtis, 

John S. Gleason, captain of 
guard of second division, 
Myron Tanner, 
Rufus Allen. 



Allen Compton, Captain, 
John Bybee, 
Jeduthan Averett, 
John G. Smith, 

Andrew J. Shupe, Captain, 
Francillo Durfee, 
Erastus Bingham, 
Loren Kinney, 


Philip Garner, 
Bamebas Lake, 
Franklin Allen, 
David Garner, 


Benjamin Roberts, 
Jarris Johnson, 
Albert Clark, 
James Hendrickson, 

Harmon D. Persons, 
Solomon Tindell, 
Charles Hopkins. 

John Calvert, 
Daniel Miller, 
Luther W. Glazier, 
Thomas Bingham. 

The third and fourth tens of the second division were members 
of the Mormon Battalion, returning to meet their families on the 
plains or the frontier. For each man there had been provided eight 
pounds of flour, nine pounds of meal, and a few pounds of 
beans. For the rest of their subsistence they were to depend 
upon game killed by the way. A new roadometer was constructed 
for this company by William A. King; William Clayton having received 
special instructions from President Young to carefully re-measure the 
distance back to Winter Quarters, and collect such other information 
as might be serviceable to future emigration. 

Their journey back to the Missouri consumed a little over nine 
weeks. It was prosperous and comparatively uneventful. Beyond 
Green River, on Big Sandy, they met Ezra T. Benson and Porter 
Rockwell, returning west with the mail, after delivering the Presi- 
dent's letter to General Rich and the on-coming trains. The leading 
one — Captain Daniel Spencer's first fifty — was encountered by 
the east-bound wagons on the 31st of August, at the "first crossing" 
of the Sweetwater. Here Shadrach Pioundy joined his family and 
returned west, and John G. Smith took his place as captain of the 
second division. The other companies were met at various points 
within the next three days.' 

Heavy rains, with snow, set in early in September. The pro- 
visions — breadstuffs — of the returning company gave out, and for 
several weeks dried buffalo meat was their sole subsistence. During 
the latter part of the journey the Indians annoyed them considerably, 


burning the prairies before them and stealing their stock. At the 
North Platte ferry they met Luke Johnson, William A. Empey and 
Appleton M. Harmon, of the nine men left there by the pioneers in 
June, and at Loup Fork Captain Hosea Stout and a party of mounted 
police from Winter Quarters, going out to meet President Young, who 
was now supposed to be on his way back to the Missouri 

Captain Rappleyee's wagons rolled into Winter Quarters on the 
21st of October. The distance from Salt Lake Valley, as re-measured 
by William Clayton, was found to be 1032 miles — twenty-two miles 
less than the former reckoning of the Pioneers. 

In the Valley, after the departure of the "ox-teams," the work 
of exploring, building and surveying went steadily on. The laying 
out of the city was completed on August 20th; 135 blocks of ten 
acres each being included in this original survey. The building of 
the fort was pushed forward as rapidly as possible and by the last 
of the month twenty-nine houses had been erected at the stockade. 

In the latter part of August President Young and the Apostles 
prepared to return to Winter Quarters. Though much remained to 
be done before the feet of the infant colony would be firmly planted, 
anxiety was felt by the leaders for the welfare of the Church on the 
frontier, and the success of the next year's emigration. None could 
so well organize and lead the main body of their people across the 
plains to their mountain retreat, as these experienced guides and 
colonizers of the Great Basin. That was doubtless the main 
reason why they resolved to return to the Missouri that season, 
instead of spending the winter with their friends in Salt Lake 

Prior to their departure a special conference was convened on 
Sunday the 22nd of August, when the pioneer settlers assembled in 
the Bowery to receive the parting instructions of their leaders. It 
was emphatically a business conference, called to consider the tem- 
poral affairs of the colony. It was decided by vote to fence in and 
cultivate the city plat during the coming year, in preference to lands 
lying outside, also to organize in Salt Lake Valley a Stake of Zion, 


with Father John Smith, the Prophet's uncle, as President. Father 
Smith had not yet arrived, but was expected in the coming emi- 
gration. Other nominations were deferred until it should be known 
who were in the next trains. 

The pioneer city then received its name. "I move,'" said 
Brigham Young, "that we call this place the Great Salt Lake City of 
the Great Basin of North America." The motion was seconded and 
carried. On the President's motion the post office was called "The 
Great Basin Post Office." Heber C. Kimball, by motion, named the 
river running through the valley "The Western Jordan," and 
Brigham Young christened City Creek, Mill Creek, Red Butte Creek, 
Emigration Creek, and Canyon (now Parley's) Creek, in like manner. 
It was many years before the city's title was abbreviated by legisla- 
tive enactment to "Salt Lake City," but the "Western Jordan" 
became plain "Jordan" almost immediately. 

Colonel A. P. Rockwood, overseer of the stockade, was released 
from that position to return with the President, and Tarlton Lewis was 
appointed overseer in his stead. William Mclntyre was chosen clerk 
to keep an account of public labor, and Edson Whipple was given 
charge of the distribution of water over the plowed lands. The 
President's parting injunction was as follows : 

It is necessary that the adobe yard (the stockade) should be secured so that 
Indians cannot get in. To accommodate those few who shall remain here after we 
return, it would only be necessary to build one side of the fort, but common sense teaches 
us to build it all round. By and by men of means will be coming on, and they will want 
rooms, and the men who build them will then be entitled to their pay. Make your walls 
4£ feet high, so that they can keep the cattle out. Build your houses so that you will 
have plenty of fresh air in them, or some of you will get sick, after being used to sleeping 
in your wagons so long. We propose to fence in a tract of land thirty rods square, so 
that in case of necessity the cattle can be brought inside and the hay also be stacked 
there. In the spring this fence can be removed and a trench be plowed about twenty 
feet from the houses to enable the women to raise garden vegetables. I want to engage 
50,000 bushels of wheat and the same amount of corn and other grain in proportion. I 
will pay you 81.25 per bushel for wheal and 50 cents for corn. Why cannot I bring 
glass for you and you raise corn for me? Baise all the grain you can, and with this you 
can purchase sheep, cows, teams, etc., of those who come here later on. We desire you 
to live in that stockade until we come back again, and raise grain next year. 



On the 26th of August the pioneer leaders bade farewell to their 
friends who were to remain, and set out upon their return journey to 
the Missouri. Such of the Pioneers and Battalion men present as 
had families at Winter Quarters or on the way west, were selected to 
accompany the President and his party. 

The weather was now beautiful. The oppressive heat of summer 
was pretty well past, and the cool, bright days of our delightful 
mountain autumn were just about beginning. The roads, however, 
were very dusty, and the way through the canyons, though more 
passable than before, was still rough and difficult. Their noon halt 
on the 29th was at the head of Echo Canyon. There Ezra T. Benson 
joined them, bringing news of the approaching trains. Porter Rock- 
well came up later. After crossing Bear Biver the company was called 
together and organized. The full list of names was as here given : 

Brigham Young, 
John P. Greene, 
Truman 0. Angell, 
Joseph S. Schofield, 
Albert P. Bockwood, 
Stephen H. Goddard, 
Millen Atwood, 
Thomas Tanner, 
Addison Everett, 
Sidney A. Hanks, 
George Clark, 
J. G. Luce, 
John G. Holnian. 
George R. Grant, 
Davis S. Laughlin. 
William Dykes, 
Jacob Weiler, 
David Grant. 
Thomas Woolsey, 
Haywood Thomas, 
Samuel W. Fox, 
Willard Richards, 
Thomas Bullock, 
Benjamin Richmond, 
Harvey Pierce, 

William Wardswortb, 
Datus Ensign, 
John Dixon, 
Simeon Howd, 
Seth Taft, 
John P. Wriston, 
Stephen Kelsey, 
Charles D. Barnum, 
Wilford Woodruff, 
Dexter Stillman, 
William C. A. Smoot, 
James W. Steward, 
Robert T. Thomas, 
Jabez Nowlin, 
James Case, 
James C. Earl, 
Judson Persons, 
Orson Pratt, 
Joseph Egbert, 
Marcus B. Thorpe, 
George Wilson, 
Jesse Johnson, 
John Brimhall, 
A. L. Huntley, 
Rodney Badger, 

Alex. P. Chessley, 
Thomas C. Chessley, 
John G. Gould, 
Samuel Gould, 
Amasa M. Lyman, 
Albert Carrington, 
John Brown, 
George A. Smith, 
Joel J. Ten-ill, 
Solomon Chamberlain, 
William Tenill, 
Nathaniel Fairbanks, 
Charles A. Harper, 
Perry Fitzgerald, 
Isaac N. Wriston, 
Ozro Eastman, 
Horace Monroe Frink, 
Levi N. Kendall, 
Stephen Markham, 
George .Mills. 
Conrad Klineman, 
Horace K. Whitney, 
Orson K. Whitney, 
George P. Billings, 
Ralph Douglas, 



Ezra T. Benson, 
Matthew Ivory, 
David Powell, 
Erastus Snow, 
William Melntyre, 
George Brown, 
Orrin P. Rockwell, 
Charles Shumway, 
Andrew P. Shumway, 
Burr Frost, 
William Carter, 

William W. Rust, 
Joseph Matthews, 
Joseph G. Camp, 
William Park. 
Green Flake. 
Benjamin F. Stewart, 
John Crow, 
Peter J. Meeseck, 
C. Rowe, 
William Rowe, 
Barnabas L. Adams, 

Elijah E. Holden, 
William Gifford, 
Albert Sharp, 
Abel M. Sargent, 
Andrew S. Gibbons, 
Thurston Larson, 
Heber C. Kimball. 
Howard Egan, 
Hosea Gushing, 
William A. King, 
Carlos Murray, 

The camp comprised one hundred and eight men, with thirty-six 
wagons and about three times that number of horses and mules. 
Stephen Markham was chosen captain of hundred; Barnabas L. 
Adams and Joseph Matthews, captains of fifties; Brigham Young, 
John Brown, Howard Egan, George Clark, George Wilson, Erastus 
Snow, Thomas Tanner and Charles A. Harper, captains of tens. 
Thomas Bullock was again appointed Clerk. The President's ten 
included six of his fellow Apostles, with Albert P. Rockwood, Stephen 
H. Goddard and Joseph Schofield. 

Fording Green River, which was now quite low, the company, 
having crossed Big Sandy, came upon Daniel Spencer's first fifty 
there encamped. It was now the 3rd of September. 

At this point let us briefly sketch the experience of these west- 
bound companies, the first to follow in the wake of the pioneers. 
They had been organized on the Elk Horn in June, under the direc- 
tion of Father Morley and Bishop Whitney, the committee previously 
appointed for that purpose. Due deference had been paid by this 
committee, however, to the Apostles, Parley P. Pratt and John Taylor, 
who were present and took part in the organization. They were in- 
vited by the committee, inasmuch as it was their purpose to accom- 
pany the emigration, to exercise a general superintendency over all 
the trains. These aggregated five hundred and sixty wagons, with 
about fifteen hundred men, women and children, and five thousand 
head of stock. Most of the wagons were drawn by oxen. 

The companies were organized as follows : John Young, brother 


of Brigham Young, had immediate general command, and John Van 
Cott was marshal. There were four captains of hundreds, namely : 
(1) Daniel Spencer, under whom Ira Eldredge and Peregrine Sessions 
were captains of fifties; (2) Edward Hunter, with Jacob Foutz and 
Joseph Home as captains of fifties; (3) Jedediah M. Grant, with 
Joseph B. Noble and Willard Snow as sub-captains, and (4) Abraham 
0. Smoot, under whom were Captains George B. Wallace and Samuel 
Russell. There was also another company called "the artillery 
company," having with it several pieces of cannon. It was more 
or less distinct and independent in organization, and was commanded 
by General Charles C. Rich. As usual, the divisions of fifties were 
sub-divided into tens. 

Parley P. Pratt generally traveled with Daniel Spencers hundred 
and John Taylor with Edward Hunter's. George Q. Cannon, then 
a youth of twenty, was with his uncle, Apostle Taylor, in this 
emigration. In Captain Grant's hundred was the poetess, Eliza R. 
Snow. Other notable names connected with this emigration were 
Father John Smith, Lorin Farr, Hezekiah, Moses and George W. 
Thatcher, Samuel and John Bennion, William Hyde, Jacob Gates, 
Archibald and Robert Gardner, John Neff, Jacob Houtz, Abraham 
Hoagland, William Bringhurst, Thomas Callister, John, George, Peter 
and Henry Nebeker, L. E. Harrington, Millen and Miner Atwood, 
Isaac Chase, Charles Crismon, Levi E. and William W. Riter, Silas S. 
and Jesse N. Smith, Joseph C. Kingsbury, Elijah F. Sheets, William 
C. Staines, Bryant Stringham, Harrison Sperry, Chauncey W. 
West and many others. 

The first company left the Elk Horn on the 18th of June; the 
last one on or about the 4th of July. During the first few days 
considerable ill-feeling was manifested, owing to misunderstandings 
as to the order of traveling, but a general halt having been called, 
and a meeting of officers held, these differences were adjusted and 
the journey resumed. Then came stampedes and loss of cattle, 
almost crippling some of the companies, and sadly hindering their 


A good idea of a stampede, — though not in this, as in most 
instances, caused by Indians, — is conveyed in the following bit of 
description penned by one of the pilgrims to the Valley that season. 
Says the writer: "Some one was carelessly shaking a big buffalo 
robe at the back of a wagon, from which some of the cattle in the 
corral took fright and started on the run ; these frightened others ; 
they commenced bellowing; and all in a huddle ran for the gateway 
of the enclosure, which being altogether too narrow for the egress of 
the rushing multitude that thronged into the passage, they piled one 
on top of another until the top ones were above the tops of the 
adjacent wagons, moving them from their stations, while the inmates, 
at this early hour, being so suddenly and unceremoniously aroused 
from their morning sleep, and not knowing the cause of this terrible 
uproar and confusion, were some of them almost paralyzed with fear. 
At length those that could, broke from the enclosure, the bellowing 
subsided and quiet was restored; but the sad effect of the fright 
caused much suffering to some whose nerves were not sufficient for 
the trying scene. In the encounter two wagon wheels were crushed, 
Captain K.'s only cow was killed, and several oxen had horns 
knocked off." 

This stampede resulted from an accident. But the Indians 
resorted to just such tricks as shaking buffalo robes or blankets in 
order to frighten and scatter the horses and cattle of passing trains. 
It was their habit to follow them for hundreds of miles, — as sharks 
at sea some vessel with a dead body aboard, — warily concealing 
themselves and awaiting an opportunity to effect their purpose. 
Dark and rainy nights were their delight. Creeping like snakes 
through the long, dank prairie grass, so stealthily as to completely 
elude the eyes and ears of the watchful guard, they would cut the 
lariats of the horses, if staked outside the wagons, and then scare 
and scatter them pell-mell in every direction. After the trains had 
passed on, if pass they could after losing much of their stock, these 
cunning prowlers of the plains would hunt and capture the missing 
animals at leisure. 


Late in July and early in August, the companies from Winter 
Quarters met a squad of fourteen soldiers, members of the Mormon 
Battalion, the escort of General S. F. Kearney, then on his way from 
San Francisco to Fort Leavenworth. There they expected to be 
discharged. These soldiers were husbands and sons of women 
traveling in the companies. Their meetings therefore were more 
than ordinarily joyful. Nathaniel V. Jones was one of Kearney's 
escort. Colonel John C. Fremont was traveling with the party, being 
in custody, on his way to Washington, there to answer to the charge 
of insubordination in refusing to recognize Kearney's authority in 

Six or seven deaths — mostly of children — occurred among the 
emigrants. The first death was that of Jacob Weatherbee, who was 
shot by Omaha Indians between Winter Quarters and the Elk Horn, 
on the 19th of Jane. Captain Jedediah M. Grant had just lost a 
child, and his wife was lying at the point of death, when he met 
Captain Rappleyee's Avagons on the 3rd of September. Mrs. Grant 
died before reaching the Valley, but her remains were taken there for 
burial. Captain Grant's companies were particularly unfortunate. 
The alkali lands — or waters — along the Sweewater, killed many of 
their cattle, and a score of their horses were stolen by Indians. But 
death and disaster did not have it all their own way. Several 
children were born on the plains and after the emigrants passed the 
Rocky Mountains. 

President Young, on meeting Captain Spencer's companies at 
Big Sandy, advised them to go on to Green River, and from there 
send back teams to assist the other trains which had lost so heavily 
in cattle. Several pioneers, having met their families, now returned. 

At Little Sandy, on September 4th, the Apostles met their con- 
frere, Parley P. Pratt, and went into council. Two of the Twelve 
were sharply reproved by the President for undoing what the 
majority of the Apostles had done in organizing the camps for 
traveling. Good feeling being restored the President's company 
pushed on. 


Three days later they met Edward Hunter's wagons on the 
Sweetwater. It was now snowing, but the weather continued mild. 
A feast had been prepared for the President at the instance of 
Apostle Taylor and Bishop Hunter; the tables, richly laden with 
nature's bounties, tastefully prepared, being set in a grove under a 
bowery on the banks of the river. "It was a rare sight indeed," 
says Wilford Woodruff, "to see a table so well spread with the 'good 
things of this life,' in the heart of the wilderness so remote from 
civilization. The bill of fare consisted of roast and broiled beef, 
pies, cakes, biscuit, butter, peach-sauce, coffee, tea, sugar, and a great 
variety of good things. Fully one hundred people sat down to the 
table. The remains of the feast were distributed among the soldiers 
and pioneers, and the ceremonies of the afternoon were concluded 
with a dance." Another council of the Apostles was held at this 
point, and other differences adjusted. 

Next day Jedediah M. Grant's hundred was encountered. 
Captain Grant, who was recently from Philadelphia, informed the 
President that Senator Benton, of Missouri, like Saul of Tarsus, was 
still "breathing out threatenings and slaughter against the Saints." 
While on the Sweetwater, the pioneer party, allowing their usual 
vigilance to relax in the cheering society of their friends, had about 
thirty of their horses stolen by Indians. The emigrants at the same 
time lost about twenty head. 

On the morning of September 21st, an exciting though bloodless 
affray occurred between the pioneers and a band of Sioux, who were 
trying to stampede their stock. It was just after breakfast, and the 
camp was getting ready to start. Being detected in their manoeuvres, 
the Indians shot at several of the guards, and seizing one, attempted 
to carry him off. He freed himself with his fists, knocking one of 
the red-skins down. The rest sounded an alarm, and in a moment 
the scene was alive with savages, coming from the bluffs and timber 
nearby. There were fully two hundred mounted warriors. Firing 
a volley, they charged upon the camp. Wilford Woodruff had 
already given warning, and he, with Heber C. Kimball, Colonel 


Rockwood, Joseph Matthews and others sprang into their saddles, 
returned the Indian fire, and made a counter-charge, putting the 
savages to flight. Making signs of peace, the Sioux now returned 
and apologized to the pioneers for attacking them, claiming that they 
had mistaken them for Crows or Snakes, with whom they were at 
war. They wanted to smoke the pipe of peace with the leaders, 
and invited the President to visit their village, five miles away, where 
about eight hundred Sioux were encamped. It was not deemed 
prudent for the President to go, but Heber C. Kimball and a few 
others went instead, and smoked the calumet with the savages. 
They proved to be the same Indians who had stolen the horses on 
the Sweetwater. Through the courage and diplomacy of Apostle 
Kimball, many of the stolen horses were recovered. 

At Fort Laramie the pioneer leaders dined, by invitation, with 
Commodore Stockton, who, with forty men, had just arrived from the 
Ray of San Francisco. The Commodore was described as a polite 
and affable gentleman. He purposed traveling from that point with 
President Young, but changed his plan and took the south side of 
the river. A few days later the pioneers heard that he had been 
attacked by Indians and one of his men killed. 

Journeying down the Platte, over the road they had formerly 
traveled, the President's company, on the 18th of October, met 
Captain Hosea Stout and his mounted squad, coming to meet them. 
These were the old "Nauvoo Police," now the peace-officers of 
Winter Quarters. They were Hosea Stout, George D. Grant, G. J. 
Potter, William H. Kimball, Jacob Frazier, George W. Langley. W. J. 
Earl, W. Meeks, W. Martindale, William Huntington, Luman II. 
Calkins, James W. Cummings, S. S. Thornton, Levi Nickerson, James 
H. Glines and Chauncey Whiting. Messrs. Grant and Kimball had 
brought with them two wagons loaded with grain and provisions, of 
which the jaded company, which had been scantily provisioned from 
the start, now stood much in need. On the 30th I hey crossed the 
Elk Horn and were joined by Bishop Whitney and many others, with 
twenty wagons laden with supplies. Twenty-four hours later they 


marched in order into Winter Quarters, the streets of the town being 
lined with people waiting to welcome them. 

Upon the mutual joy of husbands, wives, parents and children, 
meeting after such a separation, we need not dwell. Suffice it that 
during the absence of the pioneers, peace and prosperity had 
generally prevailed among their friends on the frontier. During the 
first few months, there had been much sickness and some deaths, but 
the atmosphere and climate, once so damp and sickly, were now 
much healthier, and the soil, being well tilled, had responded 
generously to the touch of the husbandman. 

Returning now to the emigrants en route for Salt Lake Valley. 
It was in the latter part of September that the companies began 
arriving there. Early in October the last of the trains had reached 
the valley in safety. 

A conference was held at the Fort on the 3rd of October. On 
that day the Stake organization previously provided for went into 
effect. Father John Smith was sustained as President of the Stake 
and Charles C. Rich and John Young as his counselors. A High 
Council was also organized, with the following named members : 
Henry G. Sherwood, Thomas Grover, Levi Jackman, John Murdock, 
Daniel Spencer, Lewis Abbott, Ira Eldredge, Edson Whipple, Shadrach 
Roundy, John Vance, Willarcl Snow and Abraham 0. Smoot. 
Tarlton Lewis was chosen Bishop. Thus was organized the first 
Stake of Zion in the Rocky Mountains. A reorganization was 
effected after the return of the President from Winter Quarters. 

The next arrivals in the Valley were from the west. They were 
members of the Mormon Battalion, recently mustered out of service 
in California. Soon after their discharge at Los Angeles, eighty-one 
of these volunteers, at the earnest solicitation of Governor Mason, 
previously mentioned,- had re-enlisted for six months, and been 
ordered back to garrison San Diego. The main body started east, 
and' hearing that the Pioneers had entered Salt Lake Valley directed 
their course thither. West of the Sierras they met Samuel Brannan 
and Captain James Brown, and learned from them that it was Pres- 

3 ' "34 

73, jr. 


ident Young's advice for such of the discharged soldiers as were 
without means to remain in California, work through the winter, and 
come on to the Valley with their earnings in the spring. According- 
ly, about half the soldiers returned, some to secure employment at 
Sutter's Mills* and to be heard from a little later in a way not 
dreamed of that September day, when they turned their faces west- 
ward and started back for the land of gold. The others continued 
on their way, arriving in Salt Lake Valley on the 16th of October. 
Two days later thirty-two of them, including Serjeant Daniel Tyler,f 
set out for the Missouri river, braving the dangerous prospect of 
wintry storms and blockading snows in their anxiety to join their 
families on the frontier. After much hardship and suffering they 
reached their destination on the 18th of December. 

The Battalion men, returning from California, brought to the 
Valley wheat, corn, potatoes and garden seeds. Subsequently some 
of the settlers visited the coast and returned bringing more seeds 
and live stock. Soon afterward trade was opened up with Fort Hall, J 
and a little later with the frontier states. 

As winter drew near, the colonists, having finished their late 
sowing, moved into the stockade to await the coming spring. The 
fort was now enclosed, the east side with log houses, and on the 
north, south and west with adobe walls. Two additional blocks, or 
parts of blocks, on the south were being enclosed in like manner by 
the newly arrived immigrants, whom the original fort, could not 
accommodate. Meanwhile, many were living in tents and wagons. 
The additions were merely extensions of the first stockade, with 
which they communicated by gates. There was a large gate on the 
east, which was kept carefully closed by night. The roofs of the 

* Now Goloma, El Dorado County, California. 

f Author of the valuable and interesting "History of the Mormon Battalion." 
I Captain Grant of Fort Hall, was the first person outside the Mormon community 
who brought goods to the Utah market for sale. He sold sugar and coffee at one dollar 
a pint, calicoes at 50 and 75 cents per yard, and other articles in proportion. — Deseret 
News Sept. 28, 1854. 


houses, or huts, all slanted inward. The doors and windows faced 
the interior, but each house had a small loop-hole looking out. The 
houses last erected were in some respects superior to the first, though 
even the best of them were poor. The mistake of making the roofs 
almost flat, instead of sharply slanting, eventually caused much 
discomfort. The fore part of the winter was exceptionally mild, but 
as the season advanced, heavy snows fell, then melted, and soaking 
through the dirt and willow roofs, descended in drizzling streams 
upon the heads, beds and larders of the miserable inmates; spoiling 
at once their tempers and their provisions. Apostle Taylor, whose 
house was one of the best, — having among other superior points a 
rough, whip-sawed plank floor, — had plastered the ceiling and walls 
with white clay, a fine quality of which was found in the 
neighborhood. But alas! the merciless water trickled through all 
the same, carrying with it in solution or in lumps the treacherous 
plastering. Umbrellas were in great demand, even while in bed, and 
it was no uncommon sight to see a good housewife bending over her 
stove, upon which the drops from above unceasingly dripped and 
sizzled, holding an umbrella in her left hand, while turning a beef- 
steak or stirring a mush-kettle with her right. The situation of the 
fort-dwellers, that season, though often ludicrous, was far from 
pleasant, and at times almost pitiable; quite so, indeed, where there 
was sickness, and a lack of needed shelter. 

Other causes of discomfort were swarms of vermin,— mice, 
bed-bugs, etc. — infesting the fort. The bugs were indigenous, 
being brought in the green timber from the mountains. The mice 
were also "native and to the manor born" though some may have 
been carried to the Valley in the grain wagons of the immigrants. 
Great white wolves also prowled around the fort, making night 
hideous with their howling, and attacking cattle on the range. So 
intolerable became this nuisance that hunting parties were finally 
organized, to make war upon the wolves and other wild-beasts. Their 
depredations then gradually grew less. As for the vermin, they were 
dealt wilh according to the best approved exterminating methods 


then in vogue. Cats, if good mousers, were in high favor, — quite as 
much so as umbrellas. 

It was probably owing to these discomforts that Lorenzo D. 
Young — ever on the lookout to better his own or his friends' condi- 
tion — as early as October sold his house in the fort, and having 
built a new log cabin on City Creek, north-east of the stockade, in 
December moved into it with his family.* Their leaving the fort 
was much against the wishes of their friends, who feared that they 
might be killed by Indians. "I'll risk that, and no one but myself 
shall be responsible," said "Uncle Lorenzo," and off to his new 
home went. 

An incident occurred that winter which probably convinced him 
that the anxiety for his safety felt by his friends at the fort was not 
entirely groundless. It also illustrates the coolness and courage 
possessed by those early heroines, the pioneer women of Utah. It 
happened thus : Harriet Young was sitting with her infant childf in 
their solitary home one day, — her husband and the rest of the 
family being absent, — when an Indian came to the door and asked 
for "biscuit." He was a fierce, ill-looking fellow, known throughout 
the region as "a bad Indian." Mrs. Young, going to her humble 
larder, gave the savage two of three small biscuits — all the bread 
that she had in the house. He took them and asked for more. She 
gave him the remaining one, but still he demanded more. More she 
did not have, and so informed him. Furious he advanced, and 
fitting an arrow to his bow, aimed it at her heart, fiercely repeating 
the request. Cool and collected the brave woman faced her swarthy 
foe, and for a moment thought that her last hour and that of her 
helpless babe had come. Not yet. An idea strikes her. In I lie 

* This humble abode, which was on the site now occupied by the Bee-Hive House, 
was the first building erected outside the fort in Salt Lake Valley. The first live planted 
by the Pioneers still stands in the yard of the Her Hive House. It is a locust, and was 
planted by Harriet P. Young. 

f Lorenzo Dow Young, junior, horn September 20th, 1847, — the first while male 
child born in Utah. 


next room, securely fastened, is a large dog. a powerful mastiff, 
purchased by her husband on leaving the fort, and kept upon the 
premises for just such emergencies as the danger now threatening. 
Making a sign to the savage, as of compliance with his request, she 
passed into the next room, and hastily untying the dog, exclaimed 
"seize him." Like lightning the mastiff darted through the door- 
way, and a shriek of terror, quickly followed by a howl of pain, as 
the sharp canine teeth met in the red-skin's thigh, told how well the 
faithful brute comprehended his mistress' peril, and the duty 
required of him in her defense. In all probability, the Indian, 
prostrate and pleading vociferously for his life, would never again 
have risen, had not our heroine, in whose generous heart pity for 
the vanquished wretch at once took the place of the just anger she 
had momentarily felt, after prudently relieving him of his bow and 
arrow, called off the dog and set the wounded savage at liberty. 
He was badly hurt, and cried bitterly. Mrs. Young magnanimously 
washed the wound, applied a large sticking plaster to the injured 
part, and sent him away a wiser if not a better Indian. 

But the settlers of Salt Lake Valley were not much molested by 
the red men. Other settlements, formed later, fared worse. Fierce, 
at times, were the fights of the savages among themselves. One of 
the customs in vogue with them was to torture and kill, if they could 
not sell, their prisoners of war. Several Indian children were 
ransomed, the first winter, by settlers at the fort, to save them from 
being shot or tortured to death by their merciless captors. One of 
these, a girl, was purchased by Charles Decker, who gave her to his 
sister, Clara D. Young, by whom she was civilized and reared to 

Owing to the mildness of the first winter in the valley, logging, 
building and exploring were continued at intervals until spring. The 
heaviest snows fell in March, after the spring plowing had begun. 
During December, Parley P. Pratt and others went on horseback to 
Utah Lake, taking with them a boat and fish-net in a wagon drawn 
by oxen. At the foot of the lake they launched their boat and began 

Jl r „*„/„ y...J 


fishing. It was believed by Parley that these were "probably the 
first boat and net ever used on this sheet of water in modern times.'' 
They took a few trout and other fish, but on the whole met with poor 
success piscatorially. Having explored a day or two in that vicinity, 
most of the party returned, but Parley and a man named Summers 
remained. Striking westward from the foot of Utah Lake they 
partly explored Cedar Valley, afterwards the site of Camp Floyd, 
then passed over the mountains and through Rush and Tooele 
valleys. Continuing on to the Salt Lake, they turned eastward, 
crossed the Jordan and came home. So passed away the first winter 
of the pioneer settlers in Salt Lake Valley. 




Founding new settlements — brigham young as a colonizer — davis count? occupied — 

the goodyear purchase the cricket plague saved by the gulls days of 

famine the first harvest feast how gold was discovered in california 

immigration of 1848 matters spiritual and temporal lands distributed to the 

settlers the first utah currency more apostles ordained the stake organized 

salt lake city divided into bishops' wards. 

/JTLMOST the first steps taken by the pioneer colony in 1848 
^-^- were toward the founding of additional settlements. Indeed, 
before the new year dawned movements had been made in that 

As Brigham Young had predicted, the day after entering the 
Valley, when organizing his exploring parties to traverse the 
surrounding region in quest of eligible sites for other settlements, 
no place so suitable for their chief city had been found or was 
destined to be discovered by those explorers in all their subsequent 
wanderings and searchings. And yet the pioneer leader had made 
that prediction intuitively, not from any previous acquaintance with 
this region; had made it, too, in the very face of reports received 
from experienced mountaineers, men thoroughly familiar with the 
country, — reports uniformly adverse to Salt Lake Valley as a place 
in which to plant a colony, and all favoring other localities. But 
Brigham Young knew better. The reports of the Fremonts, the 
Harrises and the Bridgers were nothing to him, when once his eye 
had rested upon the scene and surveyed the situation. Here was 
a place for a great city, and he knew it, and his "oracular soul" told 
him that in all this inter-mountain region no other place so suitable 
was to be found. 


It is said that the great Napoleon, at the very beginning of a 
battle, as with the instinct of Mars himself, was able almost 
invariably to foretell the outcome; and that on one occasion, at 
least, before the battle had fairly joined, he scribbled upon his 
saddle-bow a dispatch reading: "Victory is ours," and sent it off 
post-haste to Paris and Josephine. Brigham Young's victories were 
of peace, not of war, yet there was something Napoleonic in his 
genius, — in his marvelous intuition and foresight. 

The fact is, Brigham Young was a born colonizer, — as much so, 
perhaps, as Napoleon was a born warrior; one of the greatest 
colonizers that the world has seen; a builder of cities, a founder of 
empire, second to none in the annals of the ages. This is not 
flattery. The world, sometimes slow, but always sure at last to 
open its eyes to the truth, will one day acknowledge it. The 
broad-minded and intelligent, whose attention has been drawn to 
the subject, recognize it already. Even bigotry will foliow suit some 
day. Men may not credit, as Brigham Young did, as his people still 
do, divine inspiration with his success; for he always maintained 
that Mormonism made him, that it made Joseph Smith, and not they 
Mormonism. But men will yet acknowledge, far more widely than 
they now do, and impartial history, whose page is the past and 
present, but whose pen is the future, will yet record that Brigham 
Young was a great man, one of Time's greatest, and that genius, if 
not divinity, was manifest in his methods and achievements. 

A man may have faults, and yet be great, as water may be clear 
though holding soil in solution; as the sun may have spots, and yet 
supremely shine. Brigham Young had his faults, as Washington, as 
Lincoln and Grant had theirs. But if greatness were denied to men 
because of their defects,— those shadows that form the back-ground 
of the most brilliant picture, — who of all men, save One, would be 
great? The incident referred to, though a mere straw in the wind, 
serving to show its direction, will illustrate in part the intuition and 
foresight of which Brigham Young was undoubtedly the possessor. 

Salt Lake Valley was indeed, as he declared, the best place for a 


city — a metropolis — in all this inter-mountain region. The whole 
world knows it now. But there were other places in the vicinity, as 
he also declared, possessing every facility of situation, soil, climate 
and surroundings, for the formation of thriving settlements, and of 
future flourishing towns and cities. True, most of them were then 
barren and desolate, cheerless and forbidding in the extreme: but 
the sagacious eye saw past all this, and the future became present to 
its gaze. A few spots there were that were even then promising ; 
where water was not so scarce, where verdure sprang spontaneously 
and the soil was naturally fertile. Among these were some of the 
lands now included in Davis County, and the Goodyear lands on the 
Weber, where the next settlements of our Territory were formed. 
Both these sections are comprised in a narrow alluvial strip lying 
between the western base of the Wasatch Mountains and the 
eastern shore of the Great Salt Lake. In fact those lands are a 
portion, a mere extension northward of Salt Lake Valley. 

Peregrine Sessions, the original pioneer of Davis County — next 
to; Salt Lake County the first part of Utah occupied and settled, — 
was, as we have seen, a captain of fifty in Daniel Spencer's hundred; 
the very vanguard of the migrating trains that began arriving in 
Salt Lake Valley in the latter part of September, 1847. On the 28th 
of that month, a few days after reaching the valley, Mr. Sessions 
moved northward about ten miles and camped that night about half 
a mile from the spot where he now resides, and where sprang up 
Sessions' Settlement, since called Bountiful. Hector C. Haight, 
following Captain Sessions' example, camped six or seven miles north 
of him, on what was afterwards known as Haight's Creek, a little 
south-west of the present site of Kaysville. This was also in the 
latter part of 1847. There may have been others who moved into 
that section about the same time. Such was the beginning of 
the settlement of Davis County. 

The object of these men in separating themselves so early from 
the society of their friends at the pioneer fort — the immediate object 
at least — was to find pasturage for their stock, the range of the 




Jordan Valley being inadequate for all the cattle of the immigrants. 
These cattle, some of which had to be killed at once for beef, were 
almost worn to skeletons by their long pilgrimage over the plains. So 
literally was this the case that one of the new-comers, — who was no 
other than Apostle John Taylor, — while sawing up one of these bony, 
juiceless beeves for the winter, remarked with grim humor to his 
assistant, Captain Joseph Home, that he guessed they would " have to 
grease the saw to make it work." But though pasturing stock was 
the original purpose of the pioneers of Davis County, it was not the 
only one. At all events, though they did little else than herd cattle 
and horses through the winter, they began to till the ground the 
following spring, and thus formed the nuclei of some of the present 
flourishing settlements in that vicinity. 

It was in March, 1848, that Peregrine Sessions, assisted by 
Jezreel Shoemaker, broke the first ground in Davis County for 
agricultural purposes. Later, came into the county at various times 
such men as Thomas Grover, Daniel Wood, A. B. Cherry, Anson 
Call, Daniel C. Davis, John Stoker, Joseph Holbrook, Nathan T. 
Porter, the Smiths, the Parrishes, the Duels, the Millers, William 
Kay, Christopher Layton and many others to be mentioned hereafter. 
Davis County was named for Captain Daniel C. Davis, of the Mormon 
Battalion, commander of the re-enlisted volunteers, a portion of 
whom, being disbanded at San Diego in March, 1848; rejoined their 
people in Salt Lake Valley in June. Captain Davis settled on a creek 
a little south of the present town of Farmington. 

And now as to the inception of Weber County, the nucleus of 
which — speaking of its settlement by white men — antedates by several 
years either Davis or Salt Lake County. The greater part of the 
lands now comprised in Weber County were owned, or claimed, in 
1847 by Miles M. Goodyear, whose name has more than once been 
mentioned in these pages. He was a protege, it is said, of Captain 
Grant, a well known, eccentric character of those days, representing 
the Hudson's Bay Company at Fort Hall. Goodyear claimed the Weber 
lands by virtue of a grant from the Mexican government made to 


him in 1841. His claim was particularly described as follows: 
Beginning at the mouth of Weber Canyon, and following the base of 
the mountains north to the Hot Springs, thence westward to the 
Great Salt Lake, southward along the shore of the lake to a point 
opposite Weber Canyon, and thence to the point of beginning. Its 
extent is said to have been twenty miles square. This tract, at that 
time, was one of the most desirable spots in all this region. On these 
lands Goodyear had built a picket fort, enclosing a few log cabins, 
situated on the right bank of the Weber, about two miles above the 
junction of that stream with the Ogden river. Having established 
himself as a trapper and trader he was there living with his Indian 
family, and a few mountaineers and half-breeds, when the pioneers 
entered Salt Lake Valley.* 

It has been related how Captain James Brown, on his way to 
San Francisco in August, 1847, called at the Goodyear Fort and 
became acquainted with its proprietor. Goodyear's principal reason 
for offering his place for sale, — as he is said to have done soon 
afterwards, — was his lack of success in farming. It was also due, no 
doubt, to the advent of local immigration, which would necessarily 
interfere with his success in trapping. As soon as Captain Brown 
returned from the coast, the purchase of the Goodyear lands, im- 
provements and live stock was by him negotiated and effected. 

The Captain returned to the Valley some time in December, 
1847. He brought with him from San Francisco $10,000 in Spanish 
doubloons, most if not all of it the amount received from the U. S. 
Paymaster for the men of his detachment. This was the first 
money put in circulation among the Mormon colonists, save perhaps 
a few coins remaining to them after purchasing the outfits with 
which they had crossed the plains. Captain Brown was accompanied 

* The Goodyear Fori was situated near a large sand mound, still visible, about half 
a milr south-west of the Union Railway Depot in Ogden. 

Most of the mountaineers living in the west had squaws. Barney Ward, well 
remembered by tin; early settlers of Salt Lake Valley, was dwelling with his Indian 
family in this region when the pioneers arrived. 



on his return by his son Jesse, Abner Blackburn and Lysander 
Woodworth, of the party who had gone with him from the Valley, 
and by Samuel Lewis, a member of the Battalion, who joined them 
at Sutter's Fort. The rest of his party remained in California. 
Threading the Truckee Pass, at the foot of which so many of the 
Donner party had miserably perished, and taking the Hastings Cut- 
Off, the Captain and his party accomplished the hazardous winter 
journey in safety. Immediately on his return he entered into or 
concluded negotiations with the proprietor of the Goodyear lands, 
and late in December, or early in January, 1848, purchased them for 
the sum of $3,000. 

It has more than once been published that this purchase was 
made on the 6th of June of that year, and that a part of the amount 
brought by Captain Brown from California was in gold dust. We 
have it on the authority of the Captain's sons, Jesse, Alexander, 
William and Moroni, that January and not June was the time. 
Jesse and Alexander, who accompanied their father when he .first 
took up his abode on the Weber, state positively that the snow was 
on the ground, — which would hardly be the case in June, — and that 
they "kept bachelor's hall at the fort all winter." This being so. and 
Captain Brown's returning from the coast in December, 1847, 
renders highly improbable the statement that he brought any gold 
dust with him; as gold was not discovered in California until 
January, 1848. Whether or not the Goodyear purchase was made 
at the suggestion of President Young — who was then at Winter 
Quarters — it was manifestly in perfect keeping, as was the occupation 
of the Davis County lands, with the grand colonizing scheme of tbe 
pioneer President, as foreshadowed in his instructions to the 
explorers in July, 1847. 

In about a month after the purchase of the Goodyear tract the 
treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed — February 2nd, 1S48 — and 
the vast region now known as California, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico 
and Arizona, previously Mexican territory, was ceded to the United 
States. The terms of the treaty, il was expected, would confirm 


Captain Brown's title to the Goodyear lands, but for some reason it 
was not recognized, and the Federal Government, many years later, 
ignored the claim, assumed ownership of the lands,* gave to the 
Union Pacific Railway on its subsidy each alternate section of the 
tract, and required the old settlers, including Captain Brown's 
immediate descendants, to re-purchase the homes and farms that they 
had held for two decades. The inference is that Government, not 
purposely oppressive and unjust, did not regard the grant to Good- 
year from Mexico as valid. Similar cases occurred in California. 

In the spring of 1848, Captain Brown, his sons and hired help, 
went to work with a will on the Weber, plowing and sowing a few 
acres with wheat, the seed of which he had brought with him from 
California. He also planted corn, potatoes, cabbage, turnips, and 
water-melons. A man named Wells, who had formerly dwelt at the 
fort, told the Browns, as Goodyear had previously told them, that 
their crops would not mature. The frost, he said, would kill the 
corn about the time it began silking, — at least such had been his 
experience as a farmer in that region. Nothing daunted, they went 
on putting in their crops, and in due time reaped a goodly harvest. 
Jesse S. Brown, the Captain's eldest son, today wears a medal for 
plowing the first furrow in Weber County. Mary Black, the 
Captain's wife, was the pioneer cheese-maker of Utah. While 
awaiting their first harvest they procured supplies of flour from Fort 
Hall. And thus was laid the foundation of Weber County. 

Other Mormon settlers soon followed the Browns to that locality. 
Retaining but two or three hundred acres of his immense purchase 
for himslf. the Captain generously allowed his brethren to settle on 
the tract, and would take no pay from them for the lands they built 
upon and cultivated. The Fairs, Canfields, Moores, Brownings, 
Wests. Shurtliffs, Herricks, Peerys, Richardses and other representa- 
tive Weber County families, — too numerous to mention here, but all 

*Fort Bridger, purchased of its proprietors by Brigham Young in 1853, shared a 
similar fate. Bridger had claimed the property by virtue of a Mexican grant, which 
claim, in Brigham Young, the United Slates government ignored. 


of whom shall receive due notice at the proper time, — eventually 
took up their abode in the county, and helped to make it what it is 
today. Lorin Farr, who has before been mentioned, though not the 
pioneer of Weber County, was the virtual founder of Ogden, Utah's 
second city, of which he was the first Mayor, many times re-elected. 

The opening of the spring of 1848 in Great Salt Lake City saw 
nearly seventeen hundred souls dwelling in upwards of four hundred 
log and adobe huts inside the "Old Fort.*' Over five thousand acres 
of land had been brought under cultivation, nearly nine hundred 
of which had been sown with winter wheat, the tender blades of 
which were now beginning to sprout.* A few months more and the 
settlers, whose breadstuffs and provisions of all kinds were getting 
quite low, and would just about last, with due economy, until 
harvest-time, would be rejoicing with their friends in the north in 
reaping and partaking of their first harvest in the Rocky Mountains. 

But now came a visitation as terrible as it was totally unex- 
pected. It was the cricket plague. In May and June of that year 
myriads of these destructive pests, an army of famine and despair, 
rolled in black legions clown the mountain sides and attacked the 
fields of growing grain.f The tender crops fell an easy prey to their 
fierce voracity. They literally swept everything before them. 
Starvation with all its terrors seemed staring the poor settlers in the 
face. In the northern sections the situation was much the same, 
though at Brownville, on the Weber, the ravages of the crickets were 
not so great. 

With the energy of desperation, the community, men, women 
and children, thoroughly alarmed, marshaled themselves to fight and 
if possible repel the rapacious foe. While some went through the 

* To be exact, there were 1671 souls, 423 houses, 5133 acres of cultivated land, 
and 875 acres sown with winter wheat. 

f Says Anson Gall : "The Rocky Mountain cricket, as now remembered, when 
full grown, is about one-and-a-half inches in length, heavy and clumsy in its movements, 
with no better power of locomotion than hopping a foot or two at a time. It has an 
eagle-eyed, staring appearance, and suggests the idea that it may be the habitation of a 
vindictive little demon." 


fields killing the crickets, and at the same time, alas ! crushing much 
of the tender grain, others dug ditches around the farms, turned 
water into the trenches, and drove and drowned therein myriads of 
the black devourers. Others beat them back with clubs and brooms, 
or burned them in fires set in the fields. Still they could not prevail. 
Too much headway had been gained by the crickets before the 
gravity of the situation was discovered, and in spite of all that the 
settlers could do, their hopes of a harvest were fast vanishing, and 
with those hopes the very hope of life. 

They were saved, they believed, by a miracle, — just such a 
miracle as, according to classic tradition, saved ancient Rome, when 
the cackling of geese roused the slumbering city in lime to beat back 
the invading Gauls.* In the midst of the work of destruction, when 
it seemed as if nothing could stay the devastation, great flocks of 
gulls appeared, filling the air with their white wings and plaintive 
cries, and settled down upon the half-ruined fields. At first it 
seemed as if they came but to destroy what the crickets had left. 
But their real purpose was soon apparent. They came to prey upon 
the destroyers. All day long they gorged themselves, and when full, 
disgorged and feasted again, the white gulls upon the black crickets, 
like hosts of heaven and hell contending, until the pests were 
vanquished, and the people were saved. The heaven-sent birds then 
returned to the lake islands whence they came, leaving the grateful 
people to shed tears of joy at the wonderful and timely deliverance 
wrought out for them. 

Is it strange that among the early acts of Utah's legislators 
there should be a law making the wanton killing of these birds a 

*This event is said to have occurred in the year 390. B.C. The Gauls were 
invading Roman territory, and had inflicted a disastrous defeat upon the Romans just 
outside the city. Marius Manlius, at the head of a handful of his countrymen, held the 
citadel against the barbarians, but according to the legend had neglected to place sentinels 
to warn him against a night attack. A few of the geese, considered holy by the Romans, 
had been spared by the famishing soldiers, and during the siege the Gauls determined 
upon a night attack. They were advancing toward iHe citadel, when the geese, alarmed at 
their approach, set up a cackling and aroused the defenders, who drove oil' the besiegers. 


punishable offense ? Rome once had her sacred geese. Utah would 
henceforth have her sacred gulls. Ye statesmen and state-makers of 
the future ! When Utah's sovereign star, dawning above the dark 
horizon of factional strife, shall take its place in the blue, unclouded 
zenith of freedom's empyrean, and it is asked by those who would 
frame her escutcheon, What shall her emblem be? Name not at all 
the carpet-bag. Place not first the beehive, nor the eagle; nor yet 
the miner's pick, the farmer's plow, nor the smoke-stack of the 
wealth-producing smelter. Give these their places, all, in dexter or 
in middle, but whatever else the glittering shield contains, reserve 
for the honor point, as worthy of all praise, the sacred bird that 
saved the pioneers. 

And barely saved them, too, for even as it was, there was 
famine in Utah before another year. This was largely owing to the 
crickets, but was due also to drought and frost. These mishaps, 
with the coming of the fall immigration, depending upon the settlers 
for much of their support, rendered the harvest wholly inadequate, 
and caused much inconvenience and some suffering before another 
crop could be raised. During the days, or rather months of scarcity, 
such as had food put themselves and their families upon rations, 
while those who were without or had but little, dug sego and thistle 
roots, and cooked and ate raw-hides to eke out their scanty store. 
Wild vegetation of various kinds was used for "greens" by the 
half-famished people, many of whom went for weeks without tasting 
bread. The raw-hides were boiled and converted into a gelatinous 
soup, which was drank with eager relish. The straitness began to 
be felt even before the crickets came, and after that event, owing to 
the prevailing scarcity, the arrival of the fall immigration was looked 
forward to with positive apprehension. * 

*'• During this spring and summer," says Parley P. Pratt, "my family and myself, in 
common with many of the camp, suffered much for want of food. * * * We had 
lost nearly all our cows, and the few which were spared to us were dry. * * * 1 
had ploughed and subdued land to the amount of near forty acres. * * * ] nthis 
labor every woman and child in my family, so far as they were of sufficient age and 


Before the worst of those days arrived, however, on August 
10th, 1848, the glad settlers celebrated with a feast their first harvest 
home. It was quite a grand affair with them. In the center of the 
fort a bowery had been erected, and underneath its shade, tables 
were spread richly and bounteously laden. Bread and beef, butter 
and cheese, cakes and pastry, green corn, water-melons and 
vegetables of nearly every variety composed the feast. For once at 
least, that season, the hungry people had enough to eat. Says 
Parley P. Pratt: "Large sheaves of wheat, rye, barley, oats and 
other productions were hoisted on poles for public exhibition, and 
there was prayer and thanksgiving, congratulations, songs, speeches, 
music, dancing, smiling faces and merry hearts. In short it was a 
great day with the people of these valleys, and long to be 
remembered by those who had suffered and waited anxiously for the 
results of a first effort to redeem the interior deserts of America." 

The fort now contained eighteen hundred inhabitants; the 
increase since March being due to the arrival from the west of 
several parties of the disbanded Mormon volunteers. They returned 
laden with gold-dust from the California mines.* The discovery of 
the precious metal west of the Sierras being due to the labor of Utah 
men, it is but proper to give here a brief account of that very 
important event. 

It has already been related that in September, 1847, a party of 
the discharged Battalion men, on their way to Salt Lake Valley, met, 
east of the Sierras, Captain James Brown and Samuel Brannan, and 
that a portion of the soldiers, pursuant to advice sent them by 
President Young, turned back to obtain work for the winter in 
California. These men, about forty in number, secured employment 

strength, had joined to help me, and had toiled incessantly in the field, suffering every 
hardship which human nature could well endure. Myself and some of them were 
compelled lo go with bare feet for several months, reserving our Indian moccasins for 
extra occasions. We toiled hard and lived on a lew greens, and on the thistle and other 

* One company brought with them two brass cannon purchased lor £512 and used 
as a means of protection against hostile Indians. 


at Sutter's Fort, the proprietor of which, Captain John A. Sutter, 
was just then in need of help for the erection of a flour-mill and a 
saw-mill. A site for the flour-mill was selected near the fort, and 
most of the men were put to work thereon. But the saw-mill had 
to be built among the mountains, in the little valley of Coloma, 
forty-five miles away. To that place Sutter sent ten men, one of 
whom was his partner, James W. Marshall, who superintended the 
erection of the mill. The other nine worked under him. Of these, 
six were Mormons and late members of the Battalion. Their names 
were Alexander Stephens, James S. Brown, James Barger, William 
Johnston, Azariah Smith and Henry W. Bigler. The other three 
were non-Mormons, who had been more or less associated with the 
Saints since the days of Nauvoo. They were Peter Wimmer, 
William Scott and Charles Bennett. Sutter also employed about a 
dozen Indians. For four months these men labored at Coloma, and 
the saw-mill was approaching completion. Late in January, 1848, the 
water was turned into the race to carry away some loose dirt and 
gravel. It was then turned off, and the superintendent, Mr. Marshall, 
walked along the tail-race to ascertain the extent of some slight 
damage that had been done by the water near the base of the 
building. While pursuing his investigation, his eye caught sight of 
some yellow metallic particles on the rotten granite bed-rock of the 
race. He picked up several of them, the largest of which were about 
the size of wheat grains. He believed — but did not know — that they 
were gold. Subsequently they were assayed, and the fact of the 
great discovery was verified. 

The first record of the finding of the gold was made by Henry 
W. Bigler, a Mormon, — now a citizen of St. George, Utah. To him, 
among the first, Marshall announced his discovery. A diary note in 
Bigler*s journal, made on the same day, runs as follows: 

"Monday, 24th. This day some kind of metal was found in the 
tail-race that looks like gold." 

Another note of January 30th, which was Sunday, reads: 
"Clear, and has been all the last week. Our metal has been tried 


and proves to be gold. It is thought to be rich. We have picked up 
more than a hundred dollars' worth last week.*' 

Thus was originally chronicled the world-renowned discovery at 
Coloma. Henry W. Bigler, of St George, Azariah Smith, of Manti, 
in Utah; and Peter L. Wimmer, of San Diego, California, are today 
the three survivors of the party of workmen whose picks and 
shovels first brought to light the auriferous wealth of California. 

Meantime on the far-off frontier, President Young and his 
associates, early in 1848, had set about organizing the main body of 
their people prior to leading them to the Rocky Mountains. On the 
27th of the previous December, at a conference of the Saints held in 
a new log tabernacle on the east side of the Missouri, the First 
Presidency — vacant since the death of Joseph Smith — had been re- 
organized. Brigham Young was now President of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints- in all the world, and Heber C. Kimball 
and' Willard Richards were his Counselors.* This event was sup- 
plemented by preparations for a general emigration in the spring. 
Still it was desirable to maintain, for the benefit of future emigration, 
an out-fitting post on the frontier. Winter Quarters was soon to be 
vacated, but the Legislature of Iowa granted a petition for the 
organization of Pottowatomie County — east of the river — and there, 
on the site where stood their historic Log Tabernacle, the Mormons 
built the town of Kanesville, a few miles above the present city of 
Council Bluffs. Kanesville became for several years a point of out- 
fit and departure for Mormon emigration. Their companies from 
Europe by way of New Orleans would now steam up the Mississippi 
and the Missouri to Kanesville. The first company to follow this 
river route was one led by Franklin D. Richards. It sailed from 
Liverpool in February, 1848, and reached Winter Quarters some time 
before the early summer emigration started across the plains. 

It was about the beginning of June that the First Presidency 

* This action was pursuant to a decision of the Council of the Apostles made on 

the 5th of December. 


broke up their camp on the Elk Horn, and again set out for the 
Valley of the Great Salt Lake. First went Brigham Young, with a 
company of 1229 souls and 397 wagons; next, Heber C. Kimball, 
whose trains numbered 662 souls and 226 wagons. Willard 
Richards brought up the rear, with 526 souls and 169 wagons. The 
last wagon left Winter Quarters on the 3rd of July. That place was 
now nearly deserted. 

Along with this large emigration went such notables as Daniel 
H. Wells, who, having joined the Church at Nauvoo in August, 
1846, had left the city with the expelled remnant of his people and 
joined the main body in their prairie homes; Lorenzo Snow, who 
had figured in the British Mission before the Prophet's death, and 
was now fast rising to prominence; Franklin D. Richards, of whom 
that mission had also heard and was destined to hear much more; 
Joseph F. Smith, who, however, was only a lad of nine years, in the 
care of his heroic mother, Mary Fielding Smith, who, with other 
Mormon women of that period, drove her own ox-team wagon across 
the plains. Bishop Newel K. Whitney also accompanied this 
emigration, which carried with it such notable women as his wife, 
Elizabeth Ann Whitney, Vilate Kimball and Mary Ann Angell Young. 
Robert T. Burton, George D. Grant, William Kay, Phineas Richards, 
Horace S. Eldredge, Hosea Stout and others who became prominent 
or well known in Utah history were also included. 

Brigham Young had general command of all the companies, and 
Daniel H. Wells was his aide-de-camp. Horace S. Eldredge was 
marshal, and Hosea Stout captain of the night-guard. Amasa M. 
Lyman, Erastus Snow and other prominent men who had returned 
with the President from the Valley, now went back with him, having 
charge of various sub-divisions of the emigration. Several of the 
Apostles remained at Kanesville; some to go upon missions, and 
some to superintend Mormon affairs on the frontier. One of these 
was Orson Hyde, who had not yet been to the Valley, and still 
tarried behind to transact important business for the Church. A 
few months after the President's departure, Apostle Hyde began the 


publication, at Kanesville, of a semi-monthly paper called the 
Frontier Guardian* 

On went the emigration, crossing the plains and the Rocky 
Mountains along the same route formerly traveled by the Pioneers. 
President Young, with a portion of his division, reached Salt Lake 
Valley on the 20th of September. Heber C. Kimball came a few 
days later, and within another month the trains had all arrived. 

President Richards' companies lost many of their cattle 
through the alkali on the Sweetwater. This so hindered his 
progress that teams from the Valley had to be sent out to help in 
the rear trains. 

Immediately after the President's arrival a conference was 
called to convene on the 8th of October. This conference, which was 
held in the Fort Rowery, ratified the action of the Apostles and the 
main body of the Saints on the frontier, relative to the reorganiza- 
tion of the First Presidency. Newel K. Whitney was sustained as 
Presiding Bishop of the Church, and John Smith was appointed its 
Patriarch. This caused a vacancy in the Stake Presidency, which 
Charles C. Rich was chosen to fill; John Young and Erastus Snow 
were his counselors. 

These spiritual matters attended to, the temporal needs of the 
colony came in for their share of thought and labor. The recent 
immigration, which aggregated nearly 2500 souls, had swelled the 
population in the valley to between four and five thousand. These 
people must be housed and fed through the winter. How. was 
the problem facing the Mormon leaders that fall, as the signs of a 
long and unusually severe winter began to show themselves. More 
houses might be built, for the materials were at hand, and before the 
heavy snows fell the number of huts might be materially increased. 
Some of the families could make shift with their wagons until spring. 
But where was the food to come from, — the loaves and fishes to feed 
these five thousand ! The immigrants had not all brought sufficient, 

The first number of this paper was issued February 7th. 1*49. 



and the valley harvest, upon which they had largely depended, had 
measurably failed. Thus the food question was the principal 
problem, and before it was fully solved, there had been much 
suffering and privation in the Valley by the Lake. 

It was during these days of scarcity, when the half-starved, half- 
clad settlers hardly knew where to look for the next crust of bread, 
or for rags to hide their nakedness, — for clothing had become almost 
as scarce with them as breadstuff's,* — that Heber G. Kimball, in a 
public meeting, declared to the astonished congregation that it would 
not be three years before "States goods" would be sold in Salt Lake 
Valley cheaper than in the eastern cities. The astonishment of his 
hearers was not based upon any expectation that this prediction 
would or could be realized. 1 Rather were they astounded at the 
seemingly preposterous statement. "I don't believe a word of it," 
said Charles C. Rich, and he but expressed the sentiments of 
nineteen-twentieths of the congregation. President Kimball, after a 
moment's reflection, rather doubted the prediction himself. And 
yet, as we shall see, it was literally fulfilled, and in a manner totally 

During 1848 various improvements for the public benefit were 
planned and effected in Salt Lake Valley and the vicinity. Roads 
were constructed in divers directions, and bridges thrown across 
the Jordan River and several of the mountain streams. A bath 
house was also erected at the Warm Springs. To defray the expense 
of some of these improvements the roadmaster — Daniel Spencer — 
was authorized to levy a poll and property tax; the rate of the latter 
being one per cent. Most of the assessments were paid in labor on 
the roads. In October a Council House was projected, to be built by 
donation, or labor-tithing. Daniel H. Wells was appointed to super- 
intend its construction. Grist-mills and saw-mills had been and 
were being erected on City Creek, Mill Creek and other streams, 
water being the motive power used. Some of this machinery bad 

Nearly every man was dressed in skins." — Heber C. Kimball. 


come with the first immigration and was in operation during the 
following spring and summer. More machinery for milling, and 
some for carding; also printing presses, type, and other materials of 
; 'the art preservative," were brought in the immigration of 1848. 
Among the pioneer mill-builders may be mentioned Charles Crismon, 
Isaac Chase, John Neff, Samuel Thompson, Archibald and Robert 

During the autumn the city lots were given out to the settlers, 
and when all had been distributed, others were laid out in exten- 
sions to the original plat, and allotted in like manner. A vast field 
of eight thousand acres was surveyed south of and bordering upon 
the city, plotted in five and ten-acre fields and distributed by lot to 
the people. Each man was to help build a fence around the " Rig 
Field," and construct a canal along the east side for irrigating 
purposes. These lands were not sold, but given, as in the first 
instance when the Apostles selected their "inheritances." But a 
small fee was required from each holder to pay the surveyor. 

Before winter set in, some of the people began leaving the fort 
and moving out upon their city lots. Most of them, however, 
remained in the stockade until spring. They then took their houses 
with them — such of the domiciles as were portable — and set them 
down, according to rule, in or near the centers of their lots. Thus 
as the city grew the fort began to disappear, and soon there was 
little left of it but a few adobe walls to show where once it stood. 

The lack of a circulating medium among the settlers had long 
been felt. The inconvenience of buying wheat with corn, and 
paying for pigs in chickens, is apparent. The advent of gold-dust, 
much of which was brought by the Battalion men and others from 
California, had put an end to much of this embarrassment, and yet 
bags of gold-dust were not the most convenient money in the world. 
To obviate the trouble, pending the procuring of a stamp wherewith 
to coin some of the precious metal now becoming so abundant, a paper 
currency was issued in January, 1849. The first bill— one dollar- 
bore the signatures of Brigham Young. Heber C. Kimball and 



Thomas Bullock. The first type-setting in Salt Lake Valley — by 
Brigham Young and Thomas Bullock — was for this primitive Utah 
currency. Some months later $2.50, $5, $10 and $20 gold pieces 
were coined in a mint temporarily established by the Mormons. 
These coins, which were improvised purely for Jocal use, bore no 
resemblance to the Government coins. They were of unalloyed, 
virgin gold, and as fast as they were superseded by legal money were 
disposed of as bullion to the Federal mints.* 

The winter of 1848-9, unlike its predecessor, was uncommonly 
severe. Heavy snows and violent winds prevailed, and the weather, 
from the 1st of December until late in February, was extremely cold. 
The coldest day was the 5th of February, when the mercury fell to 
33° F. below zero. An inventory of breadstuffs taken early that 
month showed about three-fourths of a pound per day for each soul 
in the Valley, until the beginning of July. The pressure of the 
famine was severely felt, but the community generally shared alike, 
and extreme suffering was thus prevented. The earth that season 
yielded abundantly, and the famine again was staid. 

Early in February the Church authorities resumed the task of 
perfecting the ecclesiastical organization. In December fellowship 
had been withdrawn from Apostle Lyman Wight and Bishop George 
Miller, who had previously separated from the Church, refusing to 
longer follow its destinies.f Four vacancies now existed in the 
council of the Twelve. They were filled on February 12th, 1849, by 

* The veteran jeweler, J. M. Barlow, senior, of Salt Lake City, contributes this : 
" The first dies, consisting of a $2.50, a $5 and a $20 piece, were made by John Kay 
and an old blacksmith, but were very crude. At the request of Governor Young 
I had made in my office by Dougal Brown, a set of dies for $5 pieces, and for a 
number of years (until Governor Cumming ordered its discontinuance) I refined the gold 
and coined it into money. If I do say so myself, it was as perfect a piece of monej as 
ever came from any mint. I also made the first and only solid silver spoons ever made 
in Utah, and the silver cups now in use in the administration of the sacrament at the 

| During November, 1848, at far-off Kanesville, Oliver Cowder] came back into the 

Church, to die in the Mon l faith a few months later, but never to reach the Rocky 



the calling and ordination of Charles C. Rich, Lorenzo Snow, 
Erastus Snow and Franklin D. Richards to the Apostleship. On the 
13th of that month a more permanent Stake organization was 
effected, as follows : Daniel Spencer, President; David Fullmer and 
Willard Snow, first and second Counselors. The members of the 
High Council were Isaac Morley, Phinehas Richards, Shadrach 
Roundy, Henry G. Sherwood, Titus Billings, Eleazer Miller. John 
Vance, Levi Jackman, Ira Eldredge, Elisha H. Groves, William W. 
Mayor and Edwin D. Woolley. 

Next day — the 14th — Great Salt Lake City was divided into 
nineteen ecclesiastical wards. The following named were the 
Bishops: First Ward, Peter McCue; Second, John Lowry; Third, 
Christopher Williams, Fourth, Benjamin Brown; Fifth. Thomas 
Winters; Sixth, William Hickenlooper; Seventh, William G. Perkins; 
Eight, Addison Everett; Ninth, Seth Taft; Tenth, David Pettigrew; 
Eleventh, John Lytle; Twelfth, Benjamin Covey; Thirteenth, Edward 
Hunter; Fourteenth, John Murdock, senior; Fifteenth, Abraham 0. 
Smoot; Sixteenth, Shadrach Roundy; Seventeenth, Joseph L. 
Heywood; Eighteenth, Presiding Bishop Whitney; Nineteenth, 
James Hendricks. Each of these wards comprised, as far as practi- 
cable, three blocks square ; the enumeration beginning at the south- 
east corner of the city, where the First Ward lies, and running west 
to the city limit, where the Fifth Ward ends. The enumeration then 
continued on the next tier of blocks from west to east, then back 
again, and so on until all the wards were formed. 




Beginning of Utah's political history — the provisional government of deseret — utah 

valley settled the ute indians sowiette and walkara the gold-hunters 

''winter mormons" deseret applies for statehood first celebration of pioneer 

hay the stansbur? expedition the perpetual emigrating fund the first 

missionaries sent from the rocky mountains why brigham young discouraged 

mining the great salt lake valley carrying company sanpete and tooele 

valleys settled. 

"7 UTAH'S political history begins with the opening of the spring of 
^-* 1849. Up to that time the mode of government in Salt Lake 
Valley was purely an ecclesiastical regime. True, the community 
had its secular officials, authorized to levy and collect taxes and 
perform various functions of a civil character. It also had its peace 
officers,* and its primitive methods of administering justice. 

But these officers, as a rule, were chosen by the people at their 
conferences or other religious meetings, presided over by Apostles or 
Elders, and were virtually Church appointments. The nominations 
were usually made from the "stand," by some dignitary of the 
Priesthood, and sustained by the congregation, if acceptable, with 
uplifted hands.f Such appointments, therefore, though secular in 
character, could not be called political. J In fact there were no 
politics in the community, except as they existed in the breasts of 
those who had retained their former principles and predilections, and 
brought them into the wilderness, as they had brought their 
country's flag and their love for American institutions. 

* John Van Cott was Marshal, and John Nebeker Assistant Marshal. 

"|" The right hand is used for voting in Mormon religious meetings. 

J In those days culprits were tried by the Bishops' Courts and the High Council. 


But the Mormons knew that this condition of affairs must soon 
change ; that their isolation in these mountain-tops could not long 
continue. They had foreseen, or their Prophet had, at Nauvoo, the 
"manifest destiny" of the American Republic to possess the Pacific 
slope. They knew, with all the world, how the war with Mexico 
must end. They had even helped their country to conquer the 
region which they now inhabited. Their main purpose in moving 
west, — next to getting beyond the reach of their enemies and 
securing religious freedom, — was evidently to found an American 
State. Isolation they sought and desired, but only a temporary 
isolation. More than that they could not reasonably expect. 
Leaving out the question of their Americanism, — their love of 
native land and their loyalty to the Constitution, — the mission of 
the Latter-day Saints is and has ever been to the Gentiles, and not 
from them. They wished to found a State for the Union. They 
wished to govern that State, — at least so long as they remained in 
the majority. And certainly it was their right to do so, according to 
the genius of American institutions. 

There were some, no doubt, who thought, in the beginning of 
the exodus and afterwards, that it was not the destiny of the Mormon 
people to be again identified with the American nation. But these 
were individual views, and not the views of authority. Such men 
as Senator Douglas, James Arlington Bennett and Governor Ford, 
who had virtually advised the Mormon leaders to set up an 
independent government in the west, were largely responsible for 
such notions. Joseph Smith and Brigham Young had both declared, 
— the former in the very face of a contemplated exodus to the 
Rocky Mountains, the latter after that exodus had begun, — that it 
was the destiny of the Latter-day Saints to preserve the Constitution 
and rescue the starry flag at a time when traitors and tyrants would 
be tearing them to tatters and trampling them in the mire. The 
Saints, it may be added, are not yet converted from this view. That 
time, they believe, is at hand, — approaching on the wings of the 


Then why, if this be true, did the Mormons not found their 
State forthwith, and set up a political, in lieu of an ecclesiastical 
government in these mountains? Why did eighteen months elapse, 
after they entered Salt Lake Valley, before they took steps to align 
themselves as a commonwealth with the other parts of the Federal 
Union? In their failure to more promptly act in this matter, many 
have professed to see, some perhaps sincerely, a sign of Mormon 
disloyalty, — a reluctance on the part of the Saints to return to the 
sheltering aegis of Columbia and the Constitution. To such as 
have honestly taken this view, — but not. to those who have merely 
used it as a catch-phrase and political cudgel against the Mormons, 
— some explanation is probably due. That explanation is easily 

The Mormon pioneers entered Salt Lake Valley late in July, 
1847. Their first care, though the planting season was virtually 
past, and it had not been demonstrated that the soil in this locality 
would bring forth cereals and vegetables, was to put in crops, trust- 
ing in Providence for a harvest, lest famine with fierce maw should 
overtake them. Their next duty, almost as pressing, was to place 
roofs above their heads, lest the frosts of the coming winter might 
prove to them perpetual. What time had they for politics ? They 
hardly had time to pray, — to kneel upon the desert as their pilgrim 
ancestors had knelt on Plymouth Rock, and thank God for bringing 
them to another home. What time had they for political conven- 
tions, even had it been proper at that stage to have held them ? But 
would it have been proper? Up to February, 1848, when the treaty 
of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed, Utah was still Mexican soil, con- 
quered by but not yet ceded to the United States. Political action at 
such a time, on the part of the pioneers, would certainly have been 

But, it may be argued, the Mormons did not organize politically 
until over a year after the signing of the treaty which made Utah a 
part of the Federal domain. True, but it should be remembered that 
in those days news did not travel, as now, by railway and electric 


wire. Ox and mule teams carried the mail between the Missouri 
River and the Great Basin. Indeed, in 1849 there was no overland 
mail service at all, excepting such as might be furnished, at irregular 
intervals, by emigrants and other travelers crossing and re-crossing 
the great plains. Sometimes — usually during the winter — six months 
would elapse and no tidings of the outside world would reach the 
settlers of these mountain solitudes. Probably this was the case 
when the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed. Besides, at that 
time and for several months afterward, the majority of the Mormon 
leaders, including their master spirit, Brigham Young, were away, 
preparing on the far-off frontier to bring the main body of their 
homeless people to the mountains. In the absence of their leaders, 
whom they looked to for advice, and expected to take the initiative in 
all important movements of a public character, the settlers of Salt 
Lake Valley were busy fighting crickets, building houses, exploring 
and colonizing, — determining, in short, the question of actual sub- 

The absent leaders returned in the autumn of 1848, with 
between two and three thousand souls to be fed and sheltered 
through that famine winter. Preparations for its approach having 
been made, and the Church "set in order'* for the better care of the 
people temporally and spiritually, those leaders were ready for polit- 
ical work, and that winter the project of Utah's statehood was born. 

The Mormons did not call their proposed state Utah, however. 
There was nothing particularly attractive in that title — the name of 
a nation of savages, some of them, though not all, among the most 
degraded of the red-skinned race* They styled it, instead, Deseret, 

* Lieutenant J. W. Gunnison, in his work entitled " The Mormons," says of the Utah 
Indians: "This tribe consists of several bands under different chieftains, united by a com- 
mon language and affinities, as well as by numerous inter-marriages. They range over a 
large region of country, extending from California to New Mexico. They are a supersti- 
tious race and have many cruel customs. Some tribes are reputed good warriors. * * 

" The different tribes of the U talis arc frequently at war with each other, and they 
have an eternal national war with the Shoshones. The Mormon settlements partially 


meaning the honey bee,* — an appropriate emblem of their own 
untiring industry. 

A call for a convention to consider the political needs of the 
community was issued early in 1849. It was addressed to "all the 
citizens of that portion of Upper California lying east of the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains." The convention assembled at Salt Lake City 
early in March. It was then and there decided to petition Congress 
for a Territorial form of government, and to organize, pending Con- 
gressional action upon the petition, a provisional government.! A 
committee was appointed to draft and report a constitution for the 
temporary State of Deseret. This committee consisted of Albert 
Carrington, Joseph L. Heywood, William W. Phelps, David Fullmer, 
John S. Fullmer, Charles C. Rich, John Taylor, Parley P. Pratt, John 
M. Bernhisel and Erastus Snow. The convention continued its 
deliberations on the 8th, 9th and 10th of March, and adopted the 
constitution reported by the committee. Its caption and preamble 
were as follows : 


Preamble. — Whereas a large number of the citizens of the United States, before and 
since the treaty of peace with the Republic of Mexico, emigrated to, and settled in that por- 
tion of the territory of the United States lying west of the Rocky Mountains, and in the 
great interior Basin of Upper California ; and 

Whereas, by reason of said treaty, all civil organization originating from the Republic 
of Mexico became abrogated ; and 

Whereas the Congress of the United States has failed to provide a form of civil gov- 
ernment for the territory so acquired, or any portion thereof; and 

Whereas civil government and laws are necessary for the security, peace, and pros- 
perity of society ; and 

interpose between the two great tribes, exerting an influence upon both and ensuring them 
a controlling power ultimately. *#**:;: # 

" The Snakes or Shoshones, estimated at several thousands, are on the north. The 
Crows are to the north-east. * * * * * * 

"The Sioux tribe is on the east of the basin : the Oglallahs or Cheyennes, to the 
south-east, and the universal Utahs to the south." 

* Book of Mormon — Ether, chapter II, par. 3. 

t The application of Deseret for admission into the Union as a State was made sev- 
eral months later. 

26-VOL 1. 


Whereas it is a fundamental principle in all republican governments that all political 
power is inherent in the people, and governments instituted for their protection, security, 
and benefit should emanate from the same ; 

Therefore your committee beg leave to recommend the adoption of the following 
Constitution until the Congress of the United States shall otherwise provide for the gov- 
ernment of the territory hereinafter named and described by admitting us into the Union. 
We, the people, grateful to the Supreme Being for the blessings hitherto enjoyed, and feel- 
ing our dependence on Him for a continuation of those blessings, do ordain and establish 
a free and independent government, by the name of the State of Deseret, including all 
the territory of the United States within the following boundaries, to wit : commencing at 
the 33° of north latitude, where it crosses the 108° of longitude west of Greenwich ; 
thence running south and west to the boundary of Mexico ; thence west to and down the 
main channel of the Gila River (or the northern line of Mexico), and on the northern 
boundary of Lower California to the Pacific Ocean ; thence along the coast north-westerly 
to the 118° 30' of west longitude ; thence north to where said line intersects the dividing 
ridge of the Sierra Nevada mountains ; thence north along the summit of the Sierra 
Nevada mountains to the dividing range of mountains that separate the waters flowing 
into the Columbia from the waters running into the Great Basin; thence easterly along the 
dividing range of mountains that separate said waters flowing into the Columbia River on 
the north, from the waters flowing into the Great Basin on the south, to the summit of the 
Wind River chain of mountains ; thence southeast and south by the dividing range of 
mountains that separate the waters flowing into the Gulf of Mexico from the waters flow- 
ing into the Gulf of California, to the place of beginning, as set forth in a map drawn by 
Charles Preuss, and published by order of the Senate of the United States in 1848. 

The Constitution provided that the seat of government should 
be at Salt Lake City, and that its powers should be divided into three 
branches — the legislative, the executive and the judicial. The Leg- 
islature was to consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives, 
both elected by the people. It was to hold annual sessions, the 
initial one on the first Monday in July, 1849, and thereafter on the 
first Monday in December. Special sessions were also provided for. 
Elections for members of the House of Representatives were to be 
held biennially. These members were to be at least twenty-five 
years of age, free white male citizens of the United States, residents 
of the State for one year preceding their election, and of the district 
or county thirty days preceding. Senators were to be elected for four 
years. Except as to age — they must be at least thirty years old — the 
qualifications required of them were the same as those of the Repre- 
sentatives. Each house was to elect its own officers, and each officer 


and member of the Legislative Assembly must take oath or affirmation 
to support the Constitution of the United States, and that of the State 
of Deseret, prior to entering upon the discharge of his official duties. 

The executive power was vested in a Governor, a Lieutenant- 
Governor, a Secretary of State, an Auditor and a Treasurer. The 
Governor was to be elected for four years, his qualifications, powers 
and duties being similar to those of the Governors of other States. 
He had authority to call special sessions of the Legislative Assembly, 
and possessed the usual power of veto over its acts. The Lieutenant- 
Governor, who was also elected for four years, was ex officio president 
of the Senate. 

The judiciary consisted of a Supreme Court, with such other 
inferior tribunals as might be established by the Legislature. That 
body, by a joint vote, was to elect a chief justice and two associate 
justices, to hold office for four years. It was afterwards decided to 
have these judges elected by the people. The qualifications of voters 
at the first election were that they should be free, white male resi- 
dents of the State, over the age of twenty-one. 

A State militia comprising all males between the ages of eighteen 
and forty-five, not exempt from military duty, was to be forthwith 
organized, armed, equipped and trained. The age regulation was 
subsequently changed; for when the militia was organized there was 
a company of juvenile rifles, composed of youths under eighteen, and 
another company called " Silver Greys," made up of men over fifty 
years of age. 

The election of officers for the Provisional Government of the 
State of Deseret took place at Salt Lake City on Monday, March 12th, 
1849. The following ticket was elected: Brigham Young, Governor : 
Willard Richards, Secretary; Newel K. Whitney, Treasurer; Heber 
C. Kimball, Chief Justice; John Taylor and N. K. Whitney, Associate 
Justices; Daniel H. Wells, Attorney-General; Horace S. Eldredge, 
Marshal; Albert Carrington, Assessor and Collector; Joseph L. Hey- 
wood, Surveyor of Highways. At the same time the Bishops of the 
several wards were elected magistrates. 


The militia was next organized, under the direction of General 
Charles C. Rich and Daniel H. Wells, a committee on military affairs. 
They began to organize it in March, and in May reported the com- 
pletion of their labors. This did not mean that the full organization 
was at once perfected. The old name of "Nauvoo Legion," endeared 
to so many of those who were now re-enrolled, was retained as the 
title of the militia of the State of Deseret. 

Its chief officers were, Daniel H. Wells, Major- General, and Jede- 
diah M. Grant and Horace S. Eldreclge, Brigadier-Generals. In Gen- 
eral Grant's cohort, which was composed of cavalry, John S. Fullmer 
was Colonel of the first regiment, Willard Snow, Major of the first 
battalion, and George D. Grant, Captain of the first company, first 
battalion. In the second cohort, — the infantry, — commanded by 
Brigadier-General Eldredge, John Scott was Colonel of the first 
regiment, Andrew Lytle Major of the first battalion, and Jesse P. 
Harmon captain of the first company, first battalion. Two companies 
comprised the artillery. The first company organized was Captain 
George D. Grant's. These were picked men, termed "life-guards,"' 
or "minute men." It was their duty to protect Salt Lake City and its 
environs from Indian depredations. Captain Harmon's company 
were the "Silver Greys," before mentioned. 

The militia also had the following general officers: James Fer- 
guson, Adjutant-General; Hiram B. Clawson, Aide-de-camp; Lewis 
Robison, Quarter-master-General ; Albert P. Rockwood, Commissary- 
General ; Ezra G. Williams, Surgeon-General ; Ezra T. Benson and 
Wilford Woodruff, Chaplains; Edward P. Duzette. Chief of Music; 
and Ephraim Hanks and Lot Smith, Color-bearers-General. These 
officers, from the Adjutant-General to the Chief of Music, held the 
rank of Colonel, but the last two ranked as captains. Subsequently 
military districts were organized in the several counties created by 
the Legislature.* 

* Among the earliest commanders of military districts were Colonel George A. 
Smith, Iron County; Peter W. Conover. Utah County; Cyrus C. Cantield, Weber County, 

and Nelson Higgins, Saficeie County. 


Thus was established the Provisional Government of the State 
of Deseret, with its mailed arm of power, the Nauvoo Legion. It 
was not long before a portion of the troops were called into the field 
to resist hostile encroachments by the savages. 

The same month that the State government was organized, the 
settlement of Utah Valley was begun. This was the first permanent 
movement of the Mormon colonists toward southern Utah. 

In the summer of 1848 the settlers in Salt Lake Valley had been 
visited by several hundred Indians, men, women and children. They 
were Utahs and were accompanied by their noted chiefs Sowiette and 
Walkara, — anglicised Walker. According to Parley P. Pratt these 
Indians were " good-looking, brave and intelligent,*' superior to any 
other savages he had seen west of the Pvocky Mountains. They 
came to trade horses, of which they had a numerous band, and to 
cultivate friendly relations with the settlers.* They expressed the 
wish to amalgamate with them, to learn the arts of peace and 
become civilized. They wanted some of the colonists to go with 
them and teach them to farm in their valleys to the southward. 
This the settlers could not then do. but promised that in the future 
they would come among them and teach them as they desired. This 
promise was duly kept, not only because it had been made, but 
because the Latter-day Saints, as shown, believe it a portion of their 
mission to reclaim and civilize the red men. They advised Sowiette 
and his people to cease their warfare and live at peace with all men. 

Sowiette, who was king of the Utah nation, scarcely needed this 
good advice, if local tradition may be relied upon. He was peaceably 
disposed, it is said, and though no coward, naturally averse to war 
and blood-shed. Walker, his subordinate, was of another stamp 

* A late chief (of the Utahs) acting on the plurality law, left about thirty sons, most 
of whom have small clans under them. His true successor is a fine, brave Indian with 
the largest band immediately around him, and he exercises control over all whom he 
chooses. He is a friend of the Mormons. A half-brother of his named Walker has 
become rich and celebrated for his success in stealing horses from the Mexicans. He lias 
a large drove of cattle, with many followers." — Lieutenant (iunnfcon. 


entirely. He was quarrelsome and blood-thirsty. Stealing was his 
ordinary vocation, and he would kill whenever it suited his purpose. 
He and his bands would penetrate at times to west of the Sierras, 
and raid and rob the California settlements, returning in triumph 
with their booty to the mountains of Utah. His name was a terror 
to the whites, and he was also feared and hated by other tribes of 

It is related that at the time the Pioneers entered Salt Lake 
Valley a large number of the Utah nation were encamped in Spanish 
Fork canyon ; Sowiette and Walker both being present. * A council 
was held to consider what policy should be pursued toward the new- 
comers, of whose arrival these chiefs had heard from some of their 
scouts and runners. Sowiette counseled peace and friendship for the 
strangers, with whose past he was somewhat acquainted, and 
evidently felt for the exiles a noble savage's generous compassion. 
But Walker, who was nothing if not violent, raised his voice for war, 
and the extermination of the settlers. The younger warriors mostly 
sided with Walker, but the older and wiser ones stood with Sowiette. 
Finally Walker intimated that Sowiette was a. coward. The old king 
could stand no more. Seizing a riding-whip he advanced upon the 
turbulent chief and gave him a sound flogging. After that there 
was no more talk of Sowiette's cowardice, and his peace counsel 
prevailed.^ Then followed the visit of the Utes to Salt Lake Valley, 
as related. 

Walker, however, notwithstanding his professions of friendship 
for the Mormons, — which were probably made out of deference to 
Sowiette, — was soon again on the war-path, stirring up the Indians 

* Tullidge'a Quarterly Magazine, Vol. 3, page 241. 

f A similar encounter, though no flogging was administered, is related as having 
occurred between Walker and Washakie, the latter a noted and noble chief of the 
Shoshones. Walker having angered Washakie, the Shoshone chieftain strode up to him 
and dared him to mortal combat. The Ute chief not responding, Washakie called him a 
dog, and snatching the tomahawk from his belt hurled it away in scorn and contempt, 
Walker still declining to fight. 


against the settlers. President Young was so informed by Colonel 
Bridger and his partner Vasquez, soon after the formation of the 
first settlement in Utah Valley. Yet the founding of that settlement, 
it appears, was not only in pursuance of the general colonizing plan 
of the Mormon President, but in response to the invitation of the 
savages themselves, for their "white brothers" to come among them 
and teach them how to become civilized. 

The man chosen to lead the colony into Utah Valley was John 
S. Higbee, one of the original Mormon Pioneers. At the head of 
about thirty families, with wagons, horses, cattle, cows, farming and 
building implements, seed and provisions, he set out from Salt Lake 
City early in March, 1849, to found a settlement on Provo River.* 
Three days they rolled and trudged along, their progress much 
impeded by the muddy soil, soaked with spring rains and melting- 
snows. Within a few miles of the spot where they subsequently 
built their fort and broke the first ground for farming, their progress 
was barred by a band of Indians, who were at first unwilling that 
they should proceed. Finally they were permitted to do so. First, 
however, as the story goes, they were required to solemnly swear 
that if they were allowed to settle in Utah Valley they would not 
seek to drive the Indians from their lands, nor deprive them of their 
rights. Dimick B. Huntington, acting as interpreter for the others, 
in behalf of his brethren took the required oath, with his right hand 
lifted to heaven. 

Arriving at Provo River, they forded it and camped on the south 
side, near the spot now known as the "old fort field." Farming and 
building immediately began, and by the middle of May the settlers 
had built a fort and plowed, fenced and planted with wheat, rye and 
corn the greater portion of a field of two hundred and twenty-five 

* Provo River, once Timpanogas, is said to have been called after a trapper named 
Provost, believed by some to be the original discoverer of the Great Salt Lake. Others 
say that Colonel Fremont named it " Proveau " for a valuable horse of his which died 
there; Proveau being the name of a Frenchman from whom Fremont had purchased the 


acres. By this time ten additional families had joined them, and the 
field was divided into forty lots, and one given to each family. The 
fort was the usual cluster of log houses surrounded by a stockade. 
This stockade was" fourteen feet high, with a gate at either end. 
From the centre arose a log bastion, overlooking all, upon which was 
mounted one or more cannon, for protection against possible Indian 
assaults. The savages frequently visited the fort, and for several 
months were as peaceable and friendly as their white neighbors could 
desire. On the 18th of March the Provo Branch was organized, 
with John S. Higbee as President, and Isaac Higbee and Dimick B. 
Huntington as his counselors. 

As early as June of this year there began to pass through Utah 
— or Deseret — parties of gold-hunters en route for California. 
Everybody remembers or has heard of the "gold-fever" in 

" The days of old, 
The days of gold, 
The days of "49." 

The discovery of the precious metal in that land had seemingly 
set on fire the civilized world. Ocean's broad expanse was dotted 
with sails bearing from every nation under heaven eager souls to the 
Californian coast. Across the great plains came pouring hundreds 
of richly laden trains on their way to the new El Dorado. Salt Lake 
Valley was no longer shunned and avoided. Being directly in the 
path to the Pacific, both to shorten the route and obtain fresh 
supplies to enable them to more speedily proceed, it became to many 
the immediate, and to some the ultimate goal of the journey. The 
gold-seekers were actuated by but one desire, — to reach the 
auriferous land beyond the Sierras; the thirst for wealth having 
absorbed for the time being all other thoughts and emotions. Many 
who in the east had loaded their wagons with merchandise for the 
mining camps, impatient at their slow progress, and hearing that 
other merchants had arrived by sea before them, in order to lighten 
their loads literally threw away or "sold for a song" the goods 
they had freighted over a thousand miles. Dry goods, groceries, 


provisions, clothing, implements, etc., — just what were needed by the 
half-starved, half-clad famine-stricken community in the mountains, 
— were bartered off to them at almost any sacrifice. Some of the 
emigrants brought with them choice blooded stock, which, being 
jaded, they gladly exchanged for the fresh horses and mules of the 
Mormon settlers. The most primitive outfits sufficed the on-goers, 
with barely enough provisions to last to their journey's end. Thus, 
as Heber C. Kimball had declared, at a time, too, when such a thing 
seemed most improbable, "States goods" were actually sold in Salt 
Lake City, within a year after the prediction was uttered, cheaper 
than they could have been purchased in St. Louis or New York.* 

Some of these emigrants, on reaching the Mormon settlements, 
decided to remain and cast in their lot with the Saints. Most of 
those who thus tarried joined the Church and became Mormons. 
Others who came later did likewise. The majority of these 
conversions were genuine. There were some, however, who 
remained merely long enough to marry a Mormon girl, be cared 
for by her parents during the winter, then off in the spring for 
California, forsaking wife and child, and perhaps never again to be 
heard from. This class were styled "Winter Mormons." Better 
men who followed in their wake, naturally fell under suspicion till 
their honor had been fully proven, owing to the misdeeds of these 

* Says the Frontier Guardian of those times in the Valley : " When they (the 
emigrants) saw a few bags and kegs of gold dust brought in by our boys, it made them 
completely enthusiastic. Pack mules and horses that were worth twenty-live dollars in 
ordinary times, would readily bring two hundred dollars in the most valuable property at 
the lowest price. Goods and other property were daily offered at auction in all parts of 
the city. For a light Yankee wagon, sometimes three or four great heavy ones would be 
offered in exchange, and a yoke of oxen thrown in at that. Common domestic sheeting 
sold from five to leu cents per yard by the bolt. The best of spades and shovels for lifly 
cents each. Vests that cost in Si. Louis one dollar and fifty cents each, were sold at 
Salt Lake City for thirty-seven and one-half cents. Full chests of joiner's tools that 
would cost one hundred and filly dollars in the east, were sold in Salt Lake City for 
twenty-five dollars. Indeed, almost every article, except sugar and coffee, were selling on 
an average fifty per cent, below wholesale prices in Hie eastern States." 


Though on their guard against such, the Mormons continued to 
treat with kindness the passing companies, and as a rule were by 
them respected and esteemed. In their disagreements with each 
other, the Gentiles would often submit for arbitrament their cases to 
the Mormon Bishops, acting as magistrates, and generally seemed 
well satisfied with their decisions. When a Mormon and a Gentile 
were the parties litigant, and the decision went against the latter, it 
was of course more difficult for him to believe that he had been 
fairly dealt by. 

Touching these and other matters relating to the Mormons, 
Lieutenant John W. Gunnison, who, in 1849-50 assisted Captain 
Howard Stansbury of the U. S. Army Corps of Topographical 
Engineers, in a government survey of the Great Salt Lake and its 
vicinity, has this to say:* 

We found them, in 1849, organized into a state with all the order oi legislative, 
judicial, and executive offices regularly filled, under a constitution eminently republican in 
sentiment, and tolerant in religion ; and though the authority of Congress has not yet 
sanctioned this form of government, presented and petitioned for, they proceed quietly 
with all the routine of an organized self-governing people, under the title of a Territory; — 
being satisfied to abide their time, in accession of strength by numbers, when they may be 
deemed fit to take a sovereign position ; being contented, as long as allowed to enjoy the 
substance, under the shadow of a name. They lay and collect taxes, raise and equip 
troops for protection, in full sovereignty, on the soil they helped to conquer first, and 
subdue to use afterward. 

A large branch of the great emigration overland to California passed through the 
Mormon settlements, which is the best route across the country. 

Of the parties organized in the States to cross the plains, there was hardly one that 
did not break into several fragments, and the division of property caused a great deal of 
difficulty. Many of these litigants applied to the courts of Deseret for redress of griev- 
ances, and there was every appearance of impartiality and strict justice done to all parties. 
Of course there would be dissatisfaction when the right was declared to belong to the one 
side alone; and the losers circulated letters far and near, of the oppression of the Mormons. 
These would sometimes rebel against the equity decisions, and then they were made to 
feel the full majesty of the civil power. For contempt of court they were most severely 
fined, and in the end found it a losing game to indulge in vituperation of the court, or 
make remarks derogatory to the high functionaries. 

* Gunnison's "The Mormons," pages 23, 64, 65. 


Again, the fields in the valley are imperfectly fenced, and the emigrants' cattle often 
trespassed upon the crops. For this, a good remuneration was demanded, and the value 
being so enormously greater than in the States, it looked to the stranger as an imposition 
and injustice to ask so large a price. A protest would usually be made, the case then 
taken before the bishop, and the costs be added to the original demand. Such as these 
were the instances of terrible oppression that have been industriously circulated as unjust 
acts of heartless Mormons, upon the gold emigration. 

But provisions were sold at very reasonable prices, and their many deeds of charity 
to the sick and broken-down gold-seekers, all speak loudly in their favor, and must 
eventually redound to their praise. Such kindness, and apparently brotherly good-will 
among themselves, had its effect in converting more than one to their faith, and the 
proselytes deserted the search for golden ore, supposing they had found there pearls of 
greater price. 

Says Captain Stansbury :* 

The jurisdiction of the " State of Deseret " had been extended over and was 
vigorously enforced upon all who came within its borders, and justice was equitably 
administered alike to "saint" and "gentile" — as they term all who are not of their per- 
suasion. Of the truth of this, as far at least as the gentiles were concerned, I soon had 
convincing proof, by finding, one fine morning, some twenty of our mules safely secured 
in the public pound, for trespass upon the cornfield of some pious saint ; possession was 
recovered only by paying the fine imposed by the magistrate and amply remunerating the 
owner for the damage done to his crops. Their courts were constantly appealed to by 
companies of passing emigrants, who, having fallen out by the way, could not agree upon 
the division of their property. The decisions were remarkable for fairness and impartiality, 
and if not submitted to, were sternly enforced by the whole power of the community. 
Appeals for protection from oppression, by those passing through their midst, were not 
made in vain ; and I know of at least one instance in which the marshal of the State was 
despatched, with an adequate force, nearly two hundred miles into the western desert, in 
pursuit of some miscreants who had stolen oil' with nearly the whole outfit of a party of 
emigrants. He pursued and brought them back to the city, and the plundered property 
was restored to its rightful owner. 

In their dealings, with the crowds of emigrants that passed throught their city, the 
Mormons were ever fair and upright, taking no advantage of the necessitous conditions of 
many, if not most of them. They sold them such provisions as they could spare, at 
moderate prices, and such as they themselves paid in their dealings with each other. In 
the whole of our intercourse with them, which lasted rather more than a year, I cannot 
refer to a single instance of fraud or extortion to which any of the party was subjected ; 
and I strongly incline to the opinion that the charges that have been preferred against them 
in this respect, arose either from interested misrepresentation or erroneous information. I 
certainly never experienced anything like it in my own case, nor did I witness or hear of 
any instance of it in the case of others, while I resided among them. Too many that 

'Stansbury's Expedition," pages 130, 131, 134. 135. 


passed through their settlements were disposed to disregard their claim to the land they 
occupied, to ridicule the municipal regulations of their city, and to trespass wantonly 
upon their rights. Such offenders were promptly arrested by the authorities, made to pay 
a severe tine, and in some instances were imprisoned or made to labor on the public 
works ; a punishment richly merited, and which would have been inflicted upon them in 
any civilized community. In short, these people presented the appearance of a quiet, 
orderly, industrious, and well-organized society, as much so as one would meet with in 
any city of the Union, having the rights of personal property as perfectly defined and as ' 
religiously respected as with ourselves ; nothing being farther from their faith or practice 
than the spirit of communism, which has been most erroneously supposed to prevail 
among them. The main peculiarity of the people consists in their religious tenets, the 
form and extent of their church government, (which is a theocracy,) and in the nature 
especially of their domestic relations. 

In the light of such testimony, from men who surveyed the 
situation for themselves, and recorded in extenso, after a year's 
sojourn among the Saints, their observations and impressions 
concerning them, how manifestly unjust is the following statement in 
a popular school history of the present period, from which Mormon 
and Gentile children in Utah and elsewhere are being taught the 
story of the past: "The Mormon rulers did all they could to 
interfere with the passage of emigrant trains, and with settlements 
in the neighborhood; they even made use of the Indians, and 
encouraged them to attack emigrants!"* 

What "settlements in the neighborhood" there were, to be thus 
interfered with by the Mormon rulers, except the settlements of the 
Saints themselves, the sagacious writer of the history does not say. 
Plainly he knew little or nothing about the subject of which he was 
writing. How the Mormon leaders "interfered with the emigrants" 
who passed through their country is further shown by the following 
extract from a discourse delivered by President Young during that 
period. Said this "Mormon ruler" to the assembled Saints: "Let 
no man go hungry from your doors. Divide with them and trust in 
God for more. * * * Emigrants, don't let your spirits 
be worn down; and shame be to the door where a man has to go 

•Scudder's History of the United States, page 353. 


hungry away." Similar passages might be multiplied were it 

The General Assembly of Deseret held its first session on July 
2nd, 1849, at Salt Lake City. As stated, it had been decided in 
March to petition Congress for the organization of a Territorial 
government for the settlers of the Great Basin. In fact, a memorial 
to that effect had since been numerously signed and sent to 
Washington. Dr. John M. Bernhisel was the bearer of this 
document to the nation's capital. He carried with him a letter of 
introduction to Senator Stephen A. Douglas, from Brigham Young, 
Heber C. Kimball and Willard Richards. 

The memorial, after reciting in its preamble that the petitioners 
were residents of that portion of North America "commonly called 
Eastern California," and that they were so far removed and 
effectually separated from all civilized society and organized 
government, by trackless deserts, snowy mountains and blood-thirsty 
savages, that they could never be united with any other portion of 
the country in Territorial or State Legislature to mutual advantage, 
closed as follows : 

"Therefore, we respectfully petition your honorable body to 
charter for your memorialists a Territorial Government of the most 
liberal construction authorized by our excellent Federal Constitution, 
with the least possible delay, to be known by the name of Deseret; 
including and covering all lands and waters, with all privileges, 
immunities and advantages thereunto belonging, lying between 
Oregon and Mexico, and between the Sierra Nevada and the 27° W. 
L., or more particularly bounded and described as follows, to wit: 
Commencing at the Rio Grande del Norte, at its crossing of the 32° 
N. L., (or the northern line of Mexico) to the Pacific Ocean; thence 
along the coast northward to the 42° W. L., thence on said 42° to 
the Sierra Nevada, thence continuing along the summit of the Sierra 
Nevada, or Snowy Mountains, to the 42° N. L., thence running east 
by the southern boundary of Oregon to Green River; thence 
northerly up the main channel of Green River to the 43° N. L.; 


thence east on said degree to the 27° longitude west of Washington; 
thence south along said degree to 38° N. L.; thence west on said 
degree to the Rio Grande del Norte; thence southerly down the main 
channel of said river, to the place of beginning. 
"And your memorialists will ever pray." 
It was now resolved, however, to go a step further, and ask 
Congress to admit Deseret into the Union as a State. Accordingly a 
new memorial, praying for statehood, having been prepared and 
adopted by the Legislature, was signed by many citizens. Early in 
July, by a joint vote of the Assembly, Almon W. Babbitt was elected 
a delegate to Congress to convey the memorial to Washington. He 
also took with him a copy of the Constitution of the proposed State, 
which Congress was requested to ratify. 

The full text of the memorial was as follows : 

To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives, in Congress assembled: 

Your memorialists, members of the General Assembly of the State of Deseret. would 
respectfully lay before your honorable body the wishes and interests of our constituents, 
together with the reasons and design of our early organization as a civil government, to 
which the consideration of your honorable body is most earnestly solicited. 

Whereas, The history of all ages proves that civil governments, combining in their 
administration the protection of person, property, character, and religion, encouraging the 
science of agriculture, manufactures, and literature, are productive of the highest, happiest 
and purest state of society : and 

Whereas, All political power is inherent in the people, and governments to be 
permanent and satisfactory, should emanate from the same : and 

Whereas, The inhabitants of all newly settled countries and territories, who have 
become acquainted with their climate, cultivated their soil, tested their mineral productions 
and investigated their commercial advantages, are the besl judges of the kinds of government 
and laws necessary for their growth and prosperity : and 

Whereas, Congress has failed to provide, by law. a form of civil government for this 
or any other portion of territory ceded to the United States by the republic of Mexico in 
the late treaty of peace : and 

Whereas, Since the expiration of the Mexican civil authority, however weak and 
imbecile, anarchy to an alarming extent has prevailed— the revolver and howie knife have 
been the highest law of the land — the strong have prevailed against the weak — while 
person, property, character and religion have been unaided, and virtue unprotected ; and 

Whereas, From the discovery of the valuable gold mines west of the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains, many thousands of able-bodied men arc emigrating to that section, armed with 
all the implements and munitions of war: and 


Whereas, Strong fears have been, and still are entertained from the failure of 
Congress to provide legal civil authorities, that political aspirants may subject the 
government of the United States to the sacrifice of much blood and treasure in extending 
jurisdiction over that valuable country ; and 

Whereas, The inhabitants of the State of Deseret, in view of their own security, 
and for the preservation of the constitutional right of the United States to hold jurisdiction 
there, have organized a provisional State government under which the civil policy of the 
nation is duly maintained : and 

Whereas, There are so many natural barriers to prevent communication with any 
other State or Territory belonging to the Uuited States, during a great portion of the year, 
such as snow-capped mountains, sandy deserts, sedge plains, saleratus lakes and swamps, 
over which it is very difficult to effect a passage ; and 

Whereas, It is important in meting out the boundaries of the States and Territories 
so to establish them that the heads of departments may be able to communicate with all 
branches of their goverement with the least possible delay ; and 

Whereas, There are comparatively no navigable rivers, lakes, or other natural 
channels of commerce ; and 

Whereas, No valuable mines of gold, silver, iron, copper or lead have as yet been 
discovered within the boundaries of this State, commerce must necessarily be limited to a 
few branches of trade and manufacture ; and 

Whereas, The laws of all States and Territories should lie adapted to their 
geographical location, protecting and regulating those branches of trade only which the 
country is capable of sustaining ; thereby relieving the government from the expense of 
those complicated and voluminous statutes which a more commercial State requires : and 

Whereas, There is now a sufficient number of individuals residing within the Stale 
of Deseret to support a State government, thereby relieving the general government from 
the expense of a Territorial government in that section ; and in evidence of which the 
inhabitants have already erected a legislative hall, equal to most and surpassed by few in 
the older Slates, — 

Your memorialists, therefore, ask your honorable body to favorably consider their 
interests : and, consistent with the institution and usages of the Federal government, that 
the constitution accompanying this memorial be ratified, and that the State of Deseret be 
admitted into the Union on an equal footing with other States, or such other form of 
civil government as your wisdom and magnanimity may award to the people of Deseret. 
And, upon the adoption of any form of government here, that their delegates be received 
and their interests properly and faithfully represented in the Congress of the United 
States. And your memorialists, as in duty bound, will ever pray. 

A little later another plan was proposed, to secure the admission 
into the Union of Deseret and California as one State, with the 
understanding that they were subsequently to separate and form two 
distinct commonwealths. The following letter from Governor Young, 
Lieutenant-Governor Kimball and Secretary Richards, to Amasa 


M. Lyman, who was then in California, will fully explain this 
project: . 

Great Salt Lake City, September 6th, 1849. 
Brother Amasa Lyman : 

Dear Sir — On the 20th of August, General Wilson arrived here, on his way to 
California, as general Indian agent, etc. We had an interview with him, and gathered 
from him the following particulars : that the President and council of the United States 
are friendly disposed towards us, and that he (General Wilson) is commissioned by 
General Taylor to inform us that'he fully appreciates our situation, that he considers we 
have been unjustly dealt with, and that so far as his power constitutionally extends, he 
will do us all the good he can. 

The main point of the matter, however, is this: the President has his ends to sub- 
serve, and as he knows that we have been favorable to his election, he wishes further to 
appeal to our patriotism (so says General Wilson) to help him to carry out another 
measure, which will deliver him, the cabinet and the nation from a difficulty in which he 
thinks they are likely to be involved. 

The subject of slavery has become more embarrassing than it ever has been before. 
The addition of the extensive territories of New Mexico and Upper California increases 
that difficulty. The gold emigration, etc., have tended to fan the flame. This subject 
will be the first, probably, broached in Congress, and if some active measures are not 
adopted, they fear it will be the last and only question. If it should lie made into 
Territories, it will be under the direction of the United States, and the question of 
slavery will distract and annoy all parties, and General Wilson says they fear will have a 
tendency to break up the Union. 

To prevent this, they have proposed a plan of making the whole territory into 
one State, leaving it to the power of the people to say whether it shall be a slave or a 
free State, and thus taking the bone from the Congress of the United States, and leaving 
them to pursue their course, 'peaceably, if they can,' undisturbed by this exciting ques- 
tion. They think it ought to be made into two States, but that the sparseness of the 
population at the present time would preclude the possibility of an act of that kind 

The cabinet think that all parties would agree to a measure of this kind if it should 
become a free State, and even General Wilson, the President, and other slaveholders are 
anxious that it should take this turn and are willing to make a sacrifice for the public 
good. He supposes that even the Southern members would go in for it, but without our 
help they I li ink it could not be accomplished. They think that there would be a strong 
Southern influence used on the coast, calculated to place the matter in an embarrassing 
situation to them and the eastern population on the coast combined, but that by our 
influence we should be enabled to counterbalance that of the slaveholders, and thus settle 
the troublesome question. It is therefore their policy to seek our influence, and we need 
not add it is our policy to use theirs. 

In our communications with General Wilson, we at first rejected altogether the idea 
of ;in\ amalgamation whatever with the government on the coast, but on the subject 
being presented in another form, we have agreed to the following : 


We are to have a general constitution for two States. The boundaries of the one 
mentioned by us, before referred to, is our State, the other boundaries to be defined by 
the people on the coast, to be agreed upon in a general convention ; the two States to be 
consolidated in one and named as the convention shall think proper, but to be dissolved at 
the commencement of the year 1851, each one having its own constitution, and each 
becoming a free, sovereign, independent State, without any further action of Congress. 

You will act as our delegate, in conjunction with General Wilson. Brother Pickett 
is also a delegate. 

We need not say that it will be advisable for you to get Samuel Bran nan, with the 
press, and all the influence you can collect around you to carry out your designs. 

Should the convention object to sanction the few propositions that we have made, 
you can bring your influence to bear against them, and enter a protest against any 
amalgamation on any other terms. And it would be advisable for you to sign a remon- 
strance against their incorporating any of this country, and send it to Washington, directed 
to John M. Bernhisel and Almon W. Babbitt, Esquires. 

The present is a favorable moment for us to secure a State charter. Should the Wilmot 
proviso, or slave question, by any means, become settled before our admission into the 
Union, politicians might feel themselves more independent, and our interests might not lie 
so near their hearts. 

Our minus population is the only serious objection to our admission into the Union, 
independent of western California, but notwithstanding this, we shall continue to press 
our suit at Washington for independence, hoping to obtain the same before the joint 
petition from your western convention arrives there. Should such an event occur, it can 
do neither party any harm, for the west will then come in alone. 

Much has been, may be, and will be said concerning the comparative population of 
this valley and Western California, but what were they, previous to the opening of the 
gold mines ? and what are they now, independent of gold diggers ? 

According to the best information we have been able to obtain, we outnumber I hem 
two to one, or five to three, and yet politicians will pretend that we are not more in num- 
ber than one to five, or six, or ten of those on the coast. 

Fabulous as this pretension is you will have to meet it, and must stave oil' foreigners 
and transient miners as best you can, in making up the computation of joint ballot for a 
convention. Probably nine-tenths of the squatters of Western California have no legal or 
just claim to vote with the actual settlers of this valley. 

There has been a great influx here this season, and a multitude of the brethren are 
still on the way, probably about the Pass, where our teams have gone to meet them ; and 
you may safely compute our strength in numbers at 15,000, and if there is not more than 
75,000 here before the 1st of January, 1851. it will be because they cannot gel here. 
***** * * * 

Don't get too much in a constitution, lest it tie your own hands. This has been the 
grand difficulty with almost all constitution makers. The grand desideratum of a 
constitution is to be unalterable by the power that granted it, i. e., perpetual, and that the 
people under that constitution can alter or amend the same at their election. But in case 

27-VOL. 1. 


of a consolidated State, the constitution must bona fide remain unalterable during the 
consolidation. These are the great essentials and will do well, if there is not too much 
of other things. But even the Wilmot proviso, and many other things may be admitted, 
if necessity require, for they will find their remedy in future amendments. 

Brigham Young, 
Heber G. Kimball. 
Willard Richards. 

Nothing resulted from this movement; for though the citizens 
of Deseret were willing to amalgamate according to the suggestion of 
President Taylor, the people of California were not willing, and so 
the matter ended. 

July 24th, 1849, the Mormon people celebrated in grand style 
and for the first time Pioneer Day; it being the second anniversary 
of their advent into the Great Basin. Martial music and the firing 
of cannon awoke the inhabitants of "the Valley " at an early hour. 
A large, new national flag, sixty-five feet long, the materials for which 
had been procured from the east and put together by Mormon 
women, was unfurled to the breeze from the truck of a lofty liberty 
pole, and saluted with six guns and spirited patriotic airs. At 
8 a. m. the multitude assembled at the Bowery, — a building of brush 
and timber one hundred feet long by sixty feet wide, enlarged for the 
occasion by a vast awning, — and awaited the arrival of Governor 
Young and the grand procession.. It started at nine o'clock from his 
residence under the direction of Lorenzo Snow, Jedediah M. Grant 
and Franklin D. Richards. The pageant was as follows: 

" (1) Horace S. Eldredge, marshal, on horseback, in military 
uniform; (2) brass band ; (3) twelve bishops bearing the banners of 
their wards; (4) seventy-four young men dressed in white, with 
white scarfs on their right shoulders, and coronets on their heads, 
each carrying in his right hand a copy of the Declaration of 
Independence and the Constitution of the United States, and each 
carrying a sheathed sword in his left hand; one of them carrying a 
beautiful banner, inscribed on it, 'The Zion of the Lord;* (-5) 
twenty-four young ladies, dressed in white, with white scarfs on 
their right shoulders, and wreathes of white roses on their heads, 


each carrying a copy of the Bible and Book of Mormon, and one 
carrying a very neat banner, inscribed with 'Hail to our Captain;' 
(6) Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Willard Richards, Parley P. 
Pratt, Charles C. Rich, John Taylor, Daniel Spencer, D. Fullmer, 
Willard Snow, Erastus Snow ; (7) twelve Bishops, carrying flags of 
their wards; (8) twenty-four Silver Greys, led by Isaac Morley, 
Patriarch, each having a staff, painted red at the upper part, and a 
bunch of white ribbon fastened at the top, one of them carrying 
the Stars and Stripes, bearing the inscription, 'Liberty and Truth.* 

At the Bowery and along the way the Governor and his escort 
were greeted with shouts, songs, martial music and the roar of 
musketry and artillery. Jedediah M. Grant was master of cere- 
monies. He called the assembly to order and Erastus Snow offered 
prayer. The report of the ensuing exercises says : 

"Richard Ballantyne, one of the twenty-four young men, came 
to the stand, and, in a neat speech, presented the Declaration of 
Independence and the Constitution of the United States to President 
Young, which was received with three shouts, ' May it live forever.' 
led by the President. 

"The Declaration of Independence was then read by Mr 
Erastus Snow, the band following in a lively air. 

"The clerk then read 'The Mountain Standard,' composed by 
Parley P. Pratt: 

" 'Lo, the Gentile chain is broken. 
Freedom's banner waves on high.' 

"After the above had been sung by the twenty-four young men 
and young ladies, Mr. Phineas Richards came forward in behalf of 
the twenty-four aged sires in Israel, and read their congratulatory 
address on the anniversary of the day. At the conclusion of the 
reading, the assembly rose and shouted three times, 'Hosanna! 
hosanna! hosanna! to God and the Lamb, forever and ever, Amen,' 
while the banners were waved by the Bishops. The band next 
played a lively air, and the clerk then rose and read an 'Ode on 


'•The ode was then sung by the twenty-four Silver Greys, to the 
tune of ' Bruce's Address to his army.' " 

A feast had been prepared, and several thousand people now 
sat down to it. Among the guests were hundreds of emigrants who 
were passing through to California, and three-score Indians. 

The Mormons have been criticized — hypercritically they think — 
for celebrating thus grandly their glorious 24th, and letting July 4th, 
of that year, pass by without public commemoration. The truth is 
their intent was to blend the two days in one, a fact virtually 
proven by the patriotic character of the proceedings. Orson Hyde, 
in the Frontier Guardian, gave another reason for the amalgamation. 
Said he: "They had little or no bread, or flour to make cakes, etc., 
and not wishing to celebrate on empty stomachs, they postponed it 
until their harvest came in." A moment's reflection will show that 
this reason is a cogent one. Since the spring of 1848 the community 
had been living on rations, in a half-starved condition. But the 
harvest of 1849 was abundant, and for several years thereafter the 
cry of famine was unheard in the land. 

The Bowery in which the celebration took place stood near the 
south-east corner of Temple Block. It was used for religious 
worship, and public gatherings in general, until other buildings more 
suitable supplied its place. It was then converted into a theatre, 
the original temple of the drama in Utah, where performances were 
given by the Musical and Dramatic Company and its successor the 
Deseret Dramatic Association, both of which sprang into existence 
about the year 1851. This building was the celebrated "Old 
Bowery," referred to in a former chapter. 

It was on the 28th of August, 1849, a little over a month after 
the pioneer celebration, that Captain Howard Stansbury arrived at 
Salt Lake City at the head of an expedition having as its object an 
exploration and survey of the Valley of the Great Salt Lake. Captain 
Stansbury. as stated, was accompanied by Lieutenant J. W. Gunnison, 
like himself a member of the topographical corps of the U. S. Army; 
also by Lieutenant G. W. Howland, of the mounted rifles. These, 


with fifteen others, comprised the surveying party. A few emi- 
grants for California had traveled with them from the frontier. 
Rumors of the coming of the expedition, but not of its real purpose, 
had previously reached the. Valley, and considerable anxiety was felt 
and much speculation indulged in by the Mormon people as to the 
design of the Government in sending it. The impression prevailed 
that the object was to survey and take possession of the lands upon 
which the Saints had settled, with a view to breaking up and destroy- 
ing their colony. This fear had been enhanced by the arrival in the 
Valley a few days before, of General Wilson, the newly-appointed 
Indian Agent for California, previously named in the political letter 
of the Mormon leaders to their confrere Amasa M. Lyman. One of 
Wilson's men had boasted that the General held authority from the 
President of the United States — Zachary Taylor — to drive the 
Mormons from their lauds, and that he would do so if he thought 
proper. Evidently General Wilson did not think it proper, or his 
boastful attache spoke, as officious underlings often will, without 
authority ; for nothing came of it. It was supposed, however, until 
Stansbury explained, that his coming was in some way connected 
with the malicious boast of General Wilson's subordinate. 

This fact, which was known to the Captain, should have made 
clear to him, though it does not seem to have done so, why he met 
at Captain Brown's settlement on the Weber, by which he passed on 
his way to Salt Lake City, what he complains of as an ungracious 
and inhospitable reception, "strongly contrasted," says he, "with the 
frank and generous hospitality we ever received at the hands of the 
whole Mormon community." Captain Brown's record for generosity, 
save perhaps where he dealt with those whom he deemed his people's 
enemies, pursuing them into the wilderness to again deprive them of 
their possessions, was second to none in the community. His 
liberality to the poor around him during the famine — a proverb to 
this day in Weber County — sufficiently attests this fact. 

Stansbury states that before reaching Salt Lake City he had 
heard of the uneasiness felt by the Mormon community over his 


coming, and had been told that they would not permit a survey of 
the lake to be made, and that his life would scarcely be safe if he 
attempted it. "Giving not the least credence to these insinuations," 
says he, "I at once called upon Brigham Young, the president of the 
Mormon church and the governor of the commonwealth, stated to 
him what I had heard, explained to him the views of the 
Government in directing an exploration and survey of the lake, 
assuring him that these were the sole objects of the expedition. He 
replied that he did not hesitate to say that both he and the people 
over whom he presided had been very much disturbed and surprised 
that the Government should send out a party into their country, so 
soon after they had made their settlement. * * * The 
impression was that a survey was to be made of their country in the 
same manner that other public lands are surveyed, for the purpose 
of dividing it into townships and sections, and of thus establishing 
and recording the claims of the Government to it, and thereby 
anticipating any claim the Mormons might set up from their previous 
occupation.f * * * So soon, however, as the true 

object of the expedition was fully understood, the president laid the 

f Regarding the land titles of the Mormons, Lieutenant Gunnison says: ''They 
issue a right of occupancy from the State Registrar's Office. This is contingent on the 
grant of the general government, of course, and forms one of the subjects upon which 
they may come into collision with the supreme authority. They will not, without 
protest, buy the land, and hope that grants will be made to actual settlers or the State, 
sufficient to cover their improvements. If not, the State will be obliged to buy and then 
confer the titles already given." 

The noted traveler and writer, Richard F. Burton, ten years later wrote upon the 
same subject as follows : " The Mormons have another complaint touching the tenure of 
their land. The United States have determined that the Indian title has not been 
extinguished. The Saints declare that no tribe of aborigines could prove a claim to the 
country, otherwise they were ready to purchase it in perpetuity by pay, presents and pro- 
visions, besides establishing the usual reservations. Moreover the Federal Government 
has departed from the usual course. The law directs that the land, when set off into 
townships, six miles square with subdivisions, must be sold at auction to the highest 
bidder. The Mormons represent that although a survey of considerable tracts has been 
completed by a Federal official, they are left to be mere squatters that can be ejected 
like an Irish tenantry." 


subject matter before the council called for the purpose, and I was 
informed, as the result of their deliberations, that the authorities 
were much pleased that the exploration was to be made; that they 
had themselves contemplated something of the kind, but did not yet 
feel able to incur the expense; but that any assistance they could 
render to facilitate our operations, would be most cheerfully furnished 
to the extent of their ability. This pledge, thus heartily given, 
was as faithfully redeemed." 

Captain Stansbury was assisted, in his survey of Great Salt Lake, 
by Albert Carrington, a prominent Mormon, afterwards an Apostle of 
the Church. Mr. Carrington was a college graduate, well qualified to 
assist in this scientific labor. Stansbury's party also surveyed Utah 
Lake and its vicinity, and explored a new route from Salt Lake Valley 
to Fort Hall. As stated, they remained a whole year in this region, 
spending the winter of 1849-50 in Salt Lake City. 

Still poured in from the frontier the Mormon emigration from 
the States and from Europe. The first company to arrive in the fall 
of 1849 was Captain Orson Spencer's. It had sailed from Liverpool 
in January, and reached Kanesville in May. This company had 
suffered severely from cholera while ascending the Missouri River. 
It arrived in Salt Lake Valley in the latter part of September. Orson 
Spencer had not before been to the mountains, having had charge of 
the British Mission since January, 1847. That mission, at this 
period, contained nearly thirty thousand Mormon converts, about ten 
thousand having joined the Church during the past fifteen months. 
Three companies following Captain Spencer's, not only suffered much 
from cholera on the Missouri,*' but nearly perished in a fearful 
snow-storm at South Pass early in October. Seventy of their cattle 
were frozen, but no human lives were lost. These companies were 

* Captain Dan Jones' company lost sixty lives from cholera that season, between St. 
Louis and Kanesville. It was such fatalities as this that caused the Mormon leaders to 
contemplate about this time a change in the route of their European emigration. Instead 

of ascending the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, it was proposed that the companies cross 
the Isthmus of Panama and land at San Diego, California, thence going overland to Utah. 


commanded by George A. Smith, in general charge of the Church 
emigration that season. Some weeks later a small party of travelers 
left their wagons in the snow forty miles east of Salt Lake City, and 
pushed on to the valley, arriving there in a destitute condition. 

A movement was now set afoot by the Mormon leaders for the 
benefit of the poor among their proselytes in the Eastern States and 
in foreign lands. Hitherto the Church emigration had consisted 
almost entirely of persons able to pay their own way over sea and 
land to their new gathering place. There were many, however, too 
poor to pay, and who had no friends to pay for them. Some of 
these were scattered through Iowa, Missouri, and up and down the 
frontier, while othere were to be found among the thirty thousand 
Saints in the British Isles. t 

Thus far those who had emigrated from Great Britain, as well as 
many yet to come from that land, were mostly of the class of whom 
Charles Dickens, some years later, on visiting a Mormon emigrant 
ship in the Thames, wrote: "I should have said they were in their 
degree the pick and flower of England." Dickens meant by this, not 
only that they were handsome and healthy, but measurably thrifty 
and prosperous. They were made up of the material generally 
composing the Mormon emigrant companies, namely: farmers, 
laborers, mechanics and tradespeople, with a liberal sprinkling of 
artists, musicians, writers and other professionals, representing the 
lower and middle classes. But there were many British proselytes 
who, having little or nothing of this world's wealth, were utterly 
unable to pay their passage across the Atlantic. It was for the 
benefit of such that the Mormon leaders, in the fall of 1849, 
established the since famous Perpetual Emigrating Fund, to which so 
many in this land owe their deliverance from a state bordering upon 
pauperism, and their subsequent rise in the financial and social 

Those aided by this fund were expected to reimburse it, — paying 
back into its treasury, as soon as they were able, the amounts 
expended in their behalf; to be used for the benefit of other poor 

*^-*^_^)-^ V 

history of utah. 417 

emigrants. Thus was the fund made "perpetual." Many promises 
to pay failed to materialize, some from sheer poverty, and others 
from indifference and neglect. But the vast majority of those who 
were aided duly discharged their obligations. Five thousand dollars 
were subscribed to the Fund at its inception in October, 1849, and 
Bishop Edward Hunter was forthwith sent to the frontier to put in 
operation its provisions, and superintend the next season's 

The same fall many Mormon Elders were sent to various parts of 
the world, — mostly to Europe. As these were the first missionaries 
to go from the Rocky Mountains, the names of all became more or 
less historic. Among them were John Taylor, Curtis E. Bolton and 
John Pack, who went to France; Erastus Snow and P. 0. Hansen to 
Denmark, John E. Forsgren to Sweden, Lorenzo Snow and Joseph 
Toronto to Italy, Franklin D. Richards, Joseph W. Johnson, Joseph 
W. Young, Job Smith, Haden W. Church, George B. Wallace and John 
S. Higbee to Great Britain, Charles C. Rich and Francis M. Pomeroy 
to Lower California, and Addison Pratt and James Brown to the 
Society Islands. Addison Pratt had but recently returned from 
a five years' mission to those islands, where twelve hundred souls 
had been baptized. Accompanying Apostle Rich, a party of Elders 
went to the California gold mines. 

It may here be noted that during the prevalence of the "gold 
fever" it required the exercise of all the influence that the Mormon 
leaders could command to prevent a rush of many of their people to 
the gold-diggings. Brigham Young feared that if the Church 
became generally infected with this spirit, it would materially retard 
if not put an end to the colonization of the Great Basin, as well as 
corrupt the morals of the community. He pleaded with his people 
accordingly, and prevailed. 9 Some of them went to California, never 
to return, but the vast majority "listened to counsel" and remained 
in the Rocky Mountains. These were the men and women who 
made Utah. The others helped to build up California. It must not 
be inferred, however, that the Elders who went with Apostle Rich to 


the mines did so contrary to the President's advice. Their mining 
was for the benefit of the Church. Some of them were soon called 
to leave their gold-digging and go upon a mission to the Sandwich 

Brigham Young, in spite of all that has been said upon the 
subject, never opposed mining for its own sake, but because he fore- 
saw the demoralizing effect that a general thirst for gold would have 
upon the Mormon community. This was not only the case in 1849, 
but in later years. It constituted the main reason for his attitude 
against what he deemed the premature opening of the Utah mines.* 

Among those who accompanied General Rich to California were 
James Flake, who was captain of the company, George Q. Cannon, 
Henry E. Gibson, Joseph Cain, Thomas Whittle, Henry E. Phelps, 
Joseph H. Rollins, Peter Fife, Peter Hoagland, William Farrer, John 
Dixon, Edgar Gibson, George Bankhead and William Lay. This was 
the first party to go to California by the southern route. They had 
a severe experience, but finally crossed the Sierras in safety. Major 
Jefferson Hunt, of the Mormon Battalion, also went west by this route 
about the same time, but acted as guide to a company of emigrants. 
The Elders called to the Sandwich Islands were Hiram Clark, George Q. 
Cannon, Henry W. Bigler, Hiram Blackwell, Thomas Whittle, Thomas 
Morris, John Dixon, James Hawkins, William Farrer and James 
Keeler. Some of these had preceded the Rich company to California. 

A Carrying Company, to freight goods from the Missouri River 
and convey passengers to the gold regions, was organized at Salt 
Lake City toward the close of 1849. The projectors and proprietors 
of this enterprise were Shadrach Roundy, Jedediah M. Grant, John S. 
Fullmer, George D. Grant and Russell Homer. The through rate for 

* The General Epistle of the First President 1 * and Apostles in the fall of 1849 
contained this : " The true use of gold is for paving streets, covering houses, and making 
culinary dishes, and when the Saints shall have preached the gospel, raised grain and 
built up cilies enough, the Lord will open the way for a supply of gold to the perfect 
satisfaction of His people. Until then, let them not be over-anxious, for the treasures of 
the earth arc in the Lord's storehouse, and He will open the doors thereof when and 
where He pleases." 


passengers to Sutter's Fort was $300; while goods were carried at the 
rate of $250 per ton. In either case two-thirds of the money was 
payable in advance, and the remainder on reaching Salt Lake City. 

In November of this year Sanpete Valley was settled by a com- 
pany from Salt Lake City, led by Isaac Morley, Charles Shumway 
and Seth Taft. Phinehas Richards was also one of the company. 
They formed a settlement near the present site of Manti, the location 
of which town was selected some time later. Manti is a name taken 
from the Book of Mormon. Sanpete is a variation of Sanpitch, a 
noted Indian chief of the Utah nation. 

The first steps toward the settling of Tooele Valley were taken 
about the same time, though not, as in the case of Sanpete, by an 
organized company. John Rowberry is popularly regarded as the 
pioneer of Tooele County, and his name will always be the most 
prominent one in the early history of that locality. He went there 
from Salt Lake Valley in December, 1849, his object being the same 
as that which had taken Captain Sessions and others into Davis 
County two years before, namely : to find grazing lands for stock. 
Mr. Rowberry had charge of a herd belonging to Ezra T. Benson. 
Several weeks before him, however, a party of men, also in the 
employ of Apostle Benson, arrived on Settlement Creek, a little south 
of where Tooele City now stands. One of these men was Phinehas 
R. Wright, a mill-wright. Their purpose was to build a mill near 
the mouth of Settlement Creek Canyon.* It was there that John 
Rowberry joined them. Tooele Valley was named after the Tule, a 
variety of bulrush abounding in that locality. Mis-spelled Tooele by 
Thomas Bullock, the pioneer clerk, in a public document of that 
period, the orthography has since remained unchanged. Tule is a 
word from the Mexican. 

* Francis H. Lougy, of Tooele, who was but a little boy when he went there in 
18-RI with his step-father Phinehas R. Wright, states that live families went together 
immediately on the adjournment of the October Conference. The names of the heads of 
these families he gives as follows: Phinehas R. Wright. Gyrus Call, Cyrus Tolman, Sam 
Meeham, Orson Rrafett and the mother of Eli R. Kelsey. Mrs. Kelscy had no family with 
her at the time. 




Salt lake, weber, utah, sanpete, juab and tooele counties created — parley p. pratt 
explores southern utah the first indian war a skirmish at battle creek 







•L HE General Assembly of Deseret convened again in December, 
>K 1849, and held brief sessions at intervals through the winter. 
It created the counties of Salt Lake, Weber, Utah, Sanpete, 
Juab and Tooele. Juab County at that time was unsettled. The 
Assembly appointed a Supreme Court to hold annual sessions at Salt 
Lake City, chartered the University of Deseret, and enacted other 
laws to which reference will be made later. It also commissioned 
Parley P. Pratt to raise a company of fifty men, with the necessary 
teams and equipment, and explore southern Utah.* 
The personnel of this expedition was as follows : 


Isaac C. Haight, Captain, Chauneey West, George B. Mabson, 

Parley P. Pratt, Dan. Jones, Samuel Gould, 

William Wadsworth, Hial K. Gay, Wm. P. Vance. 

Rufus Allen, • 

* Parley had previously explored the canyon now called by his name : also Parley's 
Park, to which it leads. It was due to his personal exertions that Parley's Canyon was 
opened as a route for emigration soon after his return from the south. It was then called 
the "Golden Pass." 



Joseph Matthews, Captain, 
John Brown, 
Nathan Tanner, 
Starling G. Driggs, 

Joseph Home, Captain, 
Wm. Brown, 
George Nebeker, 
Benjamin F. Stewart, 


Homer Duncan, 
Wm. Matthews, 
Schuyler Jenning 


Alexander Wrig 
James Farrer, 
Henry Heath, 


Ephraim Green, Captain, '^^ndrew Blodgett, 

Wm. W. Phelps, nfcv'ni. Henry, 

Charles Hopkins, Peter Dustin, 
Sidney Willis, 

John H. Bankhead, 

John D. Holiday, 
Robert M. Smith. 

Seth B. Tanner, 
Alexander Lemon, 
David Fullmer. 

Thomas Ricks, 
Bobert Campbell, 
Isaac H. Brown. 

Joseph Arnold, Captain, 
Jonathan Packer, 
Christopher Williams, 

Stephen Taylor, 
Isaac B. Hatch, 

John C. Armstrong, 
Dimick B. Huntington. 

Parley P. Pratt was president of the company and William W. 
Phelps and David Fullmer were his counselors. John Brown was 
captain of the fifty, W. W. Phelps, ^topographical engineer, and 
Ephraim Green, chief gunner. Besides small arms, one brass field 
piece went with the expedition, which was equipped with twelve 
wagons, one carriage, twenty-four yoke of oxen and thirty-eight 
horses and mules. A few beeves, with flour, meal, bread and 
crackers supplied the commissariat. The company was organized at 
Captain Brown's residence on Cottonwood, about the only house then 
intervening between Salt Lake City and the Provo settlement. 

Pratt's expedition penetrated as far south as the confluence of 
the Santa Clara River and the Rio Virgen, the latter a tributary of 
the Colorado. Among other places explored was the valley now 
known as Mountain Meadows, the scene of the horrible tragedy of 
several years later. They also indicated a place for a settlement in 
Little Salt Lake Valley, nearly three hundred miles south of Salt 


Lake City. There, on a stream called Centre Creek, afterwards 
sprang up the town of Parowan, the first settlement of Iron County. 

Returning northward in January, 1850, half the party, under 
David Fullmer, went into winter quarters on Chalk Creek, near the 
present site of Fillmore, in Millard County; while Parley P.Pratt, 
with the remainder, pushed on toward Provo — Fort Utah — over a 
hundred miles distant. Parley's record of January 26th relates the 
following incident: "In the morning we found ourselves so com- 
pletely buried in snow that no one could distinguish the place where 
we lay. Some one rising, began shoveling the others out. This 
being found too tedious a business, I raisedrmy voice like a trumpet, 
and commanded them to arise; when allj^once there was a shaking 
among the snow piles, the graves w^re opened, and all came forth. 
We called this Resurrection Camp." * 

Aptly named, poetic Parley ! ' Sixty miles farther, through frost 
and snow, brought them to the Provo settlement, and the beginning 
of January found President Pratt at home in Salt Lake City. The 
rear portion of his party returned in March. 

Meantime had broken out those Indian troubles which afflicted 
at intervals for severaf "years the outlying settlements of Utah, 
particularly those south of Salt Lake Valley. Utah County was the 
original seat of war, and it was there that some of the hardest 
fights between the settlers and the savages occurred. 

It will be remembered with what reluctance the Timpanogas 
Indians who met the Higbee colony in March, 1849, permitted the first 
white settlement on Provo River, and that, too, in spite of the invi- 
tation previously extended to the colonists by the chiefs, Sowiette and 
Walker, to settle among their tribes and teach them how to become 
civilized. It has also been stated that soon after Fort Utah was 
founded, Walker, according to Colonel Bridger and Mr. Vasquez, 
began stirring up the Indians against the Mormon settlers. In this 
movement Walker was aided by another chief named Elk, — variously 
styled Big Elk, Old Elk, etc., — like himself a hater of the whites, and 
apparently quite as fond of fighting. It was with Big Elk and his 


band that the Provo settlers, in their first regular battle with the 
savages, had immediately to deal. 

It was believed by Governor Young that Colonel Bridger and 
other mountaineers were at the bottom of much of the ill-feeling 
manifested by the red men, and that they were incited to attack the 
Mormon settlements. The Governor, however, seemed to have 
confidence in Mr. Vasquez, who had opened a small store in Salt 
Lake City, and whose interests to that extent were identified with 
those of the settlers. 

The Indians, at first so friendly with the Utah Valley colonists, 
began their depredations^in that vicinity in the summer or fall of 

is m 
n frc 

1849. Grain was stolen*[fom the fields, cattle and horses from the 
herds, and now and thin an arrow from an Indian bow would fall 
uncomfortably near feme sett% as he was out gathering fuel in the 
river bottoms. 

The first fight with thWlndians took place on Battle Creek, near 
the site of Pleasant Grov«. It occurred in the autumn. There, 
Colonel John Scott, wtth thirty or forty men, after a sharp skirmish 
defeated the savages under Chief Kone — also called Roman Nose — 
and drove them up Battle Creek Canyon. Five Indians were killed, 
but none of Colonel Scott's men were hurt. He had been sent south 
to recover some stolen horses taken from Orr's herd in Utah Valley, 
and several cattle stolen from Ezra T. Benson's herd in Tooele. 
Battle Creek derived its name from this initial encounter between 
the Indians and the Deseret militia. 

For some reason the authorities at Salt Lake City did not 
altogether approve of the conduct of this campaign. No doubt 
they regretted the necessity for a military expedition against the 
savages, and deplored the fatalities attending it, not only from 
humanitarian considerations, but fearing probably that it would 
precipitate a general war, and unify all the savage bands of the 
vicinity against the handful of settlers at Fort Utah. "Shed no 
blood" was a standing general order to the Mormon militia in those 
days, and the troops were expected to adhere to it wherever possible. 


Yet blood had now been shed, and the Indians were doubtless 
exasperated. This may or may not have been the reason that 
Colonel Scott was found fault with. That would materially depend 
upon the nature of the orders he had received from his superiors, 
and his ability under subsequent circumstances to carry out those 
orders. It is a fact, however, that the Colonel fell under some 
censure at the time, and because of it declined to take part in 
succeeding Indian campaigns. 

It is said that the Utah Indians never sought revenge for any 
of their number killed while stealing or making an attack.* But the 
Battle Creek skirmish, which was not strkfily an affair of that kind, 
could not but have the effect of straining the relations between the 
settlers and their savage neighborsj|and extinguishing in the hearts 
of the latter what sparks of friendship yet remained. They 
continued their petty depredatpns, and became bolder and more 
insolent daily. The settlers at Fort Utah would occasionally fire 
their cannon to warn the redskins that they were not unmindful of 
their misdeeds, and were nrepared to maintain xheir rights. But the 
Indians were not to be awed by sound and smoke. Their nefarious 
practices went on. They were evidently provoking a conflict. Stock 
continued to be taken from the herds, and all efforts to recover stolen 
property were stoutly resisted. Finally the Indians began firing on 
the settlers as they issued from their fort, and at last the stockade 
was virtually in a state of siege. 

No longer was it arrows alone that fell around them. Bullets 
whizzed past their ears. The Indians were now well supplied with 
fire-arms and ammunition, obtained in exchange for horses, mostly 
from California emigrants who had passed through the country. 

Captain Stansbury*s .party, during the fall, had been surveying 
around Utah Lake, where they also were much annoyed by the 
savages. As winter came on, they suspended their labors and 
returned to Salt Lake City, feeling satisfied that in the existing state 

* Colonel George A. Smith is authority for this statement. 


of affairs in Utah Valley, it would be both difficult and dangerous for 
them to continue operations in the spring, exposed as they would be 
to attacks from the savages, either in open field or deadly ambush. 
The subsequent sad fate of Lieutenant Gunnison and his party on 
the Sevier showed that these apprehensions were well grounded. 

As for the inhabitants of Fort Utah, they patiently bore their 
annoyances and losses until nearly spring, when affairs became so 
serious that they felt compelled to appeal for aid to Governor Young 
and the Legislature, still in session at Salt Lake City. Captain Peter 
W. Conover, in charge of military affairs at the fort, and Miles 
Weaver carried the message of their anxious fellow settlers to 

Governor Young, 'on receiving the message, found himself in a 
somewhat peculiar position. That the beleaguered settlers must be 
relieved, and at once, was evident?; not only for their own sakes, but 
for that of other settlements already forming or in prospect in the 
south. But how best to relieve them was the question. The thought 
of more fighting and bloodshed was most repugnant to him. Not for 
worlds would the Mormon leader have the sons of Laman think 
that he and his people came among them for that purpose. "Feed 
them and not fight them," was his life-long motto and policy 
toward the red men. Besides, how would the authorities at Wash- 
ington, by whom the petition of Deseret for statehood was then 
being considered, regard the opening of a warfare by the Mor- 
mons upon these dusky "wards of the Government?" Deem not 
this a trifling consideration, reader. A people like the Mormons, 
whose every act, owing to the prejudice existing against them, was 
liable to be misinterpreted, had to be cautious and circumspect in 
their public acts and policies, where other communities, whose 
loyalty and good intents were unquestioned, might have risked all 
with impunity. 

Fortunately there was a government officer on the ground, a 
brave and honorable man,— Captain Howard Stansbury. It being 
evident — all conciliatory efforts having failed — that force must be 


employed to put an end to the aggressions of the savages, the 
Captain was asked by Governor Young and other officials for an 
expression of opinion as to what view the Government would 
probably take of it. "I did not hesitate to say to them," says 
Stansbury, "that in my judgment the contemplated expedition 
against these savage marauders, was a measure not only of good 
policy, but one of absolute necessity and self-preservation." 

He therefore warmly approved it, and not only that, but at 
Governor Young's request permitted Lieutenant Howland to 
accompany the expedition as its adjutant, and contributed arms, 
ammunition, tents and camp equipage for the soldiers. Dr. Blake, 
of the Stansbury party, acted as surgeon for the expedition. 

A company of fifty minute men under Captain George D. Grant 
started first, and were followed by fifty others, commanded by Major 
Andrew Lytle. Colonel Scott had been ordered to go, but declined, 
for which he was afterwards court-martialed. Major Lytle went 
in his stead. 

The expedition set out early in February, 1850. The weather 
was extremely cold, and the snow, frozen and hard-crusted, was over 
a foot deep in the valleys. Progress was therefore rendered very 
difficult. Captain Grant's cavalry, after marching all night, on the 
morning of the 8th arrived at Provo River. Such a march was 
deemed necessary in order to take the Indians unaware and secure 
an advantageous position. The militia found the settlers in their 
fort on the south side of the stream, and the Indians strongly 
entrenched in the willows and timber of the river-bottom, a mile or 
two above. They were protected not only by the river-bank, but by 
a breast-work of cotton-wood trees which they had felled. Near by 
their strong-hold stood a double log house facing the river. This 
house, which at one time became the center of action in the fight that 
ensued, was immediately opposite the Indian fortification. It had 
been deserted by one of the settlers who had taken refuge with his 
family at the fort. The house was now